The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, December 15, 1910, Image 8

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REPOItTS on tho national forest
business for tho last your show
Hint 1,110 cnttlo and horau per
mits, and 1,'JS;: sheep iicrmlts
were Issued, nllowing tho graz
ing of 118,059 head of cattle.
C.799 horses and 905,1 IC sheen, In
Accepting tho last year hook Issued
by the department of agriculture as
an authority, this means that nearly
29 per cent, of nil tho cattle, over llvo
per cent, of all tho horses and mules,
and 29 per cent, of all the sheep owned
In Utah on January 1, 1909, woro pro
vided with range upon tho national for
ests of this btato during tho period
In connection with these privileges,
other speclnl uses of government land
were- allowed where such privileges
were cscntlal to a proper control of
tho stock, such as the Inclosuru of lim
ited areas of land for pastures, tho
building of cabins, drift and division
fences, corrals, excavation of stock
tanks, and construction of reservoirs.
Twenty-six such permits were Issued
during tho year covering 2,505 acres
of land, and three and ono-fourth
miles of right of wny. Tho total num
ber in effect Is -IS, tho area Involved
being 5,730 acres, and tho rights of
way 11 mllc3. Of these permits 35
were isued on tho basis of a nominal
rental for tho uso of tho land, the re
maining 13 without charge.
Tho uso of tho rango In tho Mantl
forest is more complete and Intenslvo
than in any other national forest In
tho United Stntes, and it Is typical of
tho Utah forests. Consequently, the
experimental work has been largely
confined to this forest. During the
year a complete botanical survey wns
mado, every plant being collected,
classified and analyzed to dotermlno
its properties nnd Its value. Areas
containing poisonous plants woro
mapped and periods during which they
could be used in safety were deter
mined. Experimental nrcaB were ro
seeded with native and Introduced
plants preliminary to beginning work
on a largo scale, and considerable val
uable data secured. This work Is of
equal valuo to other sections of Utah,
and Its effect will eventually bo fur
As a sldo Issuo tho forest ofllcors
killed eight bear, ono mountnin lion,
331 coyotes nnd 22 wildcats. This
number, while not Inrgo, means a con
siderable reduction in tho amount of
stock destroyed by such animals, and
helps compensate tho stock ownor for
tho fees pnld by him.
At present soven associations of
stock growers nro co-operating with
tho forest service In its administra
tion of tho forests as It nffocts their
Interests, but thero is room for many
moro. Tho forest service needs tho
experlenco and advlco of the stockmen
to enablo It to secure tho best results
from tho government's timber lands,
niiu It encourages bucIj organization'
Recognition will bo granted to any or
ganization whoso membership consti
tutes n majority of tho UBers of a for
est or district, and this recognition en
titles tho association to notice of pro
posed action nnd tho right to bo heard
in reference to Increuses or decreases
in tho number of stock to bo allowed
tho following season, divisions ot tho
range between different clnssoB of
stock or Its owners, or special rules
to meet local conditions. Tho recom
mendations of an ndvlsory board rop
resenting nn association which has se
cured recognition, will ho accepted
and adopted In all cases where tho
rights of non-members or of other es
tablished Interests will permit ofBtich
notion, subject of courso to tho regu
latlons prescribed by tho secretary c4
acrlctlltliro. This ihpiuim Mini n liiren
degree of local administration follows
tnc organization or nu association, nnd
as n matter of business tho stockmen
of this Htnto should tako advantage
of tho opportunity to the fullest ex
tent. Tho chief problem that tho Utah
stock grower has had to meet Is that
of providing summer rango for his
stock. Or winter rango Utah has nn
abundance, the largo deserts alone be
ing enough to support tho sheep of the,
state In a normal winter. In addition,
Utnh is thickly dotted with pros
perous farming communities where
tho quantities of forngo produced are
oftener In excess of tho demand than
otherwise, nnd where in many cases
Jio feeding of llvo stock affords tho
only means of dlsposnl. This condi
tion created a keen demand for spring
nnd summer ranges, n demand compli
cated by the strong competition bo
tween tho stockownor who winter
grazed his stock at points remote from
tho summer range, nnd tho owner who
winter fed his stock upon the
products of his ranch adjacent to tho
summer grazing lnnds. The result wns
not hard to forecast. Itnngcs became
poorer and less productive each year,
stock deteriorated In weight and qual
ity, nnd losses wero heavier. This
wns the condition that existed when
tho national forestB wero placed under
tho present system of grazing control.
