The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, April 17, 1913, Image 3

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CHEAT many perEous who
uro trying to grow straw
berries do not know that
Micro Is u question of sex
In the plants. This 1b also
truu of nmnv nursnrvinnn.
and ucores of growers are disappoint
cJ every year because the plants they
luy do not bear fruit.
Tho male plant In strawberries Is
-what Is luipwu as the stamlnate or bl
oxual, a perfect flowering plant. The
femalo plant lo known as the pistillate,
and unless It is planted along with the
bl-sexual, or male plant, so that they
can be pollenlzed they will yield no
In the Illustration It will bo seen
that in the center of the bl-sexual
flowers' the pistils aro surrounded by
anthers, or bulb like protrusions,
which are filled with the ilowerllko
aubstance called pollen, which Is car
ried to other pistils all over the patch,
and this fertilizes them and thus every
blossom becomes a berry. The illus
tration shows that none of thoso an
thers appear on tho pistillate flowers.
We explain thlB matter fully so that
very ono may understand how neccs
aary It is that ono always should set
bl-sexual plants, and that whero the
pistillate varlotleB also are chosen
they should be so arranged that the
pollen of the Ufsexuals will reach tho
bloom of tho pistillate plants. In or
der that complete pollenatlon may be
secured, we advise the setting of pis
tillato varieties between rows of bl
acxuals of the samo season. Or, one
may Bet the pistillate varieties be
tween bl-sexuals of an earlier and a
later season.
In arranging tho plants, If you desire
to do so, you may set ono row of plB
tillatPB, or two rows, or as many as
threo rows of pistillates, between the
two rows of bi-sexuals, as pollen will
bo easily carried over several rows of
plants. As pistillate varieties fre
quently are the heaviest of ylolders.
Let us consider at tho outset the
matter of soil, and let It be under
stood that strawberries will grow suc
cessfully under as great a variety of
conditions as will potatoes or turnips
or cabbage, or any other of tho com
monest sorts of vegetables or grains.
In a word, your soil Is Just the kind
of soil in which to grow strawberries
whether It be sand, Bandy loam, clay
loam, clay, black prairie soil, or vol
canic ash.
The Soil a Feeding Trough.
Indeed, the soil may be likened to a
feeding trough. It doesn't make any
difference whether you feed the hogs
from an oak trough or a pine trough--the
result would be Identical lo either
case. The soil is only a medium
through which the plants receive their
food. ;
Therefore, the Important thing for
the grower to do Is to see that his
oil, whatever Us nature, Is properly
supplied with the elements necessary
to the feeding and growth of the
plants. Once we get this thought
clearly In mind the whole matter of
crop production is simplified, and each
grower may be confident that his soil
-will do Just as well as anybody else's
soil If it be In the proper condition for
the sustenance and development of
plant life.
Barnyard manure Is one of the
strawberry grower's most valuable
assets: Therefore, he should give
great attention to.conservlng this fer
tility and seeing to It that It is prop
erly applied to tho Boll.
After the manure 1b spread comes
the breaking up of the soil. In doing
this work be careful to see that every
particle of hard soil Is worked up and
Into aa mellow 'a state as It is pos
sible to get It The depth to which
one should plow deponds upon tho na
ture and formation of the soil.
Whore the soil Is deep ono may go
as deeply as eight Inches, but In shal
lower soils tho depth should not ex
ceed from four to six Inches.
For our present purposo we shall
consider tho three soils most common
tho world over, namely, thoso In which
clay predominates, those having a
sandy nature, and tho so-called black
soil. In the mere matter of furnishing
plant food to theso boIIb the methods
wo have referred to will do for all of
them, but from the mechanical point
of vlow the treatment will be quite
How to Treat 8andy Soils,
In the case of soils whero the sandy
quality predominates the surface
should be rolled and thoroughly corn-
!. aro trying to grow straw- ; yXy?aiMlllSgy
VmfJIjb berries do not know that ' " X238!$S1BS.
vJKiMr there Is u question 'of sex ' ISffiBPWSSK?HilP
fjp In the plants. This 1b also f'Tmff S5S?w5iiPwBP5Mivv
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1 A Tingle 8tem of the "Kellogg
Prize Variety," a Pedigreed Plant
Which Has Produced at the Rate of
12,000 Quarts Per Acre.
2 Pistillate, or Female Blossoms.
3 Bl-sexual, or Male Blossoms.
4 Patch of Pedigreed Plants Four
Months From Setting.
