The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, January 20, 1910, Image 2

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President Taft Sends Special Message to Con
gress Recommending Prevention of Land
Frauds, Control of Water Power, Fos
tering of Soils and Kindred Subjects
Washington, Jan. It --I'olluwlng Ib
tilt) CUIIIfllClV tC'Xt Uf till' HIM rllll IIM'S
rhro on (In i onsen. Hum ot the mi
lion's (('sources sent to the Fcnuto
and house or icpicmnintives hy Pres
ident 'I aft to iluy:
To tllO Hun. lie mill llou-e of Hi-pic-mta-Uvea:
In my nnnnnl message I tiirn the
subject nt tin' eiinsi-ri niton ot our mi
Clonal resoiim fot i1Imhimii ioii in n spe
cial nit'"sni;c, up follows
In never.'! I ih'p it Uncut), ilicrc i pi
aentPil tin' neiesslty fur li gist ilion tank
Inn: to tlin liiitlici i oiim-i vniion of out
national icmhiims, u ml tho siihici t is one
Of such ilnMii ttitici ns lo ii'iinlin n more
lotal'rd mill exii-mlcd di'cii-smn in. in
run be end ml iipmi in Hum oniiniiiiH-.i-(lon.
For Unit reason I -liill lake mm
early oppnt Utility to send u imps-nf-o
to longtcss on tin- Mti. (.' f ot tlie
Improvement of our watetwuv- upon the
rocliiniiitloii nml irrigation ot n i til semi
Arid nml swamp hinds upon the pn-ser-vailon
ot out fotcsts nml I In- ie roti-sting
of suitable areas upon tin- re 1 1 isxltu-a-Hon
of the public tluuiiilii with n view nt
separating ftom iigilcultuinl m ttlein-nt
mineral, con I nml phosphate I. mils nml
sites belonging lo the gnu iiuni'iit bor
dering u nlrfiiina sult.ildu (or lite u 1 1 II
caUon of water power
In IfcGO wo ti.ul a public- dnmnltt or l.nVi,
011.283 acres We have nun Tll.Vilirxi
acres, routined largely to the nuuiitliiin
ranges nml the nilil nml semi it 1 1 1 1 plums
We hnvo. In addition, Ji.xi K y;rt neics or
land In Alaska.
Disbursement of Public I and.
Tbo public lands were, etuiln-; the earli
est administrations. Irc.iteil .is m.iUdimI
asset for Ilic tliiilil,tll(in or the. public
debt nnd as u source of row, nil fur our
soldiers nml s lots l.titir on they were
donated In huge amounts in mil or tbo
construction of wagon lo.ulii nml rail
ways, In order to open up i niton- In the
west (ben nlmost In.ict enslhlit AH the
prlnclp'il binil stiitnti'ii were en ictcil more
than n nimHer or u irniuiv ago Th
home-Mend net, tbn pre-emption nml Mm-ber-citlliire
net, tl-u roil I mil nml the.
mining nctH wore among tin-so
TllO rapid disposition of the public lands
undor (be early statutes, nml tlin lux
mothods of distribution prevailing, due, (
think, to the heller Unit then Innds
should rapidly puss Into p-lvnto owner
ship, Kino lisp to lln liuprcssinu Unit
the public iloninln was legitimate piey
for tbn unscrupulous ami lb it It wns not
contrary to Rood monil.s lo i liciiinvent
the Innd lows. This prnllgnl manner of
disposition resulted In tbo passing of
largo nreas of valuable l.iml nun ninny
of our mitlomil resources linn in,, innd
of perilous who fell III tit or no np-iul-blllty
for pintnntlng the national wel
faro through Ibelr development
Fraudulent Titles.