The fotests occupying, ns they do, tho
higher and moro mountainous por
tions of the state, exert a considerable
influence upon the summer rango piob
lorn, for within their borders a con
siderable percentage of tho summer
range Is located.
Few outside of tho interested stock
growers nro awaro of what has been
accomplished by reasonable regulation
and control within a very few years.
Tho dwellers In certain towns, and
tho ranchers In certain communities
know that tho watersheds upon which
they aro dependent have been protect
ee; uy tno proper regulation or gra
zing. Tho stockmen know that tho
numbers of stock nllowed havo boon
reduced to tho actual carrying ca
pacity of tho rango but not below It:
that tho ranges hnvo been equitably
divided between tho different classes
ot stock, and tho owners; that tho
small rancher remoto from market
centers who must dispose of his crop
and gain his livelihood by raising nnd
feeding cattlo Is provided with a rango
ndequato to his needH; whllo nt tho
samo tlmo full consideration Is given
to prior uso of the range by tho Btock
growers who wlntor tholr stock on tho
deserts. Extcnalvo Investigations nre
being couducted for tho purpose of Im
proving ranges by artificial and
natural reseeding: to discover innnnu
ot eradicating poisonous plants, or to
prevent loss of stock. Forest ofllcors
ar assigned to the work of destroying
predatory animals in localities where
tho loss of stock warrants such work.
Hango Improvements aro constructed
wheiever required to facllltato tho
handling of livestock or to protect for
est Interests. All of this work has
tended toward a solution of Utah's
chief grazing problem, and toward tho
advancement of tho Interests of every
stock grower In tho stnto.
One Gleam of Joy.
Johnny had two presents nt tho
samo tlmo ono n dlnry, which ho kept
very carefully, and tho other a pea
shooting popgun, which ho Hred Indis
criminately on all occasions. Ono day
his mother found tho following terso
record In his dlnry: "Mondy cold and
sloppy. Toosdy cold and sloppy.
Wensdy cold and sloppy; shot grand
ma." Youth's Companion.
Method of Bonding Bush to Ground, Pinning Them Foot,
and Than Piling Earth Over Them In Mound Form.
Wlntor Protection of Flo Troes.
A. tig trco bent to Kround reudy for coverliiK; U. I-'Ik trou toveiud with earth.
Tho fig treo has been widely though
not extensively grown for tunny years
in California nnd the southern states.
Its greatest development Is In the
gulf coast region, where it was prob
ably introduced In early times by tho
French and Spanish. There nnd along
tho South Atlantic coast it grows In
tho open without winter protection,
bearing at an early age, nnd abundant
ly on soils adapted to Its culture. In
unusually severe winters thu trees
may be frozen to the ground; but If
tho root system has been well estab
lished, sprouts will spring up, grow
rapidly, and bear In tho following
year. I'nder these conditions tho tree
appears as a largo bush. Away from
the coaBtal sections an nnnunl crop Is
best assured by growing hardy vari
eties and giving some form of winter
protection. Tho uso of tho bush or
ntool form from tho stnrt Is ndvlsublo
where thero Is frequent danger of winter-killing.
On either const, or In tho vicinity of
fcalt water, It will need no winter pro
tection. Hut In tho colder portions of
the stnto tho method found successful
In Maryland will do equally well. This
Is to branch tho trees from the ground,
ric a
.f7X&1& gKFinESaSE
W AV 3 -.!
ria o
Tho convenience and necessltyof hav
ing n quantity of portable fenco on
tho farm Is generally recognized, but
really few farmers havo as much as
they need. Absence of a definite nnd
practical plan often prevents the moro
general use of portablo panel fencing
In circular No. 132 Issued at tho agri
cultural Htation. Urbana, 111., Mr. Wil
liam Dietrich has given a very com-
Soil Conditlonn Must be Studied
Bcforo Right Kind or Depth
Can bo Employed with
(Hy n. n, HUSHING.)
I was In conversation with a neigh
bor Just a short time ago and ho
asked mo tho question: "What Is
good plowing, nnd how should It be
done In tho spring to give best re
sults?" I replied: "Good plowing consists
in turning nnd sotting the soil into
nice, neat, even, clean, round, straight
furrows so that the upper soil will be
brought up as much as possible and
exposed to tho sun and ntmosphero."
What do I mean by clean furrows?
Having the weeds, stubblo and grass
nil turned under and cutting a clean
landslide. Even? Having tho fur
rows nil tho same height.
Hound? So that tho furrows will
show a little croase between them,
and unless you plow straight your fur
rows will not be oven.