5 Good Example of Row Planting.
"Early Osage" Grown In New York.
6 Indiana Woman Raises $160
Worth of Strawberries From One-half
fn rr'n T"yCBtA
... . 4 VIVOU illllUK KUIII1HI1L III
earth. Whllo It 1b truo that th rnnin
of plantB must have air, It alHo Is truo
that they must not bo given too much
air, and unless tho loose, coarso saud or
sandy loam is compacted either by
rolling or floating, tho roots will bo
over supplied with air. However, roll
lng never is dono If tho soil is at all
wet. To do so means tho caking of the
surface, which Is ono of tho things al
ways to bo avoided.
Just the roverse treatment is truo
of clay soli so far as compacting goos,
for It is the nature of clay to com
pact Itself, and Instead, therefore, of
rolling the soli; we need to pulverize
It thoroughly before the plants are set
and stir It frequently while plants are
growing in order that the process of
decay of the vegetable matter In the
soil may bo normally maintained.
Therefore, cultivation should be deep
er In clay than In Bandy soils. As a
rule, cultivation should be at least
four Inches deep.
Having your soil In perfect condi
tion, the next essential for big red ber
ries Is perfectly developed plants. If
you have purchased plants of a high
quality from a reputable source, you
may with confidence go forward with
your work, and It Is Important that
you mako all the conditions comfort
able for the plants and as encouraging
to productiveness as it Is possible to
do. One of tho Important things to
this end is the removal of all buds and
blossoms from each plant during the
first season of Us growth. When this
1b done all of the strength of the grow
ing plant goes into the development
ef massive roots and crown systems,
and upon these depend the quality and
character of the fruit yield. There
fore, be sure to check tho plant's ten
dency to fruit while it 1b yet young
by pinching off each fruiting stalk.
One'man will easily do this work on
ono acre in half a day.
Then there Is tho necessity of re
moving surplus runners. I)y surplus
runners wo mean thoso young plants
that develop after you have formod
your system. If your system la tho
single hedge row, then you will permit
two runner plants to grow and will
layer them directly In lino with tho
mother plant. If you have adopted the
double-hedge-row Bystem, you will al
low each mother plant to maturo four
runner plants, and these runner plants
will bo layered X fashion, the mother
plant forming tho center of tho X. Or
If you desire to grow your plants by
the hill system, then you will allow no
runner plants whatever to form, but
tho mother plant Itself will-be encour
aged to develop n great fruiting sys
tem. Tho fewer runner plantB tho
moro vigorous the mothor plant wlllLplants 15 by 15 inches apart. This
be, of courso, as the production of tho
runner plantB draws heavily upon tho
physical resources of tho mother plant,
Now you havo the ground thorough-
?"" and your plants in hand.
and we hnvo reached tho important op
eration or setting out tho plants.
l)so tho dlbblo to mako the opening
in tho soil and to close over tho roots
of tqo plants, Just as you would do If
you wero setting a tomato or a cub
bago plant, and the work will bo dono
neatly and with dispatch.
Cultivation should bogln as Boon as
possible after tho plants are set in the
ground, and this should bo repeated
every eight or ten days thereafter if
the weather remains clear. Whenover
It rains, however, you should be In
your strawberry field as soon as soil
conditions render It possible to do so.
But never cultivate the soil before it
will crumble when dlsturbod. Soil con
ditions always sbould determine the
time of cultivation. One thing that
never should be neglected Is the ten
dency of the soil to form a crust. Hero
are some of the desirable results of
cultivation: Cultivation prevents the
crust from forming on the soil's surf
ace and destroys all weed seed while
they are hi the germinating stage.
Continuous, vigorous growth is ob
tained only when the digestive organs
of the plant are In a healthy condition.
To keep the digestive organs in a
healthy condition we must keep bac
teria active. To keep bacteria actlvo
we must supply them with an abund
ance of air; and to supply air we must
cultivate. Cultivation forms a dust
mulch, a dust mulch retains moisture,
moisture dissolves plant food, plant
food makes active roots, active rootB
build up a big follago, a big foliage
makes perfect digestion, and perfect
digestion develops a heavy fruit bud
system and keeps up a continuous,
vigorous growtb.
When the 8eason Is Over.
Let us add that the grower should
never fail, at the last cultivation In
tho fall, to run a narrow furrow down
the center of the spaces between the
rows, bo that all surplus water from
heavy rains or melting snows may
quickly drain away. Make this furrow
from four to Ave Inches deep.