The truth In Unit title to millions of
acres of public lands wns fraudulently
nbtnlned nnd tlmt Un rlrlil to teenier n
Inrso part of sncli l.uuls tor Uu Kiiinrn
mont low? slnro rensed bv le.iron of stat
utes of limitation- Then- ins ,h wlopeil
In recent years a dee i cni in tlie
public mind respecllni: tlie pi --it niton
and proper iiho or our ii-snnrces
This bns been ly dlirt-ted
toward the rmihorvntlun or the resiuiccs
of tbo public domain A vtsi amounl or
dlocilR'Inn bns nppe.treil in tlie public
prints In Rencrnlled form on this tiiit
Ject. but there bus been bllle pi iclbal
RUggPtitlon. It hna been easy In siv thai
tho resources in toe! supply, in
forealti, In water powir, nml In other
public iililtlles, must be t.a.eil from
waste, monopoly, iml otbei ibuseH. anil
the gem ml public Is in .ucoul with this
proposlllon, ns thev nic with most
truisms Tbo problem, however, Is how
(o snvo ami bow to 11UII70. how to Cl,.
servo and sllll ib-Mlnp. for -hi s'lne per.
son can contend that It Is for tlie com
mon kodi1 that unturn'H lilfhslris nia
ouly (or uiibnin Renur.ttloiiM
Noteworthy Reforms
AmnnK the most nntcwoilhy rerorma
Inltlnted by my iIIMIukuIiiIiciI preilecesHiir
woro the loious tinn-eeutlon or l.unl
frauds and the brltu-liif- to public alten
Hon of the necessity for pi. -serving th,
romnlnltiK public ilnmnln (rum furlbor
Hpnllntlnn, for the m.ilntenuuti- nml ex
tension of our forest n-Miuues, and for
tho ennrtment or l.iws ainemllui; llio ol
soloto ht.itulcH no as to retain Kim-rn-mental
control over Hint pan of the pub
llo domain In which them are nlinbl
deposltH of coal, of oil, ami of phosphate,
and, In nddltlnn thereto, to preserve con
trol, under comlitlou.s favor il.le to the
public, of the laml.s aluiii; the streams In
which tho fall of water i-au ln in.ulo to
Kenernte power 10 be iriusmltteii in the
form of electricity many nillen to the
point of Its use, Known as "wuirr power"
The lnestl-,itlniis Into moIUIoiih of the
public land laws ami the prost-eiition of
land fr.iuilH hae bi-en Wpnnusly ,.0.
tlnuntl under iny nilinlnlsttnUnn, as has
been the wltluliaual or mil lands fot
ClaRHincatlna nnd aluntl m ami tin- tem
porary withholding of power slien Since 1
March i, IW, temporar unbdi iwnln of
power Hltes hao In en nude on luj
streams nnd these withdrawals therefore
eovor 229 ier cent more NtieauiH than
were fnveied by tbo ultlidi.iwitlR timde
prior to that date.
Tho present statutes, except so far
as they tllspoHit of the precious metals
rind tlin purely UKrlculttini) lands, are
not ad.tpted to e.iiry out the modern
view of the brst disposition of public
lands to prlutto ownoi.ihlp; under con
ditions nHYrliiK on the one Innd sulll
dent Inducement to ptiute apltal to
take them 01 er for proper develop
ment. with restrictive conditions on
the nthtr which shall hi cure to the
public that eh.ttui-ter of control which
will prevent u monopoly or of
tho lands or tin it- products The powi r
of the seeietiirj of the Interior to with
draw from t u- operation or existing
stattlti-M ttails or land the disposition
of which under such statutes 'Vtiultl
bo detriment il to the public Interests
la not tlear or satlsfaetoiy This powet
has been exercised In the Intercut ot
the public, with lh hope that congress
inlRht alllrm the action of the execu
tive hy laws adapted lo the now condt
tlons l'nforlui ntely. cnnKtess has not
thus far full), actul on the recommen.
datlons of the executive and the qucs
tlon as to what the extcutlvc- Is to
do Is under the circumstances full of
dUllculty. It seems to me that It Is
tho duty of conKress now by it statute,
to validate tho withdrawals which
have been made by the secretary of the
Interior and the president nnd to use
Hie secretary of the Interior temporar
ily to withdraw lunds pending submis
sion to congress of recommendations us
to 1-nisl.ttlon to meel conditions or
emcrf-endi-H as they nrlae
Properly to Classify Lands.
