The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, August 31, 1916, Image 6

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David Starr Jordan, noted ed
ucator and pacifist, tells what
fright fulness has been tbrought
by conflict in the little coun
tries of Eastern Europe :: A
grave problem still unsolved
(Courtesy AmertCAn Nuteum Journal)
Willi tlll'l'U K'Xlll I lil'lltls illlll two
.soldiers, to follow In u I; I hk'
iiiitiniiolillc iilntiK llic trail oi
war. This uiih In Mncciloiilii
Tin1 lliii' of mi iiitny's niai'cli Is
not pli'iistmi to tool; iipnti cvi'ii
HioiikIi the iirnplc iiIoiik It luul
not iiiucli to lose. Tin' pinch of
mirroring Is viry rent cvi'ii If. im In lliu l'.all;iins,
folic liavu Krnwii nscil to It. ThiMi' aio two pniln
ni'irliH hy willed jou nuiy reuoKiiIzo the path of
war In a In ml of fanners. The onis Is the elmrreil
vIIIiiki', with Its whitewashed stone walls Maek
etied hy tin'. The other Is the presenee here and
(hero In the plowed Ileitis of three poles fastened
itos-ethur at the top, mid from the crotch a hahy
Mispcnilcd Just hluli cihiiikIi to hnllle Inquisitive
IK r mollis. Sianewhere In the Held, iinvhcrc
In the Hull. an valleys In May, you will see onu
I woman driving or leading a litillocl; or a liuflalo,
while iiuother liehlnd her holds tint plow. I'he
men nro In the army or else they were there.
The memory I shall longest hold or MouteneKro
Is u iflrtiire taken hy my guide, Antonio Iteluweln.
of this hind of stony graves, of the resolute people
'of the limestone, crags who have ucwr done limit
ago to the Turks nor to any other outside power.
It will he remembered that .ill these ltalkau folk
wero for years under lliu dominion of the Turk,
and that none of them have heen free for Half a
century. Tim Turk was most aeceplahle when hu
was asleep. When he was awake, he had his own
Ideas of "Union and Progress," Union meant uni
formity. A nation should have one ruler, one Hag,
oito religion, onu language. Progress was his way
of bringing ahout this condition. This was hy mas
Boarcc. And as the actual Turks were few In mini
Iter, nriliig over uu empire of Slavs, (Jreeks, Ital
lnnn, Jews, Armenians, Albanians, Kurds, Kgyp
thins, Moors ami Arabs, It demanded eternal vig
ilance to keep them all In a state of union and
These jKMipIo hnve had constantly before them
the choice of revolt, conversion, assimilation, ban
ishment and massacre. Ami at one time or an
other, ROino of each race have chosen each one of
these, often two or three of them at once. Mean
while, following the wicked lead of Itlstiuirck ami
DlHruell, Uurope has kept the Turk alive, hemusii
from Huiinclers In each nation, the Ottoman sultan
linn borrowed considerable sums of money.
Macedonia lies along the southern slopes of the
ltalkau peninsula. It Is a fertile region crossed by
chulns of rounded mountains, with green valleys
ami swift streams, In physical conditions not un
like the south of France. It has -l.'.tHH) Mpmro
miles of territory, Is about as large as the state of
Maine, with a population nearly two-thirds that
of Hie city of New York, and before the war of
liberation it had about 'J.UoO.OOO people. The ma
'Jorlty of these were Hulgarlan In blood and they
were allowed to have their own churches and
Ah to the campaigns which have desolated
Macedonia In the last few years wo need say only
ta word. The history of the two Halkan wars Is
Iglvcn with accuracy and Justice In the mouuuii'Utal
'report of the Hiilkan commission of the Carnegie
I endowment, a document of especial value In any
iHtutly of the conditions preceding the "third Hal-
jknn war" which today has set the world In Haines.
, The first Hiilkan war was altruistic as fur as
,any war can he. Its purpose was the relief of a
ilbUreascd people, Buffering for centuries from the
laxities of Turkish rule, always Incompetent .mil
everywhere unscrupulous, and on the other hand
continuously overrun by the outlaw patriots which
kept the land In Incessant turmoil.
The Halkan alliance was a Russian Inspiration.
It was planned by Hnrtwig, Russian minister at
llelgrade, "the evil genius of the Halkans." It
ended in the treaty of London, where the blind In
termeddling of the powers, bullied by Austilan In
trigue, agreed only on the kingdom of Albania,
leaving the states to tight it out so fur as .Mace
donia was concerned. This brought on the second
nullum war, In which Hulgarlan diplomacy imido
all the mistakes It had n chauce to make.
The treaty of llucharest left Macedonia crossed
Canada Improving In Every Way
Agriculturally, Commercially
and Financially.
