The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, January 11, 1923, Image 7

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

I ;
Prosperity, Discontent and Two
Big Strikes Among Notable
Developments in America.
Europe Ctlll Is In Economic and Flnan.
clal Turmoil Downfall of Lloyd
Geornc Turks Defeat Greeks
and Recover Lost Territory
Fasclstl Gain Control
of Italy.
Momentous events uml developments
mnrked the year 111--, ltli at home
niul abroad. In America these Includ
ed the great strikes of coal miners nnd
railroad shopmen; I lies passage by eon
Kress of n new tniilT hill, and the gen
eral defei.t of the Republican party In
the November elections. Among the
most noteworthy events elsewhere
were the establishment of the Irish
Tree State; the election of n new
pope; the rout of the Greeks In Asjn
Minor and the regeneration of the
Turkish state, followed by the Near
East iKinco conference at Launniic;
the downfall of Prime Minister I.loyd
George, and the triumph of the Fas
clstl in Italy.
Although the people of the United
States enjoyed a fnlr amount of pros
perity throughout the year, they were
discontented nnd dissatisfied, and
showed It when they went to the polls
In November. Seemingly they did not
like the new tnriff law, and the big
strikes and the matter of prohibition
enforcement nlso had tljelr effect then.
Economic and financial conditions In
some of the European countries
showed little or no Improvement, due
in part to the continued state of un
settlement concerning the German rep
aratlons and to the renewed turmoil In
tho Nenr Kast. Other countries, nota
lily Italy and Czechoslovakia, moved
definitely toward stabilization and
prosperity. Communism and socialism
Buffered n tremendous setback In Italy
when tho Fasclstl rebelled against
thoso doctrines and took over the con
trol of the government.
As In 1021, December was mnrked
by nn intcrnntlonnl conference In
"Washington, for President Harding
hnd Invited the Central American re
publics to send delegates there to dls
cuss limitation of armaments and
other questions. They met on Decem
ber 4.
January found the great powers still
engaged In formulating treaties and
agreements in the Washington confer
ence on nrmnments and Pacific ocean
problems, and on Februnry 1 the dele
Kates, in plenary session, ndopted the
five-power naval limitation trenty with
nn agreement on Pacific fortifications;
passed resolutions declaring the open
door In China, and approved a treaty
for the restriction of the use of poison
gaa nnd submarines In warfare. At
tho same time. Mr. Bnlfour announced
that Orent Rtltaln would restore Wei-Hal-Wei
to China. Three days later
tho conference approved a number of
treaties designed to restore to Chlnn
somo of ber lost liberties and passed
a resolution for the creation of an In
ternational commission to revise the
Titles of war rare. On February 0 tho
delegates signed all the treaties nnd
tho conrerenco adjourned sine die, nnd
In four days President Ilnrdlng sub
mitted tho trentles to the senate.
By the end of March tho senate had
ratified all these treaties, as well as
one with Japan, by which the trou
blesome question of American rights
on the Island of Yap was settled. Great
Britain and Japan also, In tho course
of time, ratified tho conference pacts,
and, like tho United States, took steps
toward putting Into effect tho terms
of the trenty on nnval limitation, nut
France, more Interested In her own
troubles connected with tho German
reparations nnd with tho developments
In tho Near East, delayed action, nnd
Iter cxnmplo was followed by several
smaller nntlons. Thus the full efTect
of somo of the trentles was lost for the
time being.
Rehabilitation of Europe, economic
nnd tlnnnclnl, wnB tho grent problem
that confronted the world and, of
course, Its solution depended to a con
siderable extent on a settlement of the
German reparations matter. This had
not been reached when the year came
to n closo. Tho allied commission, nn
International bankers' committee and
vnrlous Individuals btruggled with the
question throughout the twelve
months, but It would bo tedious to tell
In detail of their efforts. Tho Germnns
Btondlly maintained Hint complete en
forcement of the treaty of Versailles
would ruin Germany and he disastrous
for tho rest of Europe, nlthough Doc
tor Wlrth, tho chancellor, held thnt
Gcrmauy must nnd would ultimately
pay tho reparations bill. Berlin Insist
ed that a long moratorium be granted
on all the payments and thnt an Inter
national lonn to Germnny be arranged.
