The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, December 11, 1913, Image 8

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UIN nnd desolation mark tho site of
Rum ancient biblical city or Dabylon.
Where, "by tho water of Dabylon,"1 the
Tnttflttlt unllnii "nut 1n.M n h Jt ...& I
"'" imiiuii out uunil uuu woyii
stand today staggering wnlls of an
old-tlmo splendor. Until a few years
ago what had onco been the "cradle
of civilization" was covered with the
dirt and dust of ages, but In 1900 a
number of German archaeologists
cleared away tho debris, In part, and
uncovered portions of tho royal city.
The work Is still being carried on and
tho photographs hero reproduced nro tho llrst to
reach America showing tho results of tho German
savants' labor of love. For twclvo years Prof.
Kobert Koldowey, director of archaeological re
search In Babylon, assisted by Dr. Oscar Mou
ther, has carried on his work, supported by thd
oinpcrnr of Ocrmnny.
On the slto shown In ono of tho pictures tho
Tower of Mabel onco stood. This Is tho scene
of tho confusion of tongues of tho biblical story.
Several sites havo been assigned to the towor.
That this Is tho truo slto is tho conclusion of Dr.
Koldewoy and his associates In tho expedition
sent out by tho Deutscho Orlontgcscllschaft of
Dorlln. Other scholars who have sought to lo
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cato tho Blto havo lacked tho evidence obtained
by Dr. Koldowey In his cxtouslvo researches.
Only tho slto Is loft Tlmo nnd war and tho
elements assailed tho tower. For twenty cen
turies It cruiublud. It was a quarry of building
materials for man. Practically Babylonia was
loft unexplored until tho last quarter of the ntno
tccnth century. Uoforo that tho work of destruc
tion had been completed. In tho last century
modern towns and villages In tho vicinity carted
oif or floated down tho Euphrates tho last brlckH
of tho foundation of tho Towor of Babel. Tho
foundation was over 3G0 feet square, a lingo,
bulky mass. Illllah, a modern Arab town, four
miles south of It, was built with tho bricks of
tho ancient city. Thus peilshcd tho prldo of'
The tomplo of Esaglla, tho most Important
Babylonian sanctuary brought to light, was a part
of tho Tower of Babel. Its ruins were uncovered
by tho German archaeologists after digging a
bole forty feet deep that was as broad as the
mouth of a volcano. Tho two walls In tho cen
ter of the picture mark tho entrance to tho pas
sage, a quarter of a mllo long, which connected
the Btcep pyramid of Etomeuankl, known In tho
Ulblo as the Tower of Babel, with this temple.
Because of tho depth of the debris caused by
the action of tho centuries which have volled
tho earth hero tho entire foundation of tho
Tower of Dabel has not yet been excavated, but
tunnels at the floor level have been bored Into
the sides until tho tomplo walls wore properly
established nnd then tho whole edifice was meas
ured. This is tho oldest and most momontous ruin
on account of its connection with tho Tower of
Dabel, and the bricks which onco represented
massive masonry are now so brittle that ono
can crush them between tho fingers.
In the picture showing tho ruins of Dabylon
the man on tbe left stands upon tho remains of
the brick pavement which was part of tho long
street named after Daniel, who, no doubt, him
self traversed Its length many times. In the
ruins on tbe right, In tho hollow, thero Is the
gate named after tho goddess Ishtar. This Is tho
most prominent nnd best preserved ruin in
Dabylon. Its walls are adorned with reliefs of
bulls, the holy animal of Nebo, and dragons,
tho boly animal of the god Marduk. It was
through this gate that the processional road af
tho god of Marduk led, and passing It and turn
ing to tho right, It led on to Nebuchadnezzar's
throne hall.
The excavations have brtught to light many
curious specimens of the work of tho ancient
people of Dabylon. Tho largest ploco of sculp
ture yet unearthed Is that of a bugo lion chis
eled out of an enormous block of granlto brought
down the Eupbatcs on a raft from Mesopotamia. ,
It showB a lldti standing over a prostrate man.
Tho work Is crude and probably Is a product of
the very earliest art of Babylon. The sculptor
typifies tho superiority of tho lion's strength over
man's. Soino cofllns of tho mlddlo class were
also found. Thoy were of burned clay and like
bathtubs In shape. Somo of them were very
doposltotd often In
round roofed tombs, lu
some of which have
been found the bones
of tho dead of 2.C00
years ago. Many of
these cofllns havo been
discovered In the exca
vations about tho dwellings of tho mlddlo classes.