One of the mont ptesslmj needs In
the mutter of public land n form Is
that lainlM should be clnssirhil nccord
liur to their prlmlptl value tine This
oiiKhl to be done by that ot depirlinont
Whose forcn Is best nillpled It) (lull
work II should be done bv the Inter
ior ilep-tt itniMil throuuh the Keoloijlenl
Mirviy Much of confusion fraud, nnd
contention which has existed In the
present has atlsett front the Intlt of
an olhilnl and iletet initiative classifi
cation of the public lauds nnd their
ll ts now proposed (o dispose of nR
1 lr til 1 11 r 1 1 l.ttiil't us such, and nt tlie
Kitne lime to reserve (or other disposi
tion (be tre.i'tiirc of coal. oil. nshphal
tiitn. ii-iltiral i;as ri nil phosphate con
tiiltnil then-Hi TblM may be best nc
coioplinlied by sepatntlUK the rlRllt
to mine from the title to the surface.
t'lvlMK the neeessnrv use of ho much of
the hitter as may be renulreil for the
(Xlracllon of the ileposltH The stir
fuce iuIkIiI he illioseil of as aRrlctil
(uriil Innd under the Rcneral iiRrlcul
litril si itiiles. while tlie coal or oilier
mineral 1 mild be disposed or by lease
on ii royally hisls. with the provisions
tcilulrltiR a certain amount of develop
ment each Veir. nml In order to pre
vent the itsii nml lesslnn of said lands
with others of similar cbnrneter so ns
to conslltlilo a monopoly forbidden by
law. the lease should contain suitable
provision stlbleclltiR to fot feltiiro the
Interest of pet. -Cons partlelpidnR In
Mich monopoly. Such law should ap
ply to Alaska as well an to (ho United
Statute Difficult to Frame.
If Is exceetlltiRly dldlt-tllt to frame
a statute to rel tin Rovettimetit control
over n property to be developed by
private capital In such a manner na
lo secure the Rovernmental purpose
nnd nt tho same time not frlRhtcn
nwnv tliu Investment of tho necessary
capital Hence, It may be necessary
by laws that lire really only experi
mental to ilelermlne ftom their prac
tical operation what Is tliu best
method of secutltiR the result aimed nt
Tin extent of the va'tie or phosphate
Is hardly realized, nnd with tho need
that (hero will be for It as tho years
roll on and the necessity for fcrtlllz
ftu: the laud shall become more acute,
this will tin n product which will prob
itily attract the Rreed of monopolists
Public Land Alonq Streams.
Willi respect to (be public. Innd
which lies nlotiR the streams offerltiR
oppottunltv tn convert water power
Into transmissible electricity, another
Important phase of the public land
tlin stlnit Is presented Thete nro val-u-ihbj
water power sites tbroiiRli till
the public land states The opinion
Is held that the transfer of soverelRtity
from the federal Kin eminent to the
ten Itoi lal rovci timeuts an they become
stales. Included the wnltt power in
(ho rivers except so fat as that owned
by riparian ptoprietors T do not
think it necessary to ro Into iIIscushIoii
or thl! somewhat mooti d iiiestlon of
lnw. It seeniM tn tne sulllcietit to say
that the man who owns and controls
the land nlotiR tho strt-tut from which
the power Is to bo cotiverlul and trnns
mlttid. owns land which Is Indispens
able to tbn conversion and use of that
powet I cannot cnncelvo how the
power In sttcums llow-ltiR tbroiiRli pub
lic lauds can be made mailable nt nil
except by iisIiir the Innd Itself us tho
site for tbo consttucllon of tbo plant
bv which the power Is Riuet.ited and
converted and securing n tl,-ht of way
thereover for (tausmisslon lints. Un
der these condition. If the ko eminent
owns the adjacent land Indeed. If tbn
ROcrnment Is the rlpatlaii owner -It
iiinv control tho use of the watu power
by ImpnMup: proper conditions on the
disposition of the land neci'siry In the
creation and tttllUatiou of tliu wntor
Value of Water Power.
The development In electrical appli
ances for tliu rnnveislon of the water
power Into elccttlclty to bo ti.inrunltted
lotiR distances has proRressed so far that
It Is 110 lotiRer pinhlcmatlcal, but it Is 11
ctrtatu tulctrnce Hint In tho future tho
power ot tlw water fallltiR In the stienms
to a InrRP extent will tuUi- the place of
ualutnl ruels. in tho disposition or the
domain ulrendy Rritited, mnny water
power situs have cotuo undor absolute
ownership, nnd may drirt Into onu own
ership, so that nil the untei power under
private ownership shall be ti monopoly.