France, depending on the reparations
money for reconstruction nnd continu
ally on the verge of bankruptcy, would
not listen to propositions for the re
duction of tho war bill, and from time
lo tlmo made preparations to put Into
effect sanctions against Germany, such
ns occupying tho Ituhr district and the
national forests In tho rthlnclnnd. Al
ways Great Britain objected to this un
til late In tho jear, when Bonar Law
hnd succeeded Lloyrt George as prime
minister. Then, nt a conferenco of
the allied premiers In London, Bonar
Law gave the French to understand
thnt, though Brltntn could not approve
of military measures against Germany,
alio would not actively oppose them If
tho Germans defaulted In tho repara
tions payments due In January. The
conference adjourned to meet In Paris
on January 2 and Premier Polncare
Intimated that he might be satisfied
with milder measures. About this
tlmo it wns stated In Washington that
the United States was looking for a
way to help out Europe without en
tangling herself In alliances, but noth
ing dellnltu was Miggested and Eu
rope was skeptical.
On April 10 an economic and llnan
clal conference, called by the allied su
preme council, opened In Genoa. Ger
many and Russia were Invited to par
ticipate, under M-rtaln restrictions, but
soon nfter the sessions began the dele
gates of those two nations concluded
a treaty canceling their war debts ami
thtr treaty of BreM-LItovsk and estab
lishing full diplomatic relations. Sur
prised and angered, the great powers,
despite the protests of the neutrals,
barred the Germans from further par
ticipation In the discussion of Russian
affairs; which was the most important
subject before the conference then.
The allied nation ottered to give finan
cial aid to Russia under certain condi
tions, hut Belgium refused to agiee to
this and a day or two later the French
withdrew their assent, charging that
Lloyd George was practicing trickery
lo gain control of tho Russian oil
Ileitis. Meanwhile the soviet delegates
were making such excessive demands
Hint the usolessnoss of further negotia
tions became evident and the confer
ence adjourned after adopting an right
months' truce with Russia.
Mustapha Kcmnl Pasha ind the
Turkish nationalists, who had disa
vowed all the doings of the Turkish
government at Constantinople, spent
the summer In secretly preparing for a
great offensive against the Greeks In
Anatolln. They opened the attack on
August 123 and took the enemy com
pletely by surprise. Within one week
the Greek armies had been routed
anil driven back to Smyrna and other
coast positions and Athens was asking
for an armistice and agreeing to get
out of Asia Minor. Kemal occupied
Smyrna on September O'nnil five days
later a largo part of tho city was de
stroyed by flames. At first the Turk
ish troops were blamed for this, but la
ter developments Indicated the confla
gration was started by tho fleeing
Greeks nnd by looters. Great Britain,
which had been sponsor for the Greek
venture in Asia Minor, wns alarmed
by the expressed Intention of the na
tionalists to take possession of Constan
tinople nnd tho rest of the old Turk
ish empire, nnd she called on her do
minions and France, Italy, Serbia, Ru
mania and Greece to Join her In the
defense of tho Dardanelles. France,
which had been giving aid and comfort
to the Turks, and Italy objected to
military operations ngalnst the Kemal
Ists, and some of the British domin
ions were noticeably cool. However,
Britain hurried reinforcements to her
land and naval forces In the Near-TClsT
and let the Turk and the world know
that she would act alone If necessary.