Tlio reports coining to linnd every
day from all branches of industry In
Janada speak highly of the construc
tive ability of that country
Recently the mannglng directors of
the Canadian Credit Men's Associa
tion gave out the statement that btisl
ness In Western Canada wns good. In
every branch It Is better than In ll)1H,
mid everyone will remember that In
that year business was excellent. lie
says :
"The beauty of It Is the way In
which payments are coming In. .Mer
chants all over the West are tuklng
their cash discounts. Such u translor
umtlou I never saw.
"I'Yoin the records In the olllce I
knew It was getting better. We clear
here every retail merchant In the coun
try every three months, and we are
therefore In the closest touch and have
intimate knowledge of the way trade
Is going and how payments are belwg
made. Conditions at the present mo
ment are better than I had dreamed It
was possinie that they should be.
"The statements which we are re
ceiving with reference to the standing
of country merchants Indicates that
there will be very few failures this
fall, it Is ipilte remarkable. Men who
have been behind for years and In the
hole are actually paying spot cash for
everything, ami taking their cash dis
counts. Hanks and loan companies
this fall will have more money than
they know what to do with.
"This Is about the condition of trade,
and 1 am glad to say there Is no exag
geration In what 1 have satd. The
business of the prairie provinces Is In
bplendld condition."
Crop reports are also good. From
all parts comes the word that the crop
conditions were never belter, ami the
situation at the time of writing Is
that there will be fully as great u
yield as lu 1111.1, when the average of
wheat over the entire country was up
wards of !!0 bushels per acre. TIif
harvest therefore will be a heavy one
and, following the magnificent harvest
of last year, the fanners of Western
Canada will all he In splendid shape.
Old Indebtednesses, much of which
followed them from their old homes,
are being wiped out, Improvements are
now being planned, and additional
acres added to their present holdings.
During tho past year there was a
large Increase lu the laud sales both by
the Canadian I'aciHc and Canadian
nnd along with this, tho nnturnl tcm
ency of the nllles to trade among them
selves, nml perhaps spcclul trading
privileges. Mr. Robins points out that
the greatest development In the United
States followed the costly and destruc
tive civil wnr.
Sir. ltoblns, In an address before tho
Roadmen's Club of Chicago, expressed
the opinion of a fnr-thlnking mind nnd
the review of an experience of the Inst
of his numerous trips through Uie Ca
nadian West.' When he said he re
garded the spirit of the Canadian
people, as he found it, the most ad
uiirnhle and encouraging feature of
the entire situation. They are facing
the sacrifices of war courageously and
with calm confidence as to the result,
ami In similar spirit they face the eco
nomic future, confident, hut expecting
to solve their problems only by dint of
hind and Intelligent effort.
An Important part of Mr. Itolilnr
address, which Invites enrnest atten
tion, Is that In which. he refers to tho
laud situation, and when his remarks
are quoted they entry with them the
Impression gained by one who has
given the question the careful thought
of a man experienced In economic ques
tions, and specially those relating to
soil ami Its production. He Is quoted
us saying:
"Agricultural Canada was never so
prosperous, and Immigration of agri
cultural population both during and
after the war seems it logical expecta
tion, finding support In uu increasing
Immigration ut present from the Unit
ed States, lu spite of numerous ca
nards spread broadcast throughout the
United States to discourage emigration
to Canada. The lands of Western Can
ada, however, as long as they are as
at present the most advantageous for
the settler of any on the continent,
must continue to ut tract, despite mis
representation, and uu the Increase of
Its agricultural and other primarily
productive population depends the eco
nomic future of Canada. All other
problems are secondary to this, und
the large interests of Canada, recog
nizing this fact, are preparing to se
cure and hold this population both dur
ing and after the war. They are con
tent to let city development and other
secondary phases and superstructure
follow In natural course. This recog
nition of the true basis of economic
development Is an encouraging uugury
for the future."
"The war has brought Ui( United
States nnd Canada nearer together
economically than ever before. The
total Investment of United States capi
tal In Canada doubtless exceeds $1,000,
000,000. of which ?:100,000,(MX) has been
Invested since the war begun. Kxcept
for Great Britain, Canada Is the Unit
ed States' best customer. Our exports
to all of South America in the last
Northern land eomnanles. ns well as
by private Individuals. A great many "l ' were less man u uuru oi
le liv farm- uur exports to uauaua in uie same pe-
by artlllclal boundaries. The elTeet of Intolerance,
worst In Orecce, bad enough everywhere, was to
drive out of each nation all who belonged to the
wrong language or religion. I do not say race, for
they are all of the same general stock, even the
bulk or the "Turks" ami Creeks. This has filled
the region with refugees, men and women whose
fault Is that they lived on the wrong side of the
boundaries made for them In the treaty of
Passing down the long highway which leads over
'J00 miles from Holla to Samokov and Dubntmi lu
old ilulgarla. then across the border of Macedonlti,
down the Struma river past D.umtUu to I'etrltch.
we found everywhere the Hulgarlan refugees from
tho Saloulkl district In Creek Macedonia. These
have heen roughly estimated at oO.OOO In number.