If. however, (be water power kites now
owned by the i;nv eminent nml there are
enoniih of them shall be disposed of to
private persons tor the Invi stnietit of
1 1n lr capital In Mich a wav as to prevent
their union fot purposes of monopoly
with other water power slles ami under
conditions that shall limit the riuhf of use
In not ei ei dim; thlttv tears with renewal
prlvllcc,! ami some ei iltnhlc means or
IKIiir trims or rental anil with propel
me ins fot delerinluliiR a rni-.nn.ihlc ri.iiI
uatid lental. It would seem entirely pos
sible to prevent the nbsoiptloii of these
most useful lauds by 11 povut mounpoly
As IntiR as the t,overntiieni letatns eon
ttol ami can iirevent theli liuptoiier union
with other plants, competition ninnt he
iiialntatued nnd pi lees lieiit te.isoiiabbi.
Soils Must Be Conserved.
In ninslderlnR the coiitiervatlou or tho
mttutal ti-soiiires of the iouuti, tin- fe.i
Hire that transcKiids nil othets, lueltiilltiR
woods, waters, minerals i ipe soil of Urn
countty It Is Imuuitiint upon the rov
einment to foster by u II means
the risouties of tho countii that ptodiice
the food of t tic people To tilth end the
lousetvatlon of the soils o the outitry
should bo en ted lor with all means til the
Riivetnmeut'ri disposal Their ptoducllvc
liowers should have tho attention or 0111
siientiHts that we may mnsi-ive the pew
sells Impiovc tho old soils, dtaln wet
soils, ditch swamp soils, levee river over
flow soils, mow trees on thin soils, pas
tille hillside soils, rotate ctops on all
noils discover methods fm iroppiriR drv
land soils, ilml Krnsst-s nml Iccnnicj for
all soils feed rtjIiis and mill feeds oil
tbn farms wheie they that (he
soils from which thoy couiu may bo en
1I1 bed
A work of Hip iittnnst Impmtanre (o In
fonn nnd instruct the public on this chief
blanch of the conservation of our re
sources Is beliiR tarried on successfully
In the department o( URiutilturo. but It
otiRht not to escape public atti ntlon tlmt
state action In addition to that of the de
li irtment of uRrlrtiltuic (as for Instance
In the dr.ilntiRC of swamp Inuds) Is es
sentlni to the besl treatmenl of (he suit
in the manner ubovc Indicated.
The net by which, In sonil-arld parta of
(he public domain, tlio nrea of tho home
stead has tctn enlarged from 160 to 320
acres has restittcd most beneficially In
the extension of "dry farmlnR" nnd In
tho demonstration which has bepn mndc
of tho possibility, through a variation In
tho character nnd mode of culture, of
rnlslnR substantial crops without the
presence of such n supply of wnter ns
lias been heretofore thoui;tit to bo neces
sary for agriculture
nut tbero nre millions of neres of com
pletely arid land In the public domain
which, by the establishment of reservoirs
for tho slrtlns of wnter und the Irrl
Ration of (ho lands, mny bo made much
more fruitful nnd productive than the
best Innds In n climate where the mois
ture comes front tho clouds. ConRress
recognized the Importance1 of this method
of artificial distribution of water on tho
nrld lands by (ho pass.iRe of (he reclanvi
(Ion nc(. Tho proceeds of the public
lands creates (he fund (o build the worl.s
needed to store nnd furnish tbo neces
snry water, und It was left to tho secre
tary of the Interior to determine what
projects should be started ntnotiR tlioso
stlRRPsled and (o dlrec( tho teclamatlon
service, wlllt the funds at hand and
thrniieh the eiutlneers In Its employ, to
consttuct the works
Nn one entt visit (he far west nnd the
country of nrld nnd seml-arld Innds with
out belnR convinced that this Is ono of
the most Important methods of the con
servation of our natural tesourtes that
(he government has entered upon. It
would nppenr Hint over Sd ptojects have
been undo! taken, nnd that n few of
these nrc likely to be unsuccessful be
cause of Intk or wnter, or for other rea
sons, but Renerally the work which 1ms
been tlonc has been well done, nnd many
Important cnRitirciltiR problems have
been met nnd solved
Funds Inadequate for Service.
