The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, November 13, 1913, Image 2

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x ' ws sssmmmmm&g&mzg&z
WW awo-lnspiring nnd terrible lu the vory X ' 'jlyjP.y. Sr9SEKlS9''"S
II. thought or them. Ynu may novor X aSSilr BsW iT 3MMB0M3i81 Ci
,-Jlri train, through thn choking smoke. .. Jrw'jK&m9v3 afcSSBHSfiA
1 u niay ""vor "uv H,'" tnn "K,,t 45yBptjiL , naflffiRL "nfftplWL.Ili ' T. ' V
s. J of a bltulug forest. Yot, tnougii you f 1 liT te?ilrBriftWwWMfi ''TfrT JraSL'' 7 I
&3Uj havo not ronui iih near nH HiIh to a .jm jJflM?HBjewWuRHiH3&
y X foroRt flro' tno words enrry A feeling I. jMjfllfcPlliKKCT
X ' .X danger might lBBVBSjfKnHHVBJHBfittjBVXM
OUKST fires! There l Homcthlng
awo-lnspiring nnd terrible In the vnry
thought of them. You may novor
havo traveled hours, on n railway
train, through tho choking smoke.
You may novor havo seen thn light
of a bltulug forest. Yot, though you
havo not romo iih nonr nH HiIh to a
foroRt flro, tlio words carry a feeling
of danger and of tremendous might
for ovll.
It 1b hard for tho average layman to
realize how fires can assume such magnitude In ter
ritory nupponod to bo undor supervision of men ap
pointed for tho particular purpoHe of preventing
fires, but tho fact Ih quite readily comprehended by
thoso who havo had occasion to travel through
aomn of tho remote and InacceHsiblo regions within
tho national forests. Ab a mat
ter of fact, tho lands withdrawn
aa natlonnl forests nro almost
entirely of a rugged, mountain
oub naturo. Necessarily, there
are largo and comparatively
open portions Included, partic
ularly In tho ningo country, hut
Instances point to the fact that
thn sections subject to the most
sovero MroB nro Invariably
thosn of tho most rugged and
Inaccessible nature, made up of
high, stoop mountains, covered
with n dense forest and heavy
underbrush. Mnny places are.
In their present condition, prac
tically Impenetrable: and while
thoy aro being opened up bh rapidly as funds
ulll permit of trails being built, yet thcro Ih so
much nrcn, so mnny other duties nro requirod
of tho forest officers nnd the funds mentioned
aro bo limited nnd Inadequate, that progress of
uch work, whllo keeping pace with tho avail
able resources, Is nccossnrlly h!ow.
noforo enlarging upon conditions under which
large tiros begin, it might bo well to mention
briefly a few of tho forest flro terms with which
tho layman frequently meets and may not un
derstand. Forest flres aro classified generally ns crown
or top fires those where tho flro travels through
tho tops of tho trees with surprising rapidity nnd
working disastrous results; and ground or sur
face fires, whoro tho flro travels nlong tho
ground, consuming soil covers or huinui, brush
and Utter, seedlings nnd often small trees, and.
consequently, doing llttlo or no damage to ma
ture timber. Luckily, lu most cases forest flres
aro ground fires and It Is these that aro the
most quickly controlled. Yet n single top fire
can cause vastly more damage than a great
number of ground fires. However, it is general
ly under unusual conditions thnt crown or top
flreB occur such as high winds, very bushy or
ateep country and Bovero drought, when such
conditions can In an Incredibly short time change
a creeping ground fire Into a sweeping crown
flro, leaving a path of ruin and often death In Its
wake. In brlof, drought and wind are tho two
dominant conditions 'fnvorublo to severe fires.
Tho wind Is always tho most dreaded fnctor
during, tho fire season, Its freaklshnoHs and un
certainty upsetting tho best of plans. So fierce
waB the wind at tho tlmo of the destructive flres
of 1910 that wholo hillsides of timber wero up
rooted and men wero forced out of their saddles
Tho flro leapod across rivers half a mile wide
at a Blnglo bound, traveling nearly n mile a min
ute at tlmoB and devouring everything In Us
path. Ofton wldo canyons were spanned ns by
a great Jump, tho flro continuing on tho oppo
alto Bldo and leaving tho canyon timber green
and unharmed. Numerous Instances of the nb
floluto frcakishncss of tho tiro could bo cited.
and nil tend to show Its vory uncertainty.