Some of these have heen given farms or houses
abandoned lu Macedonia hy Turks who followed
the Turkish army away. Others received farms
left hy Creeks when the Creek army went back
after the treaty of Hucharest. Tho government
grants each person some fourpence a day. Some
tluil work, but after the war there are few employ
ers. The cost of living has doubled, the means of
living has fallen. At I'etrltch, near the present
boundary of Creece, there were hundreds of these
waiting about on the stone sidewalks day by day.
They were waiting for the powers to revise the
treaty of Hucharest and give them back their
homes In the region above Salonlkl. Some local
Journal had said that this revision was coming
soon. It was my duty to assure them that It would
never come. The phrase In Sofia, "Kurope exists
no more," Is the truth so far as Halkan affairs are
The reason for that Is clearer now. Kurope was
paralyzed hy the great terror which has since
come on It In an unthinkable catastrophe. There,
wero some In the "concert of powers," who were
striving to bring on this catastrophe. Tho "war
of steel and gold" was ahout to give place to real
war, which would end, they hoped, In speedy vic
tory and world power. It has not ended In that way.
It has not yet ended at all. Hut those who most
looked forward to war were the ones who had
least conception of Its certain consequences.
In the whole length of the Struma valley In
western Macedonia, towns have heen burned In
whole or part hy the Creek army which pursued
the Hulgaiians as far as the old border of Rul
gaiia. In Creel; Macedonia, at the hands of some
one or all of the three successive armies Turkish,
Hulgarlan and Creek most of the towns between
Salonlkl ami Omnia have suffered the same fate.
IJaeh of these towns has now Its share of Creek
refugees from Turkish Thrace. These have been
estimated by deck authorities as numbering !K),
000. They have come by railway from Adrlanople
lu box cars belonging to the Creek government.
These cars are left at the various stations, n ilozen
or more at each. In these the people keep their
bedding and their scanty effects. The government
of Creece allows them two or three sous u day.
with rice which they cook on fires of thistles and
other weeds.
In a Turkish Journal, vigorous complaint wns
made against the Albanian refugees In Thrnce ns
more "proficient with the Mauser than with the
plow, and skillful only ns cattle thieves." A plea
was made for bringing back the Bulgarian farm
ers as far more desirable neighbors. "The Rul
garlans are now our friends."
In the larger towns, as Salonlkl and Kllkush, tho
refugees nre ranged In tent cities, ten thousand or
more In one encampment. There wero perhaps
(50,000 Creek refugees a little more than n year
ago along the road from Drama to Salonlkl.
When I wns at Salonlkl the Turks were leaving
In great numbers: '212,000 took steerage passage
for Stamboul In one month. Salonlkl (Thessn
lonlke), beautifully situated. In full face of Mount
Olympus and with a noble harbor, should be ono
of the great titles of the world. In the aftermath
of the second Halkan wnr it lost half Its popula
tion. It Is no better off today than In the times
when St. Paul called out for help In Macedonia.
Harsh nnd often terribly brutal operations
lu Serbia and (Jreece result from the unchecked
operations of the military element. The soldier,
as such, considers neither economic conditions nor
the soul of man. It was claimed that the two wise
ministers Pashltch In Belgrade and Venlzelos lu
Athens were both opposed to the policy of repres
sion. Both would. If they could, have proclaimed
religious linguistic tolerance In those parts of Mac
edonia turned over to them by the treaty of
Bucharest. But the fact of victory, and especially
victory over their sister state, Bulgaria, Intoxicates
the military, and fills the mob with tho "east
wind." In such times the civil nuthorlty cannot
hold Its own against the military.
Bulgaria recognized better the valuo of toler
ance. A Creek church and school stand undis
turbed in Sotln. In the Bulgarian national assem
bly there are about a dozen Turkish deputies, rep
resenting Thrnce. Theso Turks, supporters all of
the king, hold the balance of power against the
combined democrats and socialists, the group op
posed to all war. The spirit of hate Is still very
strong among the people of Bulgaria. They hate
Roimiaula, ns the robber-state who has done them
the most harm. They hate Creece,
There can never be settled quiet In tho Knst
until the "Balkans belong to the Balkans," until
civil authority everywhere dominates the military
and until customs unions and other unions cause
these people to realize that ono fate befalls them
all and that the welfare of each state Is bmjnd up
in that of Its neighbor.
of the purchases were made by farm
ers who thus secured adjoining quar
ters or halves, the best evidence prob
ably that could he hud of the value
of Western Camilla land when those
who know the country host are adding
to their holdings. A number of out
blders have also been purchasers, nut
very little laud has changed hands for
speculative purposes.