The allies on September 23 Invited
tho nationalists to a peaco conference,
agreeing to return to them Constanti
nople, 'Adrlnnople and eastern Thrace
In return for the guaranteed freedom
of the straits. Kcmnl Insisted that
Russia must he Included, nnd tho allies
agreed that the, soviet government
should participate In settlement of the
question of the Dardanelles. After sev
eral trying days, when war seemed al
most unavoidable, the allies nnd na
tionalists met at Mudania on October
3 to arrange an armistice. A week la
ter a protocol was signed providing for
Hie evacuation of enstern Thrace by
Greece within 15 days and Its delivery
to Turkey within -ir days, and, yield
ing to tho Kemallsts the civil control
of Constantinople pending n pence con
ference. This conferenco opened In
Lausanne, Switzerland, November 20,
with tho prospect of being long In ses
sion. The United States declined full
participation, but sent Ambassador
Child, Minister Grew and Admiral Bris
tol to guard the Interests of America
and Americans, these being especially
in connection with tho oil fields of
Mosul. Tho conference had to denl
with tho frontiers of tho Turkish stnte,
ooth in Europe nnd In Mesopotnmln,
where tho oil fields nre located, and
with the control of tho straits nnd the
safeguarding 'tho Christian minori
ties In Turkey. By the middle of De
cember tho conferees were well on the
wny to agreement, Turkey hnd prom
ised to join the Leaguo of Nntlons us
soon ns pence wns signed, nnd the
trenty was In process of being drafted.
On May lf tho conference to settle
the old Tacna-Arlca dispute between
Chile and Peru opened In Washington,
nnd In duo time enme to n successful
conclusion, adopting n compromise
plan suggested by Secrctnry Hughes.
Colombia and Venezuela settled their
boundary dispute on April 0. Esthonln,
Latvia, Lithuania and Albania wore
recognized by the United States as sov
ereign stntes on July 27.
With Michael Collins ns Its head,
tho provisional government of the Irish
Frco Stnto was established In Janu
ary, after Dall Elreann had ncceptod
tho trenty with England and Do Valera
had refused to accede. Immediately
the republicans, now rebels, started a
warfare that lasted throughout tho
year and was marked by Innumerable
assassinations and other outrages,
The Free State forces gradually gained
possession of most of the territory
whero tho rebels were strong and the
lighting degenerated Into bushwhack
ing. On August 22 President Collins
was killed In an ambusendo and Wil
liam Cosgrove was elected to succeed
him. Ho offered amnesty to the rebels,
but they decided to "fight to tho
dentil." Krsklno Chllders, chief nld of
Do Valera, was captured and executed,
as were other republican leaders, Tho
Irish Free State formnlly came Into be
ing on December 0, with Timothy
Ilealy as governor general.
Prime Minister Lloyd George held
power through all the vicissitudes of
the year until October ID. On that day
the conservatives In parliament decid
ed to abandon the coalition and act in
future as a separate party. The pre
mier was thus deprived of his majority
and promptly resigned, with his cabi
net. A. Bonar Law, chosen leader of
the conservatives, succeeded him,
formed a new ministry and called an
election for November 15. At the
polls he won control of parliament.
The Inborltbs made great gains and be
came the "opposition party."
Under the leadership of Benito Mus
solini, the Fasclstl of Italy, organized
primarily to protect the country
against the communists, fought a long
and successful battle. Gaining stead
ily In strength, notably by the acces
sion of many thousands of working
men, .they Mixed the industries of Italy
from tho Reds, and finally, dissatisfied
with the weal: policies of Premier Fac
ta, compelled his icslgnallon on Octo
ber 2(1. Mussolini was made premier
and nt once set to work to restore the
prosperity of the country. The king
and chamber of deputies gave him full
power to put into effect his contem
plated reforms and economic meas
ure!:, and as lie had tho support of
most of the people, tho prospects for
Italy were bright.
Greece's disaster in Asia Minor re
sulted In tho second abdication of
King Constantino on September 20, In
tho face of a revolt by the returning
troops. Next day tho crown prince,
George, was sworn In as king and n
new government Installed. The revo
lutionists In control caused the arrest
of various former cabinet ofllcers and
generals on the charge of high treason
In connection with the debacle In Ann
tolla, and six of them, Including three
former premiers, were" condemned to
death. Great Britain tried vainly to
prevent the execution and then broke
off relations with Greece, probably glad
to get rid of an embarrassing nlllance.
Prince Andrew, uncle of the king, nlso
was tried and condemned, but escaped
with exile.
M. Brland resigned as premier of
France on January 12 because his pol
icies at the Cannes conference were
opposed. He was succeeded by M.