Ono of the dllllctiHIes which linn
nrlsen In (hat too manv projerta In
view of the nvallabli- funds have been
net nn foot. Tlie funds tivallable under
the reolnmnllon statute are itutletiuate
to complete these protects within u
rensonable time And vet tho projects
have been boRtin; settlers have been
Invited to take up und In many In -stances
hnvc taken up (he public land
tvlthln the projects, reiving upnn their
prompt completion Tho failure tn
complete the prolertH for their benellt
Is. In effect, n broach of faith nnd
leaves (hem In a most distressed con
dition I tirRc thnt the nation ought
to afford the means (o lift (hem out of
the very desperate condition In which
they now nrc.
This condition docs not Indicate nnv
excessive waste or any corruption on
the part of the rei lam itlott service. It
only Indicates nn nvcr-7ealous desire
to extend the benefit of reclamation
to an many acres nnd ns many states
as possible 1 recommend, therefore,
thnt authority be Riven to Issue not
I'XceedlnR $.10,000,000 of bonds from
lime (o (line, as (he M-ircdiry of the
Interior shall Und It necessary, the
proceeds to be applied to the comple
tion of the projects nlrendv In-Run nnd
(heir proper extension, und tbo bonds
runnltiR ten yenrs or more to be taken
up by the proceeds or returns to tins
reclamation fund, which returns, ns
the years no on, will Increase rapidly
In amount
There Is no doubt nt nil thnt If
these bonds were to be nllnwed to run
ten years, the proceeds from the public
lands. loRothcr with the rentals for
water furnished tbroiiRli tho completed
enterprises, would iiulcklv create a
sinkitiR fund InrRo cnmiRh tn retire
the bonds within (ho llnie specified I
hope that, while tho statute shall pro
vide that these bonds are In bo paid
out nt the reclamation fund. It will be
iliawn In rucIi 11 way as to secure In
terest nt the lowest rnte.'tind (hat the
credit of the United Slates will be
pledged for their redemption
I urge consideration of tho recom
mendnlinns of the secretary of the
Interior In his annual report fot
ntnenilments of tbo rtcl.uu itlon act
propositi); other relief fot settlers em
these prolects.
New Law Requisite.
HespectltiR the coinpatatlvely small
tlmbcted mens nn the publk domain not
Included In national forests bccau--e ot
their Isolation or their j-peclal value for
iiRrlcultural or mineral put poses, II Is up.
patent from tbn evils resulting by vli
tue of the Impprrectlons or existing law
for the disposition of tlmbei lands tbn'
the lots of June 3, 1ST--, should be to
pealed and 11 law enacted ror the depo
sition or tho Umber at public nlo, the
lands nfter tho removal of the Umber to
be subject to appropriation under Hie
iRrlcultuial or mineral land laws
What I have said Is leallv tin epitome
of the recommendations or the secretary
or tho Intot lor In tespect to Hie rutin t
conservation of the public domain In his
present nnnual repot t lie has Riven
close attention to the ptoblern of disposi
tion of these lands mulct such conditions
ns to Invito tbo private capital m-irssuv
to their development on the onu hand,
and the malntennnco of (he restrictions
npcpss.11 y lo prevent monopoly and abuse
from absolute ownership on the other
These recommendations are Incorporated
In bills he has prepared, nml tliey are nt
the disposition of ihn t (ingress I earnest
ly reiotmuemt that all the HuggesUoits
which ho has miidu with tespect to these
hinds shall ho embodied In statutes nml.
espei l.illv. that (he withdrawals alreuly
made shall bo validated so far ns neces
Miry nnd that doubt as to the authoiliy
or the secretary or the Interior lo with
draw lands for the purpose of submitting
leconituemhitlous as to future disposition
of them where new legislation is needed
shall be made complete and iiiiuiiestlniieil
Disposition of Forest Reserves.