In fighting a flro there Is constructed around
the burning area what Is called a fire lino or
trench. This consists of clearing away all debris
and brush, generally for throo or four feet,
though wider when conditions allow or warrant
It, and exposing tho mineral soil for ono or two
foot or wider as necessary. An ordinary ground
Are, unfanned by a strong wind, will dlo out on
reaching the Btrip of mineral soil, often aa effect
ually as If tho line wore a Btream of water.
When the Are Is moving slowly and men can
stand the heat and smoko, It Is always desirable
to build the trench close to tho ft re so as to
prevent Its gaining momentum aa It progresses;
but where tho fire Is traveling quite rapidly,
ofton the flro line haB to be placed somo dis
tance away from the Are, and where adequate
patrol or supervision Is assured the burned ma
terial on tho inside of the lino Is fired In order
to meet the advancing flro and destroy tho In
flammable material In Its path. Backfiring, ns
tnlB Is callod, Is generally used only In an
emergency and by experienced hands. Often, of
course, where the fire Is severe, strips of Umber
iow 7&$iffi0i&?6Z0J!rjz)cw?Mr&iz?BttDiznttiei&
for variable distances uro cleared, but In tho
ordinary ground flro such work Is usually too
slowf nnd unnecessary.
Tho best tools used by a fire-fighting crow In
tho mountaliiB are axes, shovels and mattocks or
grub hoes, tho hoes being usually In greatest
proportion and moat effective. Often ono or two
crosscut saws aro useful, particularly where tho
flro Is traveling through a lot of down timber.
Tho axmen generally go llrst, clenrlng out nnd
cutting away tho heavy stuff nlong the line; then
follow tho grub hoo or mnttock men, breaking
through tho henvy sod nnd roots; and last tho
shovel men, who clean out tho trail, or, ns might
ho stnted, put tho finishing touches on tho work
of tho others. Tho nmount of work n gang of
men can do dopends upon various circumstances,
such as tho nature of the country, tools avail
able, etc., but roughly it might bo said that a
gang of twenty men can build n mllo of linn a
Aside from a fow general principles thero are
no sot rules for fighting forest fires In fact, it
is far from a black-and-white proposition. Rnth
er, It calls Into play initiative and hendwork,
and tho result attained bears mute evldonco of
tho success or failure of tho supervising officer,
although always It must bo remembered that
that uncertain nnd uncontrollable factor, tho
wind, can snntch victory from tho hands of man
so quickly and easily as to mnko it seem some
times a veritable mockery of his oftorts. And,
too, the unbelievable action of fire, even when
apparently under control, makes It absolutely
necessary that It bo wntched closely and con
tinuously until thcro Is not a single remaining
vestige of Its existence.
Among the principal causes of forest flres nro
locomotive sparks, lightning, enmp Hies left un
extinguished, burning or slash In clearing land,
logging operations principally from flro In tho
resultant slash accumulated by the average log
ger In cutting over an area. Thero aro minor
other ways, such as Incendiarism, ashes from a
pipe, n lighted clgnr or cigarette stub or lighted
match cast thoughtlessly aside. The first three
mentioned, however, aro tho most general.
When a flro has onco assumed tho proportions
of a largo top flro. It Is gonerally Inadvisable to
attempt to check It; rather, It Is good Judgment
to consider tho safety of tho flro lighters them
solves, so that they may bo In readiness to
attack tho flro when It again leaves tho tops or
tho trees nnd assumes Its slower progress along
tho ground.