Polncare, whoso policies Included strict
enforcement of the trenty of Ver
sailles. Pope Benedict XV died on Jnnunry
22, and on Februnry 2 tho Sacred Col
lego met In Rome to choose his succes
sor. Four days later Cardinal Acblllo
Rattl, archbishop of Milan, was elect
ed, and on February 12 ho was
crowned pope ns Plus XL
To the account of affairs In Turkey
related above Is to be added the down
fall of the sultan. Considered by tho
Angora government to be n tool of the
British, and consequently n traitor, he
wns deposed on November 1. The sov
ereignty of the nation wns declared to
be in the hands of the people and the
name changed from Ottoman empire to
State of Turkey. The dethroned ruler
took refuge on Malta. On November
18 his nephew, Abdul Medjid Effendi,
wns elected caliph of the Moslem
Germany devoted herself through tho
year largely to efforts to evade the
payment of reparations, to determined
work to regain her foreign trade, and
to the printing of innumerable billions
of paper marks. Tho value of the
mark fluctuated widely, reaching n low
level of more than eight thousand for
a dollar. On June 21 Dr. Walter Rath
ennu, foreign minister, was assassl
anted In Berlin by reactionaries. Chan
cellor Wlrth nnd his cabinet were
forced out of olllco November 1-1 and
Wllhelm Cuno became chnncellor with
n ministry in which the socialists and
communists wcro not included.
On December 0 Gabriel Namtowicz
was elected president of Polnnd to
succeed General Pllsudskl. Ho was
duly inaugurated, mnld scenes of
great disorder and on December 10
was assnsslnnted by an nrtlst.
As 1ms been said above, the people
of the United Stntes, despite the fact
that they were relatively prosperous,
were not contented. Taxes, rentals
nnd the prices of the necessities of life
remained too high, and the fanner es
pecially complained because ho did not
receive enough for tho products of his
toll. As usual, the unrest expressed It
self nt the polls. Whnt ninny consid
ered tho conservatism of the Ilnrdlng
administration wns blamed, with or
without reason. As the primary elec
tions In vnrlous stntes enme nlong, tho
voters saxr nnd seized their ehunce,
and frequently the moro conservative
candidates were beaten by so-called
progressives. Albert J. Beverldgo de
feated Senator New in Indiana; Lynn
J. Frnzler defeated Senator McCumber
in North Dakota ; Senators Johnson of
California and La Follctto of Wiscon
sin were triumphantly renominated
and thoro were many other such In
stances. It wus generally predicted
that the Democrats would win big vic
tories In tho election on November 7,
and the results Justified tho forecast.
In both house and senate the Republic
an majority was tremendously re
duced. Such well known figures ns
DuPont, Kellogg, Townsend, Calder,
Pomereno and Polndoxter were r.cilred.
A featuro of the election was 'tho Im
mense majority rolled up for Al Smith,
Democratic candidate for tho gover
norship of New YurJ;,
Efforts to enforce the prohibition
law and violations of It absorbed a
vnst amount of tlmo nnd money, nnd
It mny bo tho difficulties encountered
by tho government In this strengthened
tho cause of tho organizations formed
to bring about tho "liberalization" of
the enforcement net so ns to permit the
manufacture and usb of beers nnd
light wines, nnd ultimately the repeal
of the Eighteenth amendment Itself.
On October 0 Attorney General Daugh
erty ruled liquor off nil Amciienn ships
throughout the world nnd declared for
eign snips could not enter American
ports If they carried liquor, sealed or
unsealed. Great commotion ensued,
but the ruling was upheld by Federal
Judge Hand In New York. The cases
Initiated In behalf of various steam
ship companies were carried to higher
courts, anil enforcement of the ruling
against foreign vessels wns temporarily
held up.
The Supremo court on February 27
ruled that tho woman's Riiffrnge
amendment to tho Constitution was
constitutional, and on May 1 It upheld
tho packers' control act. June f It
handed down nn Important opinion to
tho effect thnt labor organizations can
be sued for loIntIons of tho Sherman
anti-trust law. By a decision an
nounced on November 13 Japaneso are
not eligible to naturalization. Associ
ate Justice John A. Clarke resigned
September -I, to devote himself to pro
motion of United States membership
In tho League of Nations, and former
Senator George If. Sutherland of Utnh
was appointed to succeed blni. On
October 21 Associate Justice Day also
resigned, having been made umpire on
tho American-German claims commis
sion. President Harding selected
Plerco Butler, an eminent lawyer of
St. Paul, Minn., to 1111 tho vacancy.