Some growers prefer to cultivate
their plants by tho hill system. Othors
llko the Blngle-hedgo row, and still
others, tho double-hedge row. Thoro
aro somo growers who still continue to
grow plants by the narrow-matted row,
but this Is something I nover advlso.
Tho grower should consider his mar
ket when setting out his plants. If ho
Is near a large city and has a trade
that 1b willing to pay fancy prlceB for
fancy fruit, there 1b no doubt but the
largest results will be socurcd from
the hill Bystem. If ono's plot ia limited
as to bIzq and nil tho work 1b to bo
dono with a hoe, wo ndvlso setting
calls for 27,750 plantB to the acre.
Whero tho fields are cxteusivo and
tho growor Is to cultlvato with tho
horse, rows for tho hill system should
be miirio 110 Inches apurt and the plants
set 15 Inchon amit In tho rows. When
these distances aro otmervnd It re
quites 1 1,000 pltintH for ono acre.
The htruwberry Iiuh few enemies In
the way of Insect pests or fungous ills
cam's Hut this fuel should never lead
the glower to lie unmindful of his duty
lo bo at all times proparvd'to meet any
troubles that may come to him from
these Kouiccs.
Plants Must Be Mulched.
Mulching strnwborry plants
inline essential to the grower's
cess, and for several Important
sous. Ono of these, tho clean
Is n
fruit which good mulching insures. Nothing
is more distasteful or moro unsightly
than sandy, gritty strawberries, and
tho man who puts that sort of fruit on
the market will havo only himself to
bluiuo It ho finds ho Is losing his trndo.
Clean fruit, well ripened and carefully
packed In boxes, Is Just as nppetl.lng
as It looks, and tho avorago man would
rather pay 25 cents for a quart of such
fruit than to pay ten cents for tho In
ferior stuff oo frequently found upon
the markets.
Fruit should be so clean as It Ilea on
the straw that no cleaning process
should ever bo required. Ab to ma
terials, any kind of straw will produco
tho desired results, but my llrst choice
Is wheat straw; tho second choice Is
oat straw. However, shredded corn
stalks, sorghum pomace, coarse grass,
marsh hay, or any other material pos
sessing thb qualities found In these
will servo the purpose Atlantic coast
people uso sea weed with succcbs. In
the south, whoro freezing and thawing
never occur, tho needles of tho plno
aro very generally employed ns mulch.
In northern latitudes make tho
mulch from two to four Inches deep
between tho rows, and any whoro from
onclialMnch to an inch over tho plants
themselves. In tho spring simply part
the mulch from over tho plants, adding
It to tho mulching already between the
rowB. Mulch nfter tho first good freezo
In the fall, and part tho mulching from
over the plants us soon as real spring
weather comes on.
Preparation for the second crop
should receive attention directly after
tbo first crop has been entirely har
vested. The first thing to do Is to mow
off the plants close to the crown. This
may be done with a mowing machine
or a scythe. "
When the field has been entirely
cleared of the refuse matter, whether
It be burned over or raked1 off, take a
breaking plow and throw a furrow
from each side of the row Into the cen
ter, leaving the plants about six Inches
wide In the rows. Then go along the
rows with a hoe and thin out the plants
until the hills are from 16 to 20 Inches
apart, being careful to remove the
weakest appearing plants.
A five-tooth cultivator should be
used to lovol back to place the ridges
which tbo plow has made between tho
rows. Be careful to Bee that tho soil
is drawn all around tho roots of tho
plantB which are allowed to remain,
and bo sure to cover tho crowns light
ly with soil, doing the latter work
with a hoo or garden rako.
ThlB will aid the plants to form a
new and vigorous root system, which
will develop Just above tho old rootB
and below tho crown. Cultivation and
hoeing should proceed exactly as In
the case of the new-set bed. Permit
theso plants to mako runners until all
tho vacant spaces in tho rows' aro
filled. For tho second crop I advlso
either tho hill system or tho double
hedgo row for all varieties.
Sometimes plants in tho spring Indi
cate a lack of vitality. Whereovor
this occurs I advise tho UBo'of nltrato
of soda for tho purpose of stimulating
tho plants to securo better results.
If In tho autumn your plantB Indlcato
lessened vitality, glvo them a good
dressing of well-rotted stablo manuro
Juat beforo tho mulching Is applied.
The third way of stimulating thu
plants Ib, In the ourly spring, to draw
tho mulching away from tho center of
tho rows und cultivate.