Some mny think that a cortnln
depth nnd width nre necessary In good
plowing. It Is. Ilcgulnto tho width
by depth, but thero are so many dif
ferent shnped mold boards which
throw the soil in different positions,
that some would cut wide furrows,
and othors narrow. Not only thlu. but
homo soils need shallow plowing In
order to produce tho best results,
whllo others need deep plowing.
1 plow a certain depth nnd width
and got good results, hut this might
not apply to nil farms. You might
try tho samo width and depth with
poor results,
1 have found that even on tho same
farm thero are sometimes different
fields thnt will glvo better results with
different depths of plowing, nnd,
therefore, it becomes necessary to
mnko it a study nnd know what is
Charcoal for Fowls.
Charcoal In a grnnulatod form
should always bo kept bcforo fowls
j of all ages.
w W
G7 . i V
and In tho fall, after tho frost has
cut tho leaves, bund down tho
branches to the ground and pin them
rnst, and then pllo the earth over them,
mounding It over tho center nnd slo
ping to tho outsIdoHO ns to throw off
the water, or guthor tho limbs llko a
cross on tho ground and covor each,
bunch separately with n higher mound
in the center like a four-pointed star.
They will keep perfectly in cold cli
mates In this way.
Farther south, where the tree Is
grown as a standard and tho weathor
Is only severe during occasional win
ters, some form of protection is nd
vlsublo for the lltBt threo years. After
this period the trunk of the fig is less
easily Injured by cold.
That the llg has not long slnco boon
developed as a commercial fruit, may
be attributed chiefly to the Inability.
thus fnr, to produce a marketable
dried fig, the llg of commerce In tho
humid southern climate. Moreover, tho
fresh fruit, which is highly es
teemed both by those who grow It and
those who have acquired n taste for It.
Is practically unknown in largo com
mercial centers, being nn extremely
poor shipper.
"j7i",'n ,u''- j i 4....-J, .-..-4 x
' -V-
riG o
plete description for building, easily
and cheaply, the style or portablo
panels shown In tho nccompanylng llj
lustration. This was designed primar
ily to bo used for swine, but may bo
used with great advantngo for sheep
nnd calves. Tho circular sots forth
completo working plnns and drawings
for making these panels. To thoso In.
terosted It will be mailed freo upon
American Farmer Has Much ta
Learn toMukc Chicken Ruiainjr
Profitable Europeun
Waya Good.
(Hy M. K. HOVER.)
An English journal snys that wqon
they have a look at tho average Eng
lish fnrmor'H egg basket nnd a conti
nental egg box t'jere is much to be;
seen and learned therefrom.
In tho farmer's basket will bo found
eggs of all sizes, shnpos, tints and
colors. Thero has been no attempt at
grading or uniformity. Jf n farmer,
gets an even lot of ggs, all brown, ho
can sell them nt 14 for 23 cents (a
shilling), but ho would hnvo to sell
flftocn eggs of his Jumblcd-up lot fori
the same price. Tho continental eggs
aro all evenly and securely packed, nil
of one color, nnd graded according to
The condition of .ho English farm
er's egg basket is very much llko the
egg basket of tho American farmer.
Thero is a reason for it. So long us,
tho farmer will continue to harbor
mongrel poultry he is sure to have nil
colors and sizes of eggs. Nothing but
a well-selected and well-bred strain of
a single breed will give tho desired
In England there are two or threo
methods employed by poulterers for
killing their stock. Ono by neck
stretching, by which tho fowl Is seized,
by tho hocks, the finger nnd thumb of
tho free hand being placed on the
poll and the neck Is stretched until
the spinal cord is ruptured. Death is
Instantaneous, ns woll us painless, and
the blood flows down Into tho cavity
of tho neck.
Tho other method is to seouro the
fowl as above, Btun It by means of a
f. in art tap at tho baso of the skull,
then open Its bonk and thrust a sharp
knlfo down Itn throat and withdraw it
rapidly by prosslng tho keen edge
ngalnst the bnck of the throat.
Tho beak la than rinsed and tho
legs scrubbed with n stiff brush nnd
soapy water, which mnkes them bright
und clean for slmplo trussing for
High Official Tells of Safeguards That
Have Been Thrown Around
Passengers and Employes
Can Do No More.