Whllo Gorman research has definitely fixed the
location of tho Tower of Dabel, tho origin of tho
biblical story of tho confusion of tongues has
not boon found in Bnbylon. That It is a world
myth is tho conclusion of scholars. It Is Inter
esting to noto that a similar legend Is found In
Ccntrnl America in connection with the pyramid
of Cholula, which was also Intended to reach
tho heavens and which brought disaster to Its
But If this legend has not been verified by ro
senrch tho discoveries which havo rewarded tha
labors of explorers and urchacologlsts In Baby
lonia havo been many nnd of tho highest vnluo.
Innumorablo tablets havo been collected which
when deciphered will throw light upon a civiliza
tion which was born moro than six thousand
years agp. ' Tho oldest tomplo In tho world has
been unearthed at Blsya. Largo square blocks
have been discovered which dae back to tho
reign of Sargon I., 3,800 years before Christ.
Even oldor Is a platform built of tho peculiar
convex bricks used In D. C. 4500. Inscriptions
on bricks found in the temple at Blsya are
stamped with tho namo of Dungi, D. C. S750. A
crumpled piece of gold bears tho namo of Param
Sim, D. C. 3750. So much for tho ago of the
antiquities of Dabylon. Tho best preserved edi
fice of ancient Bnbylon thus far unearthed is
tho gato of tho goddess Ishtar, of which the ma
sonry remains well nigh perfect after two thou
sand years of neglect
What Is even moro Interesting to tho general
public, modern research Is making the Baby
lonians live again after thousands of years.
Much is known now of their dally llfo, their alms
and occupations, their religious ceremonies. It is
possible to reconstruct something of the life of
tho prophet Daniel In Dabylon. It Is possible to
follow tho courso of a procession in honor of
tho god Marduk through tho gate of Ishtar to the
palaco of Nebuchadnezzar. Tho sepultures of
tho people and of tho princes havo been laid
Everywhero on the walls' of buildings are to
bo Been representations of tho bull, which was
tho sacred animal of Dabylon
Though It Is uncortaln whether tho ancient
Babylonians wore moro civilized than their
Egyptian contemporaries thero Is but little doubt
that thoy woro the pioneers of civilization In
tho wholo of western Asia before Greece and
Rome catno to the front. Four thousand years
D. C. their system of wilting had already been
developed, nnd npplod also tho Semitic Daby
Ionian tongue Fourtoon hundred years D. C,
as tho Tell-ol-Amarna tablets testify, Its uso ex
tended ovor tho wholo of western Asia as far
as tho Mediterranean and Egypt. Though not
a wnrllko peoplo tho Babylonians possessed
moro than once what might havo boon described
at tho tlmo as a world-wldo omplre. They wero
energetlo, Intelligent, pollBhed In tholr way and
fond of letterB. Excellent sculptures nnd en
gravings on hard stone exist to testify to their
skill and nrtlstlo instincts. Representations of
musical Instruments Imply also that 'the art of
legal enactments, codified apparently by Ham
murabl. are in tholr way noteworthy produc
tions. In the matter of lltoraturo we owo to
them no less than three accounts of the crea
tion, two accounts of tho flood, one of them put
into tho mouth of tho Dabylonlan Noah (Ut
naptstlm or Atrd-hasls), who Is represented as
relnting It to tho soml-mythlcal GUgames, a
primitive king of Erech. To theso must be
added a number of other legends, such as the
story of Uro (tho pestllenco), Etanna, the horse
and the ox, with many others ono at least,
tho story of Sargonof Agado, being historical,
xlt Is dimcult to Juilgu which was tho more
predominant characteristic of tho Dabylonlans,
their trading Instinct or tholr reverence for
tholr gods, for both nro equally marked. They
had Intercourse by means of trade with Elani
on tho east, Syria on tho west, and many other
places on tho, north and south. Slavery was
common, and contracts concerning the buying.
Belling and hiring of slnvos aro frequently mot
Ono of tho pictures shows an Interesting
phase of present day llfo. How would It fool
If tho worry of moving could bo eliminated as
In tho picture of tho Dabylonlan who Is moving
his household goods nnd chattols. The Daby
lonlnn gathors his earthly possessions together,
carefully arranges his furniture (In most cases
a rug) on the back of his donkey or mulo. nnd
with his family comfortnbly sented on tho pack,
ho starts morrlly off to somo place which may
strike his fancy.
Tho transportation by itny other means than
that of tho donkey or mule Is unheard of by tho
Dabylonlan who believes that this Is tho mode
of transportation tho world over. It isfonly the
oxtromoly wealthy, or personages of political
Importance, who can afford a carrlngo. A Jour
ney on the back of a donkoy or mulo 1b filled
with many hardships and Is very slow and
tedious to those unaccustomed to that mode of
conveyance, but tho Babylonian, knowing no
better, Is satisfied with his lot and thankful to
AUnh thnt he has a donkoy or mule to carry
him about wherever his business or fancy dlo
Dummy mndo It no trump? and put down tha
aco, king and queen of hearts.