Associate Justice Pitney resigned
December 10 on account of 111 health.
Kcnesaw M. Landis, the ablo nnd
spectacular federal district Judge of
Chicago, left tho bench on March 1 to
take the position of high commissioner
of organized baseball. His place was
not filled until July 11, when James II.
Wllkerson was appointed.
One man left the President's cnbl
net Postmaster Will Hays, who quit
to become supremo bend of the moving
picture Industry. Dr. Hubert Work
succeeded him. Gen. Charles M.
Dawes retired from the position of di
rector of the budgot July 1, General
Lord tnklng the post.
One of tho most shocking events of
the yenr took plnco In Illinois on Juno
22. Strlkebrenkcrs and guards at a
conl mine nt Herrln, Williamson coun
ty, nfter being nttacked by striking
miners, surrendered nnd 19 of them
wcro nt once brulnlly massacred. The
community and some of Its officials
seemed largely In sympathy with tho
murderers nnd for n long time It wns
doubtful whether they would be
brought to Justice. Tho stnto lnw ofll
cers took chnrgo nnd In September
ninny of the members of tho mob wcro
Truman II. Newberry of Michigan,
whoso right to a seat In tho senate was
upheld by that body on January 12,
grew wenry of the continual light made
to unseat lilm and resigned on Novem
ber 18. Governor Groesbcck appoint
ed Mayor James Couzens of Detroit to
fill out the term.
For tho first time in history the
United States scnato had a woman
senator. When Tom Watson of Geor
gia died Governor Ilnrdwiclc nppolntod
Mrs. W. II. Felton, a veteran suffragist,
to the vacancy, pending an election.
W. F. George wns elected to the place,
but when congress mot In extra ses
sion be withheld his credentials long
enough for Mrs. Felton to be sworn In
uml servo pno day.
One of tho first nets of congress In
tho year was the passage of the foreign
debt refunding bill, with a limit for
payment set nt 25 years. The houso
in January also passed tho Dyer antl
lynching bill, hut It got no further until
December, when tho Democrats In tho
senate filibustered It to death. Tho
co-operative marketing bill wns enact
ed In Februnry. On Mnrcli 23 tho
house pnssed tho soldiers' bonus bill
and, after n long and bitter fight, It
went through the senate on August 31.
President Harding hnd wanted con
gress the measure was entirely unac
ceptable to him, chiefly becnuse it pro
vided no means of raising the money
to pay the bonus, and on September 10
ho vetoed It. The house overrode tho
veto, but tho senntc sustained It. The
agitation for such legislation wns In
cessnnt, however, and new bills were
Introduced before, the yenr closed.
Appropriation Dllts for the army and
nnvy, providing for 133,000 nnd 80,000
enlisted men, respectively, were
passed; and $17,000,000 wns appropri
ated for soldiers' hospitals.
Tho tariff revision bill of course
took a long time in the tanking. It
finally was completed and was signed
by tho President on September 2t.
One notable feature Is n provision giv
ing the Presjdent power to lower or
raise certnln rntes when he thinks con
ditions of foreign trade warrant.
Congress u'djourncd on September
22, nnd ns It hnd failed to take any ac
tion on a ship subsidy measure, the
President called an extra session to
meet on November 20, mainly to con
sider such n bill. Tho house passed
It on November 20. The extra session
merged Into tho regulnr session on De
cember 4.
In his message to congress Presi
dent Harding called for strict enforce
ment of the prohibition law, a thor
oughgoing agricultural credit system,
Improvement of transportation and
outlawing of rnllrond Bttikos and pro
vIbIou for drafting in war ill national
resources. Tho ship subsidy bill ran
up against n determined opposition in
tho sennto, Tho house- ou December
18 passed tho nnval appropriation bill
carrying $820,000,000.