Many famous wars have been
fought with less loss of life nnd fewer
casualties than
are recorded every
year In the opera
tion of American
railroads. T h o
soldier at tho
front, again, only
faces death for a
day or nn hour nt
u time, whllo he
enjoys long peri
ods of safety. Tho
railroad employe,
on tho other hnnd,
nnd In n mensurc
the passenger as
well, faces a con
stant danger. The
astonishing death
rate of our rail
roads Is frequent
mf V 1T Ft
H n' io .!'
B i' p "Ol
ly compared unfa
vorably with that of European coun
tries, and has been oxplnlned by
ninny conflicting theories.
A new light hus been tin own on tho
situution by W. I,. Hark, general
superintendent of the Union Pacific
inllrond, whoso views naturally carry
unusunl weight.
"One human being is killed every
hour and one Injured every ten min
utes," said Mr. Park in explaining tho
situation "There is a steady grinding
und crunching of human flesh nnd
bone under the juggernaut or modern
car wheels It Is the price we pay
tor progress, for our gieat Industrial
conquest of tho country.
"Our railroads, nevertheless, con
stitute today the safest und most mag
nificent highway In the world. No
whore are the great problems of Hare
guarding life and property being
studied so intelligently and earnestly
as in America
"It is a common reproach that they
do these things better abroad. Hut
consider nt what a rate we have been
building railroads. In 1830 thero were
but 23 mllch of railroads In America.
In lSr.O there were less than iO.OOO
miles The next r0 yeais witnessed
the most marvelous growth of its
kind in all history, when 1S"i.000 miles
of railroad were laid. Then between
1SS0 nnd 1800 some 70,000 more miles
were added.
"Wo hae not yet slowed down
enough to realize what Is best for
safety. A careful Investigation of the
subject shows that 85 per cent, of all
accidents nre due to negligence on the
part of railroad employes, and tho re
sult of carelessness both by passen
gers nnd employes. Faulty equipment,
therefore, plays a rnr less Important
part in this death nnd accident rnto
than Is commonly biipposed Never
theless, the railroads nre attacking
this problem with surprising energy."
Tho principal causes of accidents so
far as the regular equipment is con
corned were given by Mr. Park in the
following order:
"To lessen the death rate." said Mr.
Park. " It is important that wo have
light grades and thnt all curves should
be avoided. Valley lines should bo
built above the high water ninrk. Em
bankmonts should be of liberal width,
and nil tracks should be properly bnl
lasted. Hrldgcs and openings in em
bankmonts should be of a permanent
nnture The view of the tracks at sta
tions should bo kept open. If n sta
tion stands on a curve it should be
on the outside. Hulldlngri. such as
pumphouses or water tanks, should be
sot well bnck. All fences should be
permanent, preferably of concrete con
struction. Thero should be no grade
crossings nnd no crossing of tracks at
The number of safety devices in
nctuni operation n our rnllronds will
come as a surprise to the average lay
man. "Our lives are safeguarded today
n electrical devices which would
have seemed magical to the railroad
man of n generation since," Mr. Park
continued. "There is the electrically
locked switch, the Interlocking of
crossings and junctions, the alarm
bell nt railroad crossings, the auto
matic wnshout and lnndslldo warn
ings, the telephone train dispatching,
and many other automatic electric sig
nals, all or which are being installed
rapidly. The total mileage or auto
matic signals on nil railroads In tho
United States on Jnnunry I, 1909, was
Stockholders' Point of View.
Hallroad people do not so much
dread strikes as thoy dread the effect
upon not earnings of grunting merely
such demands for higher pay as they
privately believe to be reasonable.
Tholr last experlenco with wngo In
creases was practically awkwurd.
ato In 1907 nnd early In 190S, when
tho higher schedules bognn to go Into
effect, gross earnings began to van
ish, nnd between the Incrense of out
go and the diminished Income, the
results on Income statements wero
henrtbrenklng. Now York Evening
Enormous Freight Engine.
A hugo freight engine, weighing 300
tons, built for tho Southern Pnclfle
railroad, Is capablo of hauling nt ten
miles nn hour a train ot 139 cars,
weighing, with lond, 72 tons each.
The train, wolghlng 10,000 tons, would
'each for over n mile.
S" -icOD
mum I !
FS .'
Waterway Traffic Materially Cuts
Down the Income of the Dutch
Tho railroads of Holland seom
nn to f'
of ifcr
have a pretty hardscrnbliln Hum
Water competition that of tho cnnala
nnd of tho Rhine 1ms alwavn been
their bugbenr. Even now, after CO
years of strugglo for business, tho
railroads carry only ten per cent, of
Dutch freight.