This work should bo dono after all
danger from frost Is past, but this cul
tivation never should bo dono while
plants aro blooming, unless tho soil Is
sufficiently moist to prevent dust from
flying. I repeat that tho looking after
the plants In this way gives a double
assurance of success initio growing of
(Copyright, 1013, by C M. Sliulti.)
Dip Made of Tobacco or Coal
Tar Is Preferred.
Warm Water Is Better Than Cold, as
Former Cuts Gresse and Allows So
lution to Get to All Parts of
Animal's Skin.
Dipping In a relinblo dip Is tho
proper trcatmont for Bhoop afflicted
with Bhocp Hcab.
Uso a dip mailo of llmo and buI
pliur, tobacco and sulphur, or ono of
tho coal tnr dips.
ltetnovu all Hcdlment from tho llmo
and sulphur dip, an It Injured tho
Tobacco dips aliould never bo
For a general dip u tobacco or coal
tar preparation Is o bo preferred to
llmo nml sulphur, na u llmo and sul
phur dip has little effect In destroy
ing the sheep tick or louse.
A fresh solution should ho used for
tho second dipping. This Is absolutely
essential if tho llmo and sulphur or
tho tobacco and sulphur uro to ho
Mix tho dip well In tho vat.
It Is bettor to uso warm" water than
cold water In dipping sheep, as warm
water cuts tho grease and allowH tho
dip to get to all parts or tho skin of
the animal.
Tho correct tomperaturo for a
dip 1h from 100 to 105 degrcos Fah
renheit. Sheep can bo dipped In tho winter
If warm dnyH aro selected for that
If thu sheep are badly afflicted with
scab, tho thick scabs should ho soft
ened previous to tho dipping of tho
sheep by pouring koiiio of tho dip on
theso places and rubbing them with
some smooth Instrument, or tho scabs
Badly Affected With Scabies.
can bo softened whllo tho sheep aro
being dipped, by rubbing tho thick
scabs with a brush. Care should ho
taken, however, not to draw blood,
an on coagulation It will protect tho
mlto from tho dip.
Lambs do not need to bo dlppod for
so long a time as oldor sheep, as their
wool is short. Thoy aro also moro
dellcato In constitution, lionco cannot
stand thu dipping as well as older
Always water sheep beforo dipping,
othcrwlso thoy may drink tho dip
which Is somctlmcB found In ltttlo
puddles In tho dripping pons.
Each sheep should bo held in tho
dip from two to threo minutes, and
tho head quickly immersed onco or
twlco Just beforo tho sheep leaves tho
A sheep in modernto length of wool
and allowed to drip thoroughly nfter
being dlppod will carry away from
two to threo quarts of tho dip. A
shcop after being shorn will carry
away about a quart of tho dip.
Tho question should not bo, how
many sheep can bo dipped in a day,
but how well can thoy bo dipped.
If scabby sheep are taken direct
from a pasture and dipped, thoy
should not bo returned to that place
for a period of 30 days. Heavy
rains are said, however, to disinfect
open fields. If the sheep have been
housed in buildings prior to the dip
ping, these buildings should bo dis
infected before the sheep are returned
to them.
Purchase no proprietary dips ex
cept thoso having the approval of
your state agricultural department,
Use all proprietary dips exactly ac
cording to directions.
Best Crop Farm.
The boyB and girls of the farm in
terested in farm life and agriculture
mean more to the country than profit
able crops of wheat, oats and llvo
stock. If the young peoplo are inter
ested in farm life it means thoy will
take charge of the work of tho farm
and become useful and valuable cltl
sens. They have no desire to move
to towny and lose themselves in the
city. They recognize the beautiful
side as well as the profitable side of
farm life. Too much attention cannot
be given to the boys and girls. They
should be made partners with mother
and father, and their every question
relative to plant and animal life an
swered. In this way they will see
deeper than tho surface, and will take
prldo In tho work they aro doing.
Growing Table Vegetables.
Plant several kinds of beans to de
termine which succeeds' boat in your
Plant an abundance of beets to al
low for greens.
Sweet corn planted every two weeks
will give a long succession.
Start cucumber seeds in tbo house
or a cold framo.
To Clean Plumage,
Tho plumago of a white fowl can
bo cleaned of stain by washing with
a clean white or transparent soap
that ia free from much alkali. Make
a strong lather and uso your band
and a soft hair brush. Stroko tho
feathers downward, from tho bead to
the tali:
Soil Mutt Be Kept Warm and Molitj
but Not Too Wet Avoid Crowd
ing of Plants.