Bulking Inrgo In the nffnlrs of Amer
ica wero tho two big strikes, of the
railway shopmen nnd tho coal miners.
In effect at tho same time, they seri
ously threatened the national well
being by disrupting truffle and causing
a country-wide shortage of fuel.
Unable to reach an agreement with
(lie mine operators on the wage scale,
tho miners, both anthracite nnd bitu
minous, went on strlko April 1. In
June nnd July President Harding con
ferred with representatives of both
sides, and proposed that tho men re
turn to work at the old wages and thnt
the new scale be arbitrated. His plan
being rejected, he told tho operators
to reopen their mines under protection
of federal troops and the flag. In only
a few cases was this done. There
wero numerous local conflicts and somo
killings, and tho prlco of conl threat
ened to become extortionate. To pre
vent profiteering tho government
ndopted u plan for the supervision of
production nnd distribution of conl on
July 21. Operators and miners of the
bituminous fields met at Cincinnati nnd
on August IB signed an agreement
ending tho strike, the men winning vir
tually all their demands. A similar
settlement of the anthracite strlko was
made on September 2. It was admit
ted that the root of tho trouble bad not
been reached and that another strlko
In the spring of 1023 wns almost a cer
tainty. Since there was still a great
shortage of coal, Conrad E. Spons was
appointed federal fuel director on Sep
tember 22.
Tho railway strlko followed an order
of tho federal railway labor board, Is
sued Juno 0, reducing the wages of tho
shopmen about SliO.OOO.OOfT a year.
Other rail employees bad their pay cut
proportionately, but the shopmen wero
chosen to make tho fight. They quit
work on July 1, nnd two dnys later
were "outlawed" by tho board. On
July 14 they wero reinforced by the
stationary engineers, llremcn nnd oil
ers. From tho beginning tho adminis
tration strove to bring about a settle
ment, but both sides were stubborn,
tho restoration of seniority rights be
ing the main stumbling block. Presi
dent Harding warned tho strikers
ngalnst Interference with mnlls or hi
terstate transportation, and the agen
cies of the government wero uctlvo In
enforcing' his orders. Finding they
could not tie un traffic, the strikers In
many regions resorted to extreme vio
lence, and even to murder. In the Far
Wost some of tho Brotherhood of
Trainmen members co-operated with
them until called oft by their chiefs.
Several trains loaded with pnssengers
were abandoned In the deserts. Final
ly the government struck a vital blow
at tho strike. Attorney General Daugh
erty, on September 1, obtained from
Judge Wllkerson In Chicago a sweep
Ing order restraining tlio shop' crafts
from Interfering In any wny with the
operation of the railways. Two weeks
later the strlko was broken when
ninny railroads negotiated separate
agreements with the shopmen.
Many thousands of lives wcro lost In
disasters In 1022, and vnst property
losses sustulned. In Jnnunry n Greek
destroyer was blown up, no men per
ishing; and In Washington 07 persons
wero killed and 133 Injured when u
theater roof collapsed under weight of
snow. In February 25 men died In a
mine explosion nt Gates, Pa., and 31
wero killed by the fall and explosion
of the army dirigible Roma, which hud
been bought In Italy. On March 15 n
great lire In tho Chicago business dis
trict did damage amounting to ?8,000,
000; on March 23 a British submarine
sank with 22 men, nnd on Mnrcli 20
the famous Church of St. Anne dc
Benupre, near Quebec, was burned.
April wns mnrked by fatal nnd de
structive floods and tornndocs In the
Mississippi river valley and In Texas,
and by a severe enrtbquako in Japan.
On April 18 400 carloads of war muni
tions exploded in Monastlr, Serbia,
killing hundreds nnd destroying the
center of tho city. On May 10 tho P.