Tbo torest reserves of tho United
Stnten, some t'")0f)oiK) acres In extent, are
under the contiol of the department of
iiRrlcultuie, wlllt MUthutlty adequate to
pteserve them ami to extend theli glow Hi
so far as Unit may be 111.11 limbic Tbe
linpoitnncr of tin- mtlulemimc or our
forests cannot be exaRgerated The pnssl
bllltv of a scleulllli ttuiltneut or forests
so that they shall m made to yield 1
latgo 1 ot 111 11 In llinbei without reallv re
dining Urn supplv bus bei n ib muiiHtiateil
in other coilutiles und we should work
tow-aid the .standard set bv them as far
as their muthodj 1110 applicable to out
Upwards of four hundred millions neres
of forest laud In this lountry aie in pi
va(o ownership, but only three per cent
of It Is being treated scleniiilcally and
Willi a view to the maintenance of the
Tmesis Tlie part placd by the fori sth
in Ihn equallralioit of Hie supply of ivutei
on wnlershetls Is u mallei of discussion
and dispute, but the general benellt in be
(IpiIvpiI by the public front tho extension
of finest lands on wnteistieils nnd tin
promotion or die growth or (rees In
places (hat are now denuded and (hat
once had great Itouilshlng forests go,,
without saying. The contiol to be exei
elsed over private nwueis In tticli treat
ment of the forests which they own Is n
mntlPt for state nnd not national regit
Intlnn, because there Is nothing In the
constitution thnt authorizes the federal
gov eminent to exercise any cuntrnl ov'i
forests within n Mute, unless the forests
are owned In n prnpriuao vuy hy the
federal government
Improvement of River.
1 come now to the Improvement nf the
Inland waterways He would bo blind
Indeed, who did not realize that the pen
pie of the far west, und 1 specially those
of the Mississippi volley, have lieen
moused to tbo need there Is for (bo tin
proveinenl of our Inland waterwuvs
Tliu Mississippi liver, with the Missouri
on (lie one hind nnd the Ohio on Hip
olher. would seem lo offer a great mil
urnl means of Intetstaiv (rnnsportatloi
and tralllc How fat, If pioperly luipruveu
they would telleve the railroads or sup
plement them In respect to the bulkier
nnd cheaper commodities Is a matter of
conjecture. No enterprise ought to b
undertaken tlie cost of which Is not def
initely nsccrtalned and tho benefit nnd
advantage of which nro not known and
assured hy competent engineers und other
authority When, however. 11 project of
11 definite character for tho Improvemflnt
of 11 waterway has been developed so
that the plans have been drawn, the cost
detltdlcl) istlmntcd, nnd the traffic
which will bo neioiiuniidutcd is renson
nbly probable I think it Is the duty of
cotigress tn mulct take, (he project nnd
make provision thercfot lit the ptoper ap
propt Intlnn bill
Ono of the piolfils which nnstvers tho
description I have given Is that of Intro
ducing dams Into tho Ohio liver from
l'lttsburg to Cairo, so ns to maintain at
all seasons of tho venr, by slack water,
a depth of nlno fet. Upwurd of seven
of these dams have nltendy been con
structed nml ii st are under 1 nnstructlon,
while tho total requited Is CO Tho re
maining cost Is known to be JGC.Mxi.OOO
It seems lo me tint In the duvuloptnent
of our Inland It would be
wise to begin with this ptrtleiilsr project
and curry It through as ntpldly n:i may
be I assume from reliable Information
thnt It enn be constructed economically
In ten yenrs. I teiommemi, therefore,
that the public lands. In river und har
bor lulls, make ptovislnn for continuing
(onlract't to complete this Improvement,
and I shall recommend In tliu future, if
It be ticics-nry, that bonds bo Iseued to
enny It through.
What lias been said of the Ohio river
Is It tie tn n less complete wav of the Im
provement of tho upper Mississippi from
St Paul to St. Louis to a constant depth
or nix feet, und of tho Missouri, ftom
Knnsas t'tty to f-t l.uuls to u constant
depth of six feet und ftom St. Iouls to
Cairo of n depth of eight feet Tlteso
projects have been pronounced practical
by competent boirds of 111 my englneeis,
their cost has been estimated and tbero
Is btitdiiess which will follow tlie Im
ptovciuent. As thet.e improvement nre being made,
nnd the Unfile cncoutugul by them shows
Itn-lf of sufllelent Importance, the Im
provement of the Missis ilppl buvond
C11I10 down to the gulf which is now
going on with the mulutenume of n depth
ot nine feet everywhere, tntv be changed
to tinntlier nnd greater depth it tlie neces
sity for It shall nppenr to tuNe out of the
tialllc which can bo ddlveti 1 on tho river
ut Calm.