An evidence of the prosperity of the
country Is found In the fact that such
a largo number of farmers ure pur
chasing automobiles.
Alleged hard times In Manitoba have
not dampened the ardor of motorists
or prospective ones. Tho automobile
license department reported a few
days since that there are 1,000 more
private owners of cars In the province
this year than last. The number of
licenses Issued tills year was 10,400, ns
against 8,800 last year. At an aveN
ngo cost of $1,000 each tho newly pur
chased curs represent a total outlay of
51,000,000, whllo tho total number of
cars In the province are worth approx
imately $10,000,000. The new cars ure
of modern types.
Many people, for some unexplained
reuson, have feared nnd continue to
fear that this country will experience
a period of Industrial and business
dullness after the wnr. There seems
to be no Justification for such u specu
On tho contrary, there nre sound
reasons for belief In the prediction of
Sir. Kingman Nott Robins, vice presi
dent of the Farm Mortgage Bankers'
Association of America, who, In the
Monetary Times, declares that Canada
will experience her greatest propor
tionate development In production Im
mediately after the conclusion of the
war. The country will certulnly hnve
exceptionally fnvornble commercial
conditions to tnke advantage of.
There will be the great need of Ku
Hod, although Canada has been rigidly
reducing her Imports since tho war be
gan. Even France, u good customer
of the United States, bought $70,000,
000 less than Canada during lOKI, 1014
l!)1ri. Aiid yet Canada's purchasing
power Is In the first stages of develop
ment only. It has been estimated that
the United States can support n popu
lation of GOO.COO.OOO. Using the same
basis of calculation In reference to nut
ural resources, Canada can support
population of -100,000.000.
"Canada Is potentlnlly tho most pop
ulous, nnd, In primary production, at
least, the richest unit of the British
empire, and It behooves us In tho Unit
ed States to know our Canada."
The social conditions throughout
Western Canada are everything that
could be desired. Schools have been
established In all districts where there
may bo ten or twelve children of school
age, and these arc largely mulntnlncd
by liberal government grants. A fund
for this purpose Is raised from the
revenue derived from the sale of school
land, one-eighteenth of all lands being
set nslde us school lands. AH the
higher branches of education ore cared
for, thero being high schools at all
Important centers, nnd colleges and
universities In the principal cities.
Tho different religious denomina
tions prevail, each having Its separate
church, and religious services arc held
In every hntnlet and village, nnd In
far-off settlements the pastor finds an
attentive congregation. The rural tele
phone Is ono of the great modern con
veniences that brings tho farm home
nearer to the market.
It Is not snylng too much to state
thnt In matters of social Importance,
In tho most remote settlements they
carry with them tho same Influcnco as
Is to bo found In tho most prosperous
farming districts of nny of the states
rope In tho work ot reconstruction, of tho Union. Advertisement.
Meaning Business.
"The American girl means business."
The speaker was Miss Alberta Hill,
the courageous and popular New York
suffragette. She went on:
"She's quite right, too. I know an
American girl whoso two weeks nt the
shore a pnlo young man In a blazer
tried to monopolize.
"What Is the meaning of platontc
affection,' he nsked her, ono evening on
tho board walk.
"'Its usual meaning,' she answered,
is that .tho chap who talks about It
Is either too poor or too stingy to get
mnrrled." Cincinnati Enquirer.
Personal Endeavors. .
"My face Is my fortune," snld the
girl with the dazzling complexion."
"Permit me," replied Mr. Dtistln
Stax, "to extend the compliments of
a self-made man to a self-made woman."
Honor Roll.
"Has your college produced uny dis
tinguished men?"
"Has It? Say, don't you ever read
the papers? Didn't you henr of Lefty
Jones, the famous southpaw; or Kan
garoo Klein, tho best shortstop In
either league; or BUT Borroughs, the
fence buster? And I could name a
dozen more who huve made good In
the game. Have we ever produced any
distinguished men? Why, Spalding's
Baseball Guide Is full of them."
Some females Imagine that they are
as pretty us pictures because they're
There Are Others.
"It Is very strange that no one has
ever been able to Hud Captain Kldd's
"Oh, wll, Captain Kldd Isn't the
only man who has put his money Into
real estu and couldn't get It out."
"Sue's ladylike."
"Yes, Indeed. Even her own broth
ers have never heard her swear."
Tho jenp year maid who hcsltat?
may wu uy losing.
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