& O. liner Egypt was sunk in collision,
03 lives being lost; and on Juno 4 07
perished when n Paraguayan excur
sion steamer blew up. New York city
bad ono of tho worst storms of recent
years on June 11, about 50 persons
being killed. Forty lives wero lost In
the wreck of n pilgrims' train near
Lourdes, France, on August 1; 50,000
Chinese perished in n typhoon at Swn
tow August 2 ; 37 were killed In n rail
wny wreck nt Sulphur Springs, Mo., on
Aug. 5. Great forest fires In Minne
sota In August destroyed several small
towns. Tho Japanese cruiser Nltnka
went down during n typhoon August
20, with n loss of 300 lives, nnd three
dnys later 310 perished when a Chilean
ship sank near Coquimbo. On August
28, 48 men were entombed In a burn
ing gold mlno shaft at Jackson, Cal.,
and 22 days-Inter nil were found deud.
Fnlconnra fort, Italy, was destroyed on
September 28 by exploding ammunition
stores, 174 soldiers being killed. On
November (I n gas explosion In a mine
near Spongier, Pa., killed 80 minors,
and on November 22 n dust explosion
In a mine neur Birmingham, Ala,, killed
On December 8 n conflagration de
stroyed the center and much of the
residence section of Astoria, Ore., the
loss being $15,000,000.
Every month of the year has its list
of notablo persons taken by death. In
January theso Included: Sir Ernest
Shackleton, British explorer, In tho
Antarctic; Murquls Okuuiu, Japanese
statesman; Prince Kalnnlnanolo, Ha
waiian delegate In congress; Joseph
Oliver, grand sire of Odd Fellows; for
mor United Stntes Honator J. II. Mil
lard of Nebraska; John T. Kelly, vot
cran comedian; George B. Selden, in
ventor of gnsollnc-drlvon vehlclosi
Arlchblshop Gnuthler of Ottnwn, Can.;
Popo Benedict XV; John Kcndrlck
Bangs, author; Viscount Jnmes Bryco;
Arthur Nlklsch, orchestral conductor;
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Seaman (Nelllo
Bly), nnd Richard Westacott, United
States vice consul In London.
In Februnry: Prince Vamagata, Jap
nnesc statesman; E. II. Shaughnessy,
second assistant postmaster general;
Gen. Christian Do Wet, Boer com
mander lit 1800; duko of Lelnstcr;
Joint S. Miller, lending Chicago law
yer; former Senator J. F. Shafroth of
Colorado; Viscount Harcourt.
In March: Henry Batallle, French
dramatist; Col. John Lambert, steel
magnnte; Sir John Eaton, Cnnndlan
merchnnt prince; Charles Popo, "glu
coso king."
In April: Chnrles, cx-cmperoi. of
Austria; Dr. Cyrus Nortbrup, presi
dent emeritus of University of Minne
sota; Frederick Vllllers, famous war
correspondent; Gen. von Fnlkenhnyn,
former chief of stuff of German army;
Henry M. Shrady, American sculptor;
Sir Ross Smith, Australian aviator;
Adrian C. Anson, veteran of baseball;
Henry V. Esmond, English playwright;
John Foord, editor Asia magazine; K.
S. Mujlcn, Chilean statesman; Lord
Leopolo Mounthntteu, cousin of King
George; Frederick Van Rensselaer
Dey, writer of Nick Carter stories;
Paul Deschanel, former president of
France; Richard Croker, former chief
of Tammany Hall.
In May: John Vance Cheney, poet
and essayist ; Ada Jones, musical com
edy stnr; former Senator A. J. Grpnno
of North Dakota; Henry P. Davison,
New York financier; J. II. Patterson,
head of National Cash Register com
puny; Federal Judge Beverly Evans of
Georgia; A. C. Bartlett, prominent
In Juno: Mrs. Mary V. Tcrhuno
(Morion Hnrland) ; W. T. Abbott, Chi
cago finnncler; Lillian Russell (Mrs.
A. P. Moore), famous stago beauty;
R. A. Bnlllngcr, former secretary of
the Interior; George Carmack, discov
erer of Klondike gold fields; Henry T.
Oxnnrd, BUgar magnnte;- Horace E.
Hooper, publisher of Eucyclopcdln
Brltannlcn; G. W. Aldrcdgo, collector
of tho port of New York; F. O. Pen
field, former nmbassndor to Austria;
Tako Joncscu, Rumanian statesman;
Wu Tlng-Fang, Chinese diplomat ; Wil
liam Rockefeller, capitalist; S. O. Qoss,
Inventor of printing presses.