It might bo mentioned right here thnt foreat
fires, with particular reference to ground flreB,
do not always destroy standing timber, but often
only tho very small trees, brush and surface
cover or humuB. Potential timber, of course, has
a distinct valuo. and tho destruction of a good
soil cover Is a decided detriment to tho forest,
but many troes, such as Douglas fir, tamarack
and yellow plno. have a thick, heavy bark which
forms a good resistance to flro and will often
withstand periodic ground flres for years. Other
trees with thin bark, of coarse, Buccumb quite
In tho report of the secretary of agriculture,
embodied In the Yearbook of tho department of
agriculture for 1911, he states that "the flres of
the calondar year 1910 covered more than 3,000,-
000 acros of government timber
land and 800,000 acres of pri
vate tlmberland within tho na
tional forest boundaries, and
Inflicted damage to national
forest timber, including young
growth, estimated at a little
less than $25,000,000. The loss
In timber destroyed or damaged
waB slightly over 6,500.000.000
feet ... In fighting the fires,
special expenditures wero In
curred totaling over 11,000,000,
besides the cost In time of tho
regular protective force." In
addition to this, thero was an
added toll of 74 human lives
lost in lighting tho Area and a
largo number Injured, to say
nothing of many ranchers, set
tlers, prospectors, etc., who per
ished. Altogether, tlt certainly
puts tho flro season of 1910
down as ono of the country's
great catastrophes, to bo listed
with tho great Hlnckly Qre In
Minnesota In 1894, which did
such devastation.
Ono watches quite breathless
ly n serious conflagration In a
city and admires tho fearless nnd systematic
work of tho firomou lighting to subdue the
flames. Hero they nro but minutes away from
tho sourco of tho flro, with speedy conveyances
for reaching It and every possible assistance of
human Ingenuity to control tho fire.
Compare this with tho mnny obstacles with
which the forest llre-flglitor has to contend.
Sometimes ho Is moro than a day's Journey from
tho fire. Ho has a limited and often inexperi
enced crow to help him. Ho must travel on foot
or on horseback, and ho cannot lopo along as
thoy do in tho city parks mountain trails aro
not mndo for loping horses. Ho must rely on
packhorses for convoying commissary supplies,
becauso It may menu many days of hard -work
ahead of him on tho burning area. Vory often,
Indeed, he must blnzo his way a number of miles
through u trailless wilderness, carrying his bed
and grub on his back, and through a country
where every step beoms a greater impediment
to rapid progress; and when he reaches the fire
It may be of such proportions as to appall a loss
sturdy nature.
Tho rapidity with which fire can spread In tho
mountains Is almost unbelievable. For Instance,
in 1910, by the middle of August over 3,000
small fires had boon put out by patrolmen nnd
over 90 large ones had been brought under con
trol by crews of from 25 to 160 men. And yet,
when the cyclone of August 20 enmo, that work
was all undone so quickly as to make one gasp
with wonder and nwe. Within 48 houre a strip
of country moro than 100 miles long and moro
thnn 2S miles wldo hud been burned over. And
still tho flro was advnnciug. Against all this x
iinny of more than 3,000 men fought persistently
and courageously and always lu tho face of over
whelming odds, yet never did they falter until
the rnlns came.
In pasBlng, it Is but fitting to give credit to tho
biavo men lu tho government's employ, who
risked and lost their lives In earnest endeavors
to carry out thoir duties, nnd many nro the tnleB
of heroism and unselfish dovotlou during those
stronuoiiB times, when men toiled and sweated
shoulder to shouldor.
Men can nnd will, In tho course of time, mako
effort to reforest tho great devastated areas, but
tho scope of years to carry out such work Is
broad indeed. Man's best work, now and for al
ways, lies in the prevention of a recurrence of
such calumltles as have gone before. Through
legislation man can compel the railroads to use
contrivances to prevent sparks from leaving the
engines; he can educate campers Into the neces
sity for their co-operation In extinguishing camp
flreB (a truly little thing, yet big In results) and
exact a severe penalty for failure to abide by the
law; he can appropriate more money for Im
provement and protection work, to place the for
ests under closer supervision and make them
more accessible, so that tho fires caused by light
ning, for Instance, can be caught at their very
inception; but mostly, he roust enlist the co
operation of all hU fellowmen to help in the
great work of preserving and perpetuating the
forests because they represent a source of wealth
and necessity and beauty, not to any single Indi
vidual, but one In which every member of our
great country Is, and always will be, directly or
Indirectly, a participant, even unto our children's
children, ad uflnltumj
(By H. O. SKM.KUS. Director of Evenln
I'cpnrtmpiit, Tho Moody Blblo Institute,
f .
M2BSON TI3XT l)eu. 31:1-12.
aOMJKN Ti:XT-"ITocloii8 In tho
filKht of Jehovah Is Ilia death of hli
mints." l's. 11C:13.
