The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, September 18, 1919, Image 3

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1.1. M 1 11 t If I.. A..illi
11IUKU1K i'1" 'iiu iil'xi war, 11 in 11 uui
.hu' Is or over will le oiiimlilc of car
ryliiR tlium out. It Is certain that tlio
suliiiinrlne will play no part In lior
Tliu Ktibinarlno Is ilead. The U
l)oat peril has vanished forever, never
to be resurrected.
The collapse of submarine warfare
during the closing months of the Kti-
roiiean conlllct and tlw prediction that
Its resumption may never be seriously
feared again, was the result of the Invention in
the United States of u wonderful listening device,
or submarine detector, which came very close to
driving the II1111 submersible from the ocean, mid
would have done so, In the opinion of naval ex
perts, had the war continued through another
As soon as the United States entered the war
the navy department formed a spcclnl board to
develop ways and means for combating the U-boat
peril, then growing to alarming proportions.
This board consisted largely of olllci"s from the
bureau of steam engineering, of which Rear Ad
miral It. S. Ciillln Is chief, it called to Its assist
ance in an advisory capacity many noted engineers
and scientists from Industrial concerns, Including
the (.eiierul lilectrie company, represented by Dr.
V It. Whitney, director of that company's re
sejirih laboratories.
Commander C. S. .McDowell, U. .S. N., served as
wcctit.o secretary of the board, while the other
mlvNoiy members were Col. I H. .lewctt of the
Westirn Klectrle company, and Prof. 11. A. Mllll
l;iin of the University of Chicago.
Development headquarters were established at
New London. Conn. The t.cnernl Klectric com
pany In conjunction with the Submarine Signal
company of Hoston stinted an experimental Held
Matlon at Nullum, Mass., and were later joined by
experts from the Western Klectrle company.
Out of the activities of these two groups of
scientists there was developed the American
listening device, an Instrument which proved to b
able successfully to detect submarines while sub
merged within range of anywhere between 3 and
12 miles.
Kven with the signing of the peace treaty little
can yet be known of the details of this device. It
Is, however, an Instrument using the principle of
sound-wave transmission through water In a new
and startling way and It depends for Its direction-getting
qualities on the peculiar and llttle
undei stood faculty of the human ear to detect the
direction of sound by the shifting of sound from
i one ear to the other as the Instrument was re
volved. As soon as the device was considered practical
the General Electric company undertook Its man
ufacture mi 11 large scale In Lynn, Mass., develop
ing three kinds of listeners: One which was hung
overboard from tho deck of submarine chasers, an
other which could be trailed oft the stern and a
third which protruded through the hull of the
vessel. American destroyers, chasers and subma
rines were ut once equipped with the Instrument.
When the submarine detector had been turned
out In sulllclent quantity, the navy department be
lieved that the allies should get the benefit of the
invention nt once. A special service party, In
charge of dipt. It. II. Leigh of the bureau of stenm
engineering, wus formed to tnke samples of the
apparatus abroad Tftd .test It under actual condi
tions beforo tho British admiralty. The Instru
ment wqs likewise demonstrated to the French
and Italian navies. The party consisted, besides
Captain Leigh, of Lieutenant Carter, U. S. N En
sign Welch, U. S. N. It. I, six enlisted men, C. E.
Eveleth, C. I Scott, and T. P. Collins of the Gen
eral Electric company, representing tho Nnhnnt
group, and V. L. Nelson of the Western Electric
company, who was connected with wireless devel
opment. They nailed November 122. 1017, nnd
Joined tho British grand fleet at Scapu Flow In
the Orkney Islands during tho first week of the
following month.
Tho allmlmlty and the supremo war 'council
shortly afterward udoptcd the American device
and from that time on mibmurlne patrol work was
Defensive tactics which had been employed
since 1014 wero now no longer the sole reliance.
Tho wur wna cnrrled Into the enemy's territory.
Flnhtlng ships, Instead of putrolllng the steam.
Bblp lanes looking for a Btray "sub" to poke Its
& 4?x Listening If WmBLK Jl
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periscope above the waves-, were augmented by
submarine chasers equipped with listening devices,
and bunted the submarine in Its underwater lair.
Up to this time the British had been frankly
disappointed in results. It had been a rare thing
for n submarine chaer to actually see a subma
rine. Days would go by without sight of one.
Yet sinkings continued to multiply, tonnage de
creased alarmingly and the rates of destruction
and construction constantly approached the danger
point. It was apparent that If an Improvement
In this situation could not be effected the allies
faced privation, If not actual starvation, and any
material help from America either In the form of
men or supplies would be Impossible.