"Ah, good hearts," remarked her polite on
ponent. Sho put down tho ace. king and queen ol
"Good spades!"
She put down tho samo Bequenco In diamonds.
"Good diamonds!"
Sho then displayed tho aco, king, queen and
knave of clubs '
"Good gracious!"
"Whnt do you think of, a Judgo as a secretary
of war?"
"I think It's a good movo. If the enomy
.should ever provo too strong for us, ho con
launch an Injunction at 'em or tako a chango of
.Boxing and Ball Playing Were in
Vogue Centuries Before Greece
Was Known to Exist
Athens, Greece. That boxing, ball
playing and sprinting wero favorlto
sports of tho ancient Greeks is widely
known. Dut It is not generally known
that theso sports wero In' voguo In an
cient Egypt centuries beforo Greeco
was known to history.
Tho accompanying sketches nro re
productions of prints from tho worka
of Lepslus, HoHclllnl, Mnspcro and
other Egyptologists. Tho largo print
Is a copy of a photograph from a rock
carving which was executed In Thebes
during tho reign of Ramcscs 11. lu
tho onrly part of tho fourteenth cen
tury, D. C. Long beforo Moses led tho
hosts of Israel Into tho Slnnltlc
desert; long beforo tho oldest hooks
of tho Old Tcstamont wero written;
and four centuries beforo Solomon
wroto, "Thero Is nothing new under
short becauso of tho custom of the Assyrians nnd & harmony was not altogether unknown to thorn.
Dabylonlans of burying their dead lu a sitting To this must be nddod agriculture, mensuration
position, with tho kead betwean the knee. ao4 mathematics, such as they wero, and their
"I took my laundry ticket to a friendly China
man, and, after somo hesitation, ho translated
It for me."
"Whtf did It Bay?"
"Little man; ears stick out; wart on noso."
OF. Li
Showing Old Egyptian 8port.
the sun." It Is a draft of the camp
of Ramesos II. before the Hlttlte City
of Kadosh. It plainly showB tbe diver
sions of the Egyptian soldiers in their
hours of leisure. In it the artist has
depicted boxing, baseball, horse rac
ing and even the gentle pastime of
"crap shooting."
The smaller sketches might have
been made on any professional ball
ground in this country, barring the
uniforms. One of them might have
been labeled "safo on second." It
probably represents a runner stealing
Becond sliding into the bag after a,
headlong dive under the baseman.
The umpire Is shown with down
turned palms, indicating that the run
ner Is safe, whllo the baseman is
evidently protesting against the de-(
clslon. '
The other cut depicts another fa
miliar figure and Is evidently Intended
to represent a megaphone man an-,
nounctng a change of batteries, or,
perhaps, informing the "fans" tbat
"O'Sarkon, the great Memphis pinch
hitter, will bat for Sl-Dast, the south
paw twirler, who has been taken out
of the box by Manager Rut Ammon."
The amusement of crap shooting
was probably introduced Into the
Egyptian army by tho Ethiopian or
Nubian mercenaries, as it is still the
national sport of the descendants of
the hunters of Equatorial Africa. Just
who Introduced baseball into ancient
Egypt Is not known, but tho "Records
of the Monuments" show tbat Father
Tlmo discovered tho gamo beforo eith
er Father Chadwlck or Father Spald
ing. Truly thero is nothing new under
tho Bun. What with tho discovery
that Egyptians in the dawn of history
probably used electric or hydraulic
drills to shapo tho blocks of granlto
for tho Pyramids, and tho granlto pic
tures showing that oven baseball and
crap shooting wero popular sports,
and boxing, bouts a regular thing
among Egyptlau soldiers when ancient
Greece was a backwoods settlement
and Dabylon 'a one-horse town, the
fact that thero was boxing In Grocco
2,300 years ago is a modern Incident,
and In all likelihood it was only a
hoary sport Introduced Into Greece
along with other civilizing innovations
from tho "Land of tho Pharaohs."
Professor "Dusty" Miller.
Mrs. Houston, Originator of Rubber
Pencil Tips, Brought to St
Louis for Burial.
St. Louis, Mo. Tbe body of Mrs.
Mary E. Houston, reputed to be tho
originator of rubber eraser tips on
lead pencils, was brought to St. Louis
for burial. Mrs. Houston, who was
85 years old, died at Greenwood, Miss.,,
of apoplexy.