I. Tho Old Leader, vv. 1-8. We havo
now como to tho last of our lessons
which havo to do with Moses. Fol
lowing his lnmented failure at tho
tlmo of tho second arrival at Kndesh
Darnea, Miriam dleB; at Mt. Hor,
Aaron departed and his office is be
stowed upon hla Bon, Eleazar. Then
quickly followed tho plague of Ber
ponts, tho defeat of tho king of tho
Amorltes, Balaam's folly, the npostaBy
of Israel which was cleansed by blood
through tho zeal of Phinehas, and final
ly tho arrival upon tho plaltiB of
Law Confirmed.
Hero Moses repcatH nnd confirms
tho law to this new generation of
Israel, dellvcre his last charge, sings
his last song, ascendB Mt. Nebo to
view Canaan, and Is "forever with
tho Lord." In the pnssago marked out
for this lesson we havo tho account of
tho passing of this wonderful servant
of God. Returning to ch. 31:1-8 and
32:44-52 we see this Journey In pros
pect, nfter that wo read Moses' parting
blessing and In this section we read
of the fulfilment of that prospect
Moses anticipated his departure by a
quiet dignity, absolutely divorced from
haste or fret, that was characteristic
of his lifo of submission and was the
essenco of his lifo of faith.
Deforo departure Moses solemnly
charged this newer generation to ob
serve tho law, declaring that it is not
a vain nor an empty thing, but In deed
and In truth to them the way of life.
Then comes the simple dignified ac
count of this last act of obedience, Blm
pie, yet Bubllme. Yonder we seo him,
viewed by the hostB of Israel, as he
ascends tho mountain alone yet not
alone prepared to spend his last
hours upon earth with Jehovah, who
doubtless appeared as the angel
Jehovah and pointed out to him the
land ho bo much longed to enter, but
could not because he failed to sanctify
God In tho sight of the people at a
critical moment. Taking tho glory to
himself on that occasion demanded an
act of punishment as a warning to
the peoplo, hence, "It went ill with
Moses for their sakes," Ps. 106:32.
Thcro upon tho mount God'B covenant
with Abraham is confirmed and with
undlmmed eye and undiminished vigor
(v. 7), Moses was shown tho fuill
ment of that promise, hlB body was
laid at rest by God himself, in an un
known and unmarked sepulchre, "over
against Beth-Peor," v.' 6.
II. The New Leader, v. 9. God nevet
leaves his people without a leader
and hence Joshua is exalted to com
pensate Israel for the loss of Moses.
"The king Is dead long llvo the
king." Tho worker dies, tho work
goes on and many times tho victories
of the new leader aro fully as great
and far reaching as any won by the
former leader. Joshua was not Moses,
ho was Joshua and as such called to
face now problems.
III. A Great Character, vv. 10-12. The
description of Moses la of one who saw
Jehovah face to faco, a peculiar dig
nity, and tho secret of his greatness.
When Aaron and Miriam murmured
God declared that Moses was dliforent
from all other prophets In that, "with
him will I speak mouth to mouth, even
manifestly, and not In dark speeches,
and the form of Jehovah shall he be
hold," Num. 12:6-8. Moses himself
declared to Israel that when God
spoke to them out of tho midst of the
Are, "I stood between the Lord and
you," Deut. 5:4, C. The supreme
teaching of this lesson 1b the fact that
great as Moses was, he was never
theless excluded from the promised
land ub a warning to Israel.
On the other hand this story Is a
wonderful Illustration of the tender
compassion and watchful care of Jeho
vah even to tho end. Even the discip
line of Jehovah is accompanied by
gentleness. If ho must needs bo ex
cluded yet ho is not excluded from
communion with Jehovah.
Thus this saint who waB separated
to tho will of God passes out of lifo.
In tho hour of the consummation of
his lifo work his spirit passes into
yet closer fellowship with God. The
PsalmlBt in tho words of the golden
text most beautifully suggests that
such an hour ia a delight to God, and
suggests tho welcome which must be
awaiting his saints. Do not forget the
last glorious appearing of Moses after
the lapse of the centurieB when:
"On the hills ho never trod
Spoke of the atrlge that won our Ufa
With the Incarnute Bon of God."