From Amsterdam olono thero aro
not less than 1C0 lines of local steam
ers thnt go regulnrly to every port
of tho country, providing n dnlly serv
iceor rather a nightly service
which enables them to deliver freight
from nlmost anywhere, to anywhere In
the country every morning. It Is only
when the canals and rivers freczo up
in exceptionally cold winters, sayB
Moody's Magazine, or when in sum
mer thero is unusually low water
that tho railroads get for a short time
any considerable part of this traf
flc. Although the country is almost
everywhere on n dead level, construc
tion has been rather costly, on account
of the great number of bridges re
quired. For example, between Am
sterdam and Rotterdam there are no
less than SO bridges, of which eight
nro swing bridges.
Sometimes tho bridges required to
cross the numerous nnd Intersecting
ennuis nro practically viaducts of a
mile or two in length, and long
stretches of brldgowork llko that
across Lako Pontchnrtraln nt New Or
lentiB or the approach to Galveston
are not Infrequent.
All the linos In tho country nro now
operated by two companies, the Com
pany for the Exploitation of tho Stato
Hallways nnd the Dutch Iron Rnllwny
Company. The total length of all tho
lines Is loss than 1,000 miles, of which
tho state operates about 900 and tho
Iron Hallway Company about CCO.mado
up or 205 miles belonging to tho Btato.
290 owned by other companies and
1C5 miles of its own lines.
There is considerable competition
between the two companies, which,
taken in connection with the sharp
competition or the rivers nnd canals,
insures a very good service. Each
company pays a rental to tho state
Tor the lines belonging thereto which
It ojierntes, and each must sharo with
tho stato In its profits over llvo per
cent., which In rnco or tho competition,
tho extremely low rates nnd the excep
tional handicap under which tho llneB
nre worked is highly creditable to tho
management. In 1908 dividends were
only three per cent.
Laugh on the Brakeman.
Thero Is n brakeman on a Chicago
& Northwestern morning train run
ning south from Milwaukee who Is
fat. 'Corpulent, well padded with
flesh," and similar temporizing terms
do not explnin his state of being
"fnt" does.
Everyone was feeling rather grouchy
the morning after tho recent blizzard
because tho engine or their train hnd
gono oft with a snow plow, the train
was delayed nnd the passengers woro
on the edge nnywny becnuso or bad
service on the street car lines and
snowbanks they had had to hop over
on their wny down, says the Milwau
kee Wisconsin.
The "fat" brakeman came from the
smoker into tho next car and mur
mured to ono of thoso passengers be
cnuso or the reception ho had In tho
"They are all jumping on mo, nn' I
ain't to blnmo thnt the train's de
Inyed. Even Mr. C. (naming a woll
known pork packer who 1b a dally
patron or the train) Jumped on mo
fit to kill!"
A wit who sut nearby caused a
laugh by remarking in n sepulchral
tone: "You want to look out for him,
ho thinks you're a hog!"
Running on Time.
It Is a common snylng among rail
road executives that they can make
all sorts of rules about running trains,
but thnt they have to put a man In
the bushes beside the track to see that
they aro obeyed. Every railroad in
America Is striving arter the thus far
unattainable; to have all its pas
senger trains always on time. "Among
every other 100 men who become fire
men, only 17 are evor mndo engineers,"
quotes tho author. "Out or overy 100
engineers only six get passongor runs.
The next time you see a whlto-halred
mnn on the cab or a big passenger lo
comotive don't wonder at all at his
whito hair, but make up your mind
that he has tho goods or ho wouldn't
be there. It Is a case or tho selection
nnd tho survival or tho fittest. it
takeB nervo to run the rast trains
these days, nnd U any ono or a dozen
people, down to tho mnn who spiked
the rail, has made n mistake, you rldo
to cortaln death."
Era of Steel Cars.
The Union Pacific is anothor rail
road corporation which has doclded
that all future otdorB for passenger
equipment will bo for steel cars. ThlB
policy should bo universally adopted.
It Is also nnnounced that within two
ycara practically tho entire lino of tho
Union Pnclllc will havo been double
tracked and equipped with tho block
system. Springfield Republican.
Japanese Line Completed.
Hy tho oponlng of tho laBt Boction
of tho Kyushu railroad, the Grand
Trunk lino off Japan has been com
pleted rrom Sapporo on the north to
Kngoshtma on tho south, n distance
or 1.300 miles. Tho first part of E
lino to bo thrown open wns tho Toklo
Yokohama section, which began tn
carry passengers and goods In 1872
.-it- -
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W m i " itfttlifhrtill Jiisj iim