Cheap Rail Rate Necessary.
1 urn Informed that the investigation
bv Hie watctways commission in Kuropa
shows that the existence of n waterway
by no means nsstires traflb unless thero
Is ttafllc adapted to water carriage nt
i heap rates ut one end or tho other of
the stream. It also nppe trs In Kuropo
tlmt 1 bo depth of tho streams Is rarely
more I ban six feet, and never moro tlmn
nine nut It Is certain Hint enormous
iiuatillth's of merchandlsi! are transported
over the rivets utul canals in (Sctmany
and Franco und Uugland, nnd It is also
cpttnln that tho exlsteme of such meth
ods of tinfllc materially affects tho rules
wliii It the railroads churge, and It Is the
best regulator of those totes that we
have, not even exccptlm; tbn govern
mental regulation through tho Inter-tato
loiiiinercp commission For this renson,
1 hope that this congress will tuko siilIi
steps that It may w called tho Inuugu
tutor of the new system of inland water
wuvs Tor reasons with li It Is not nee
pssnrv bpre to state, congress has seen
(It lo outer nn Investigation Into tho ln
t ulor department and the forest seivlce
of llio ucrlctilturnl department. The re
sult 4 of that Investigation nro not needed
lo determine the value of. nnd tho tie
result v for. the new legislation which I
have recommended In respect to the pub
lie I mils nml In respect to reclamation. I
earnestly lit go that the measures be tak
en up and disposed of pinmptly without
awaiting the Investigation which has been
b'leili lined upon
A Bird's Savings Bank.
Ill California tho woodpecker storon
ncoi n? nway, although ho never eats
tlioni Ho limes several holes, differ
Iru: slightly In size, at the fall of tho
year, invariably In a pino tree. Then
lie ilnd an acoin, which ho adjusts to
one of the holes prepared for Its re
eeptlnn Hut lie docs not eat tho acorn, for,
is a rule, he Is not n veRetarlati. His
iihlect Is storliiK away the acorns ex
hibits foresight and a knowledge of
n suits more akin to reason than to
instinct The surreeding winter the
(corns remain Intact, hut. hecoiiiliif
s.aluialed, are predisposed to decay,
when they are attacked bv maggots,
which seem to delight in tilts spetlal
It Is than that the woodpecker
reaps (he harvest his wisdom has pro
vided, at a time when, the ground he
ing covered with snow, he would ox
perli'iice a dittleultv otherwise in ob
taining suitable 01 palatable food
Hie "Penitentiary Den."
"And now I must kIiow you what I
call my penitentiary den. said n popu
lar author 'This.' he tonllnueri, as
he drew open a door, is where 1 oc
rnsinnnlly spend mi hour or so when I
am developing symptoms ot that hy no
iniMiis iincomiiioti ni.ilndv aiming sue
eessiul men called swelled le-ail ' "
The room wan a charming little
snuggery about seven teet square, the
only teiiiarkalile tc-ttnte of which was
the wall covet lug 11 von look close
ly.' explained the bust, "you vvlll h(
thnt inv vvall paper consists, on two
sides of the mm. ol those too-ramlllar
and unwelcome pi luted tonus on
which editois nxpii-Hs their regrets at
let lining one's pet iiiiinuscrlpta "
Zooloqlcal Puzzle.
Italian 70oloRisls Imvo a piiyle. to
solve, ovvliij- to I lie discovery on
Mount lllane of the hotly of it whito, which has hot 11 brought tc.i Aosla
It was thought nl lust that the hear
must have died some three hundred
vearn ago, and must have been pre
st 1 veil hy tho ice, Blnce It has alwavs
been held thnt while hears vanished
irom the Alps Ihiei centuries ago. Hut
It has since been demonstrated that
denth could only have taken plnm n
tew dayB previous to discovery At
tills would seem to show thnt thens
ire Ptlll white hears In the Alps ox
podltlons are to be sent tn test llio
Tooly Lural!
'Mow fnr Is It between lhes two
lowns?" asked the lawyer
"About Tour miles ns tlm flow
cries" replied llio witness
'You mean na the ciy flows"
"No." put in the Judge, "lie means
as the fly crows "
And they nil looked at each other.