"Death and Judgment were a con
stant source of fear to me until I real
ized .that neither shall have any hold
on the child of God." D. L. Moody:
Do not put death out of consideration,
but welcome It aa Moses welcomed
It When we stand on PIsgab, can
we say we did our full duty? In that
hour the plaudits of men will be
Moses was a great hero, prophet,
priest, law-giver, poet and general,
yet Israel could erect no monument
over his grave to do blm honor. It
was a greater honor to follow hla
admonitions nd obey the law.
Look, Mother! If tongue is
coated, give "California
Syrup of Figs."
Children lovo this "fruit laxatlvo,"
find nothing elso cleanses, tho tender
stomach, liver and bowelB ho nicely.
A child simply will not stop playing
to empty tho bowels, and the result ia
they become tightly clogged with
waste, liver gctn sluggish, stomach
sours, then your llttlo ono becomes
cross, half-sick, feverish, don't oat.
sleep or uct naturally, breath is bad,
system full of cold, has soro throat,
stomach-ache or diarrhoea. Listen,
Mother! Seo If tongue Is coated, then
give a teaspoonful of "California
Syrup of FIrs," and In a few hours all
the constipated waste, sour bile and
undigested food passes, out of tho sys
tem, and you havo n well -child again.
Millions of mothers give "California
Syrug or Figs" becauso it Is perfectly
harmless; children lovo it, and It nev
er falls to net on tho stomach, liver
and bowels.
Ask at tho store for a 50-ccnt bottle
of "California Syrup of Figs," which
has full directions for babies, children
of nil ages and for grown-upn plainly
printed on the bottle. Adv.
Every guest who cannot play alwayt
tries tho hotel piano
The most effective, yet simplest remedy
for coualiH U Dean's Mentholated Coufcb
Drops 3c at Drug Stores.
The Condition.
"Do you llko a good Bend-offT"
"Yes, Jf there's no come-back."
And your shoos mch, Allen's Puot-Kue, the
Anilnpllo puwder to bo ulukrn Into the Knot.
Is Juit the ihliitt to "v. AIwjjh ono It fur brrmk
'.MJ.n new lnn. .Sold CTrrjrvineru, SSo. Sample
I'UKK, Addrt-M, A. H. OlmMrd, Le lloj. N. V.
Don' I (Kcr;t uiiy iubtlKuK. ACT.
Some Soulful.
"The girls suy ho is vory "oulful."
"Ho Is. That fellow can talk roman
tically about tho tariff."
During the Spat.
"John, there's Just ono thing I want
to sny to you."
"What's tho matter, M'ria? Aren't
you feeling well?" Puck.
Figuring It Out.
"How many people do you suppose
Boston wants to put Into hor Hall of
"I can't tell you till I toko a look .
and learn what her population Is."
"Tiiat 1b a great tmo for a
said tho head usher.
"Yes," replied tho ticket takor; "it's
a shamo to seo how many good titles
are spoiled by the plays." Washing
ton Star.
Survival of the Fittest
Employer Yes, I advertised for a
strong boy. Do you think you can fill
tho bill?
Applicant Well, I Just finished lick
in' fourteen other fellers that wero
waltln' out In do hall. Doston Even
ing Transcript.
Maid Had Helped.
Young Van Wlndle waited nervous
ly in tho parlor for Julia to appear.
He had been sitting thero, twiddling
his thumbs, for half an hour. Finally
a step was heard in the hall and be
roso to his feet expectantly.
But it was not Julia. It waB her
"Marie," said tho Impatient young
man, "what keeps your mistress so
long? Is sho making up her mind
whether she'll see me or not?"
"No, sir," answered the maid with
a wise smirk. "It Isn't her mind she's
making up."
Toasted to a
Golden Brown!
Sounds "smacking good,"
doesn't it?
Tender thin bits of the best
parts of Indian Com, perfectly
cooked at the factory, and
ready to eat direct from the
package fresh, crisp and
There's a delicate sweet
ness about "Toasties" that
make them the favorite flaked
cereal at thousands of break
fast tablet daily.
Post Toasties with cream
and a sprinkling of sugar
Easy to serre
Sold by Grocers everywhere
V ;