Shallow boxes or flats aro consld
ored best for starting- seeds indoors
but potB do not tako up so much
room, and aro less unsightly, bo for
Btartlng Just a few seedlings or to try
cholco hco(!h wo often uso A pot,
wrltcH Lulu Q. Pnrlter In tho Farmer's
Wife. Wo havo started patmy and
othor seedlings often In tho big pots
In which rubber plantH or oleanders,
or othor thlngB which do not shado
tho soli, aro growing.
Tho sol must bo kopt warm and
moist, but not wet. For this purposo
a piece of glass over tho top of tho
pot will help to hold tho moisture, but
this glass must bo tilted up some
what In order to lot In somo air or
tho soil will sour and tho acedllngn
mold or damp off.
Sift tho soil for tho top layer nnd
cover the seedu about twlco aa deep
as the Heed Is thick. Press tho soil
firmly over tho seeds with tho palm
of tho hand or a llttlo board beforo
giving water so that they will not ho
washed out. For very lino Hoed It will
be a good plan to sprend a damp cloth
over tho soil and then sprlnkln tho
water on tho cloth until tho seeds bo
gln to snrout. '
After the seeds bogln to sprout they
must bo kept in the lightest window
and nover allowed to got too dry or
to grow too crowded.
Tho rest depends upon the seed It
self, therefore always buy from a
reputablo seedBman.
Should Not Be Fed After Reaching,
Age of Nine Months Money In '
Young Animals.
Experiments mado for tho purposo
of determining tho economic weight
of a pig show conclusively that bo
nover should bo fed beyond otght or
nine months old, nnd tho largest profit
1b found, as a rulo, In a weight not ex.
cocdlng 200 pounds. What Is known
ns tho food of support, Bays a writer
In tho Farm and Homo, plays a very
Important part In tho profit or loss
of largo weights.
Suppose as many farmers say, that
a pig Ib not to bo killed until be
reaches 300 pounds. Ho must take
from hla food an Increasing amount
each day to support or maintain tho
wolght already gained, or elso ho
drops back. Tho oxperlmentB Indl
cato that 2 per cent, of tho llvo weight
In food must bo taken each day to
support that live weight.
It tho animal weighs 300 pounds
this amounts to six pounds of food,
dnlly, or ovor 40 pounds por week,
and na tho only profit Ib tho food that
is applied to mako new weight, it re
sults that over 40 pounds of food
nro consumed per week from which
no profit whntover Is reaped. It fol
lows that tho most money can be
mado from young hogs klllod at a
medium weight.
Object Is to Provldo Bars That May
Adapt Themselves to Uneven
nets In the Ground.
Tho Scientific American in doscrib
lng a mowing machlno invented by A.
J. Anderson of 22 Greenwich street,
Now York, Bays:
"This machine Is self-propelled and
Is providod with now and usoful
moans for controlling-tho cutter bar
framo. The principal object is to pro
vldo a machine having a plurality of
bars thereon, the frame carrying the,
bars bolng more or less loosely con
structed whereby these bars may,
adapt themselves to unevenness in the
ground when the machine is in use.
Mowing Mschlnt.
A further object is to provide meant
for removing the cutter bar driving
mechanism out of operative position
in order to1 permit tho machlno to be
run ovor the ground with the bars in
operative. The Illustration herewith
represents the machine in a side view.
Egg Type In Hens.
Many poultrymon claim there is an
egg type in fowls and that they can
pick out tho good layers as well as the
poor ones in a flock. This claim is
based on the theory that certain pe
culiarities of form or shape, such aa
long body, wedge shape, broad rear,
small head, etc., Indlcato good laying
qualities. Experiments havo shown
that hens with long as well as short
bodies wero indifferent layers, and!
conversely good layers have been
found with short bodies, as well aa;
long ones. So far as tests have gone
theory does not hold good. ;
Mixture for Laying Hens.
A splendid mlxturo for laying hens
Is equal parts of cracked corn, wheat
and oats, which should be scattored
In tho litter so that tho birds will be
compelled to tako oxerclBo by scratch
ing for It,
Brooding Chicks.
A poultry authority says: "While
much may bo said In favor of hens for
hatching, it is rarely profitable" to ds
pond upon them for brooding chicks
whon conl derable numbers are to bt
conl de
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