In July: K. W. Bnrrett. editor Blr
mlngbnm Age-Herald; Dr. E. J. Wheel
cr, editor Current Opinion; Rev, Dr.
J. F. Gouchcr, educntor; Alice Miriam,
grand opera star; Col. R. W. Guthrie,
oil magnate; Miss Mary N. Murfrco
(Charles Egbert Crnddock). ,
In August: Glenn E. Plumb, noted
Jnbor attorney; Alexander Graham
Bell, Inventor of tho telephone; United
States Senator W. E. Crow of Pennsyl
vania; former Congressman Lemuel
Padgett of Tennessee; Enver Pushn.
cx-wnr minister of Turkey; Ronr Ad
miral Uriel Sebree, U. S. N.; Arthur
Grimth, president of Dnll Elrennn;
John G. Woolley, noted prohibitionist;
Lord Northcllffe, English publisher;
Levy Mnyer, prominent Clilcngo InxvV
yer; Rollln D. Snllsbury, geologist;
Genevlevo Ward, Amerlcnn tragedi
enne; Rev. Dr. Henry Couden, chnp
lain of house of representatives for
25 years; Delavan Smith, publisher In
dlannpolls News; Dr. Stephen Smith,
founder of Amerlcnn Public Hcnlth as
sociation; F. S. Peabody, Chicago mil.
llonnlrc; Arthur Dawson, American
nrtlst; Mrs. Nelllo Grant Jones, daugh
ter of Gen. U. S. Orant ; W. K. Hudson,
British naturalist nnd author. ,
In September: Theodore A. Bell,
prominent Inwyer nnd polltlclnn of
Snn Francisco; Bishop Samuel Fal
lows of Reformed Eptacopal church;
Emmet O'Neal, former governor of
Alnbamn ; Leon BonnnL French artist ;
Enos Mlljs. Amerlcnn naturalist and
author; United Stntes Senator Thomas
Watson of Goorgia.
In October: Reap Admiral Chnrles
E. Clark, U. S. N.t Wnlker Hill, bank
er of St. Louis; Mnrle Lloyd, English
comedienne ; Jorge Montt, former pres
ident of Chile; Isaac Guggenheim, cop
per magnate; Dr. Lyman Abbott, edi
tor of Outlook; Father Bernard
Vnughnn, famous Jesuit preacher of
In November; Thomas Nolson Page,
author nnd former nmbassador to It
aly; Alfred Capus, French Journalist;
T. DeWItt Cuyler, prominent rnllrond'
man; Jacob Glmbel, merchant prince
of Now York, Phllndclphla nnd Mil
waukee; J. A. L. Gutierrez, Hondurnn
minister to Washington ; Mrs. Mary S.
LocUwood, founder of D. A. It.; Bel
lamy Storcr, former diplomat ; Richard
K. Fox, publisher of Pollco Gnzetto;
Gen. Luko E. Wright, former secretary
of war and governor general of tho
Philippines; W. G. Sharp, former am
bassador to France; Frank Bacon,
American actor; George Bronson How
ard, playwright and author; Bnron
Sidney Sonnlno, Italian Btntesmnn;
Henry N. Cnry, prominent newspaper
man of Chicago; F. C. Nedrlnghuus,
former congressman from Missouri ; O.
II. Scldmore, United States consul gen
eral at Tokyo ; Congressman James It.
Mann of Illinois. -
In December: Dr. W. E. Qulne, lend
ing Chicago physlclnn; Cardinal Igle
slas of Spain; L. B. Prince, former
governor of New Mexico; John Wann
maker, famous merchant of Philadel
phia and Now York ; Alexander Rob
ertson, Clilcngo bnnkcr; Jesse M.
Overton, capitalist, of Nashville,
Twin. ; Jnmes O. Davidson, former
governor of Wisconsin; Lord Murcus
Beresford, British horseman; Col.
A E. Bradley, former chief surgeon
of tho A. E. F,