The success of the device Is well Illustrated by
the chnrt shown herewith which gives u vivid
picture of the chase of an enemy U-boat In the
English channel and demonstrated the ability of
the listeners to keep hot on the trail of the sub;
marine, doubling and crossing In an effort to es
cape. This dramatic Incident one of many Is vividly
described In the following report of the engage
ment In question:
"Af l:Uo o'clock unit No. 0 'fixed' (located by
trlnngulntlon) a submarine directly ahead at 11 dis
tance of 1(H) yards; immediately carried out three
boat barrage attack, each boat letting go three
stern charges and 'Y' gun. Pattern lnld sym
metrically, thoroughly covering any posslblo
maneuver of the submnrlne. Stopped and listened.
No healing for about '-'0 minutes. Then got con
tact. Distinct sound of submnrlne making nolso
as If shafts were bntlly bent. Also giving out
squeaking sound. Submarine sounded as If hnvlng
great dllllculty In keeping propeller going. She
stopped frequently. We followed. . . . Heard
submarine hammering, squeaking, straining, run
ning Intermittently, apparently with grent dllll
culty and for short periods.
"The second depth charge of this attack threw
Into the air a oO-foot to CO-foot cylindrical black
object about the size of a depth charge. . . ,
Another depth charge attack carried out. Sub
marine had gradually been making shorter turns
for some time. . . . From this point on believe
submarine bottomed and was never able to movo
except to start and scrape along the bottom n short
distance. Noises Indicated this."
Word was then sent to Penzance for additional
deptli charges and u radio dispatched to tho baso
for n destroyer post haste.
"Subsequent eventB," continues tho report,
"bhow 'that submarine never moved from this spot.
Noises indicated repair. Occasional unsuccessful
attempts to start motor . . . sounds rapidly bo
coming lesu frequent."
When morning cnino tho submarine chasers nnd
tho destroyer which hnd been sent to their assist
ance gathered near tho spot where the crippled sub
marine was resting at the bottom. Souuds of
jLjr&yjtfc foz
feverish activity within tho mibmurlne's hull wero
distinctly heard.
Suddenly there was a dead silence. Then -5
revolver shots rang out (hrre first, followvJ
by ill.
"Taking Into consideration nil circumstances
and events," continues the account, "conclude sub
marine damaged externally, unable to start motor
after repeated attempts. Unable to rise to surface
nnd Is on bottom In the vicinity. Reports of listen
ers substantiate this conclusion."
As a matter of fact, the Itrltish naval Intelli
gence department lenmed Inter that tho crew of
a Orinnn submarine had been lost In the Kugllsh
channel about this very time. The report, ns they
obtained It, Indicated that the Hun boat had been
trappvd on the bottom and ko seriously damaged
hhe was unable to rise.
C. S. Scott, engineer of the General Weetrlc
company and member of I he special party sent
abroad, contributes this Incident which happened
In the Adriatic sea:
"We had !t chasers based In a little hay on the
Island of Corfu and the barrage of boats extended
across the Straits of Otranto, a distance of about
10 miles. The chasers wore operated In units of
three, which op pntrol kept about one mile
apart. A distance of five miles wiih kept between
units. Conditions In the Adrlntlc were Ideal for
hunting submarines. Tho water was very deep,
ranging from 100 to 600 futhonis, which meant thnt
tho submarines when hard pressed could not seek
shallow water as was their custom In tho Kngllsh
chnnnel and tho North sea. Duo to less shipping
trufllc In theso waters there wus practically no
pound Interference, which mnde for very good
"Many successful attacks wero made In theso
wnters, one in particular being qlto exciting.
"One of the ships In n unit beard whnt sounded
like 11 submarine. In u few minutes till three listen
ers had picked him up nnd the bearing of his
course was being plotted The mlddlo chaser, the
llngshlp, was getting readings showing thnt the
submarine was in a direct line nstern and steam
ing toward her.
"Tho sound was very loud, ns If the sub must bo
very close. Suddenly the wnter begun to slnp the
bottom of the boat, bo thot everyone could feel It ;
and the next moment tho observer reported that
his bearing on the mibmurlno had changed from
180 degrees, which wus dead nstern, to three de
grees, which was on our bows. The submerged
submarine hnd passed directly under tho center
bont. All three boats wero Immediately got under
way nnd tho attack was delivered. After all tho
deptli charges bad been dropped, tho ships were
stopped and observations again taken. A pro
peller was heard to start up and run for nbout U0
seconds; and then n crunching noise was heard.
It was (pilto evident that tho sub, having been put
out of control, snnk to the bottom nnd had col
lapsed due to the tremendous pressure nt these
depths. Wo went back to tho spot next morning
nnd found an oil slick two miles long by 800 ynrdi
wldo on the surfneo of tho water."
Tho development of the submarine detector was
the result of the forcslghted vision of tho nnvy
department nnd the generous co-operation extend
ed by prlvato manufacturers who had placed their
entire organizations nt the disposal of the gov.
eminent for tho period of the war.
Largo electrical manufacturers with exceptional
fucllltles for research and experimental work
were utile to render Invaluable nsshitunce In crack
ing tho Mibinnrlno "nut."