In 1859, Mrs. Houston said, she en;
tered a stationery store In New York
city to purchase a pencil. She asked
the clerk why rubber tips could not
bo placed on the pencils. The clerk
called several officials of the firm and
explained her suggestion. Defore she
left New York, Mrs. Houston said,
lead pencils with rubbers attached
were advortlsed there for the, first
time. Tbe stationery , house refused
I to admit It waB indebted to her for
'the suggestion.
,. )
Ohio Traction Company In Retort
When Women Ask Lower
Steps on Cars.
Youngstown, Ohio. The Woman's
Club lenguo of this city has petitioned
the council to pass legislation com-;
pelllng steps on trolley cars to be
lowered within eight Inches of the'
stroet. It Is asserted the present
steps are too high and women are
embarrassed every time they board
or leave the cars. It is believed the'
company will maintain that the pres
ent tight skirt is to blame and not
the car stops.
Temple Bar and Tower Favorite
Haunts of Spooks.
Writer Advises Americans Who Seek
Excitement to Spend an Evening
With the Spectral Forms That
Roam In Buildings.
London. If tho Americans who
como to London find tlmo hanging
heavily on their hands, they might da
worso than divert themselves with
ghost hunting. It Is widely known, ol
course, that tho shade of tho famous
American lawyer, Judah P. Denjamln,
haunts tho picturesque old Tomplo,
where, as ono of tho most successful
"K. C.b" In tho history of tho English
bar, ho onco had chambers, and now
wo havo It on tho authority of on
of tho leading spook experts In this
country that tho Tower of London,
whero so many celebrities, from
queens downward, lost their heads, la
haunted, too, though not by as many
specters as might have been expected,
considering the wholesale killing thai
onco went on there.
Thousands of our countrymen visit
the "Temple" every year mainly to
see the grave of Oliver Goldsmith
and thousands moro explore the grim
old Tower, with its racks and dun
geon and Bite of the scaffold whore
Queen Anne Doleyn, Lady Jane Grey
and the Earl of Essex were beheaded,
and perhaps If theso visitors stayed
on after nightfall, Instead of going
back to their respective hotels and
boarding houses, and kept a shart
eye out, they might bo rewarded, at
the Temple, by a glimpse of the ghost
ly Benjamin, or maybe even of the
ample shade of Doctor Johnson, who
likewise lodged there, or, at the Tow
er, with a view of Henry VIII., the
much-married, whose spectral form
has been seen In the neighborhood at
least once.
Eliot O'Donnell, who, of course, Is
ono of tho most eminent authorities
on ghosts In England, tells about the
Tower ghosts in the pages of tho Oc
cult Review, and an astonishing crowd
they prove to bo. Ono of them, which
was "undoubtedly," according to
O'Donnell, the shade of Queen Ade-
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Garden Corner of "Temple."
lalde, the wifo of George IV., ap
peared to two persons, ono of them a
former keeper of tho crown jewels at
tho Tower, as a "cylindrical figure,
like a glass tubo, about as largo as
one's arm, and seemingly filled with
a denso fluid," and another In the
shape of a "huge bear" which Issued
from underneath the jewel room door.
"A soldier thrust at it with his bayo
not, which, going right through It,
stuck In tho doorway, whereat he
dropped In a fit and was carried
senseless to the guardroom, dying on
tho following day."
English Agricultural Experts Tour
North -Wales In 8pedal Train
to Show Machine.
London. The Agricultural Organi
sation and the National Poultry Or
ganization Society are Jointly respon
sible for a unique scheme by which
It Is hoped hens may be taught to lay.
What Is known as the "golden egg"
train left London recently bearing a
party of poultry experts who are going
to teach the hens In Wales how eggs'
really should be laid. The train con
sisted of three special coaches, fitted
with every modern device calculated
to encourage the most educated hons
to lay prize eggs, and It will travel
from station to station In North Wales
for a fortnight. The poultry experts
will lecture at each stopping place to
the local chicken farmers.
Steelworker Gave Child Pockstbook to
Play With on a Train and He
Drops It Out of Window.
Newcastle, Pa. According to wort
received here from Fernando Russo,
a steelworker now at Harrlsburg, Pa,
hls savlngB, a small fortune, wor
thrown from a train near Philadelphia
by his baby, Joso Russo, and his fam
ily aro stranded.
t Rubso, his wifo and children were
returning from New York, whero they
went to meet a relattvo, when the sav
ings of several months wero thrown
away. Tho parent gave, his baby his
pocketbook to play with and Jose
tossed it out of a window. Tho family
traveled from Philadelphia to Harrls
burg on a frolght train.