In fact, It muy be said that "big business" In tho
commonly accepted meaning of tho term, will be
found to hnvo contributed a very large share to
ward winning the wur when tho wholo record of
this war's Inventions come to he Written.
y-soAr s
Vhe Nationally
Accepted Wfoll Tint
N Paekagt
Without Cron
an J Circle
Beautiful Sanitary Durable Economical
for Homes, Schools, Churches nnd nil Interior Wall Surfaces
Alabastine can be applied to plastered walls, wallboard, over
painted'walls that have become soiled, or even over soiled wallpaper
solid on the wall and not printed in aniline colors.
Alalttstine St jl dry powdery ready to mix with pare, cold water, full direction!
on each pickaxe. Alahattine it packed in white and beautiful tints. These, by
combining ami intermixing, enable yon to carry out individual color plans in
Hutching rug and dr.ipencs. AlatuMine is used in the finest residences and
public buildings, but priced within the reach of all.
You will readily appreciate the economy of Alabastine over paint or vroll
paper, and its results will be most gratifying.
New walls demand Alabastine, old walls appnciati Alabastine.
mia 111 orn
If your local dealer cannot or till not supply you,
take no substitute but write for Alabastine designs
and we will give you name of nearby dealer.
Alabastine Company
1045 Grandvllle Ave, Grand Rapids. Mich.
You may have noticed that multi
tudes of friends come to visit those
who live 011 Kasy strict.
lied Cross Halt Blue should be used
In every home. It makes clothes whlto
as snow nnd never injures the fabric.
All good grocers, 5c
Exnmlncr In Physics: "Whnt hap
pens when a light falls Into water at
an angle of 1.r degrees?"
Student : "It goes out."
Itnnro ta
Those Happy Days.
"These nre my salad days," re
marked the green worm as It slowly
approached the lettuce In the nourish
ing garden.
"I never saw such a writer, lie can
fake any theme you give him. I be
lieve he could write poetry about gas
"It has been done. Didn't you ever
hear of The Charge of the Light
HrlgadeT "
Sounded Attractive.
Patience Who's the man you
danced with?
Patrice Oh. he's u Wall street
"Is he n bear?"
"I believe so."
"Introduce me. will you? I want to
ry u dance with him. Pears have the
reputation of being great buggers."
Yonkers Statesman.
Give and Take.
"The Germans say they want a Just
peace, a give ami take peace, but their
Idea of Justice ami give and take Is
like the boy bully's."
The speaker wan Representative
Steagall of Ozark.
"In Tuscaloosa one day," be went on,
"I came upon n big boy puiamellng a
smaller one. I took tho big boy by the
arm and said:
" 'Here, my son, you mustn't quarrel.
You tnusn't bully. Lenrn to give ami
" "Hint's Just whnt I've been doln'.
boss,' the big boy whined. I give Mm
a punch In the eye nnd took his cigu
root.' "
Off-Color Days
are usually the reflexion oi some
upset to bodily health
Coffee drinking usually exagger
ates such conditions and ire
quently produces them.
That's why so many former
coffee drinkers now favor
The Original
Postum Cereal
Boil fully fifteen minutes and a
delightful beverage results. Fine
for children as well as grown-up3.
Everywhere at Grocers.
Two sizes, usually sold at 15c and 25c
Rtiutti You
Mmt A)k for
by Namt
1, .1
Kept Busy Explaining.
One of the ever-present difficulties
of a married man fs to account for hlr
absence from home.
Important to Mothers
Examine carefully every bottle oi
CASTOHIA, that famous old remedy
(or Infants and children, and see that U
Signature otSXSti:
In Use for Over SO Yours.
Children Cry for Fletcher's Castorii
The Birds.
"Do you think men will ever fly as
well ns blnls?"
"Hetler than birds In some respects.
Lots of birds can't loop the loop or do
Yeast I see the pro rntn share of
(he money In circulation In this coun
try Is $!i4.0(J nearly $5 more thaa It
was 11 year ago.
Crlmsonbeak Well, I caa accennt
for that extra live circulating, I
"I hnd SH a year age."
Ready Explainer.
"Tommy, your bend Is wet. You've
been In swimming ngnlnst my orders."
"No, pa ; I was Just stnndln' on the
bank watcbln' the other boys when
that little Tompkins kid did a 'belly
buster' niT splashed me."
'Then, why vv-nsn't your hat wet7
"I had it in my hand, pa, fnunin'
"IJuiph ! I guess I'll hnve to mako
a lawyer out of you, son." Birming
ham Age-IIernld.
Honors Even.
"My boy was 11 first lieutenant In
the army," remarked Mrs. Gndspur,
with a slight air of superiority.
"Did he get to France?" asked Mra
Clipping, while sparring for time.
"Kr no."
"Of course our son, Henry, was only
n private, but he spent 18 months In
France. Gold service stripes match
the olive-green shade of army uni
forms much better than silver stripes.
Don't you really think so?" Blrmiag
ham Age-IIcmld.