J feeling that t-oiiiothinR wae wrong
rvoi-yhody s Mtien7lne
Congress. However, Likely to Be
Slow to Sanction Certain
Specific Projects.
Civil Ciervlce Commission, Tired of
Moving, Makes Plea for Permanent
Quarters Army Affairs In
Good Shape.
Washington It Is piohnhle that
the rlvera and harbors committee of
congress will report n hill at this
session recommending; tho appropria
tion ot a good many millions of dol
lars for the Improvement of the water
ways of the country. It Is yet a mat
ter of great doubt, however, if the
sanction of the committee vvlll ho
given to certnln specllle projects In
favor of which thero has been coun-try-wldo
agitation. It may he, per
haps It Is safer to say probably vvlll he,
tho opinion of the committee that the
recommendation for uti appropriation
to hegln the digging of a deep water
way from tho lakes to the gulf or
from Capo Cod to the Caiollnas shall
bo put off until the congressional wa
terways commission, which has been
studying tho general subject of com
mercial highway Improvements, shall
have turned In Its icport.
Tho friends of the deep waterway
from Chicago to tho ICads' Jetties aro
active In their methods of promoting
tho plan which they have at heait.
Tho same thing hold true of the men
who want congress to sanction tho
ship channel from Cape Cod down
through tho coast states to a point
somewhere In South Carolina or pos
sibly Georgia. There Is an Intense
amount of rivalry between the piotno
tors of these two great plans, but tho
rivalry Is kept under tho surface as
much as possible In order thnt tho
promotion offortB may not caiibc con
troversy enough to upset the chances
of success of either project.
Other Highway Projects.
The Mississippi valley waterway
and tho coast line waterway are not 1
tho only Interior commercial high-1
way plans which have friends in con-1
gress. The projects which have been ,
suggested and to a considerable ex-,
tent ndvanced In planning, nre tinnier- j
our. The southern Htntes want easier
water communication between differ
ent points, and there are plans for
wntervvny Improvement In tlie north
nnd northwest.
When President Taft was In New,
Orleans at a meeting of the water
ways congress he said a kindly word
for tlie general plan of Improving the
rivers of the country, hut he advised
making hasto slowly. As soon as tho
president finished his speech nnd tho '
men who aro devoting their time and j
energies to paving the wav for water- j
way legislation had had time to digest ,
tho rematks, they met and In effect
made a political Issuonit of the cam
paign for deeper river channels
Tho political aspect of the matter
has to some extent Inlliienccd con
gress, and representatives fiom many
districts have been told In effect that
they must use every effort to push
waterway Improvements, even If their
plans seem to tin antagonistic to the
wishes of the loaders In congress and
of the administration itself.
To Investigate Fully
Congress always has a way of meet
ing demands for work along certain
lines with n seeming approval ot their
general features, but it also han a way
of delaying things so that it can be
given time for a survey of the field
and obtaining of nn actual knowledge
of the needs of tho e-ase. Tho fricndB
of tho plan for an Immediate Improve
ment of the waterways sav that con
gress simply seeks a means of post
ponement hoping that some of the de
mands made will bo moderated. He
this as It may, congress appointed a
national waterways commission of
which all tho members weie either
senators or representatives.
On this waterways commission are
men who nro extremely conservative
on the subject and men who havo
been Insistent that tho work should
be begun at once. Tho chnlrman of
tho committee, Senator Theodore K.
Hurton of Ohio, was for somo years
prior to his election to tho senate
chairman of the house commlltco on
rivers nnd harbors, Mr. Hut ton knows
nil about overy harbor and strenm In
tho United States nnd It Is admitted
by tho men who think that he Is too
conservative that he haB a pretty
clear idea of the needs of every lo
cality. Senator Lorlmer of Illinois has been
for many years nn active advocate of
u ship channel from Chlcngo to the
Oult of Moxlco. Mr. Lorlmor Is Impa
tient of dolay. There aro other mem
bers of tho commission who mny bo
said to occupy tho middle ground In
tho matter at ntako. .It is expected
that before long tho commission will
mako Its report.
MeIt Board Wants Home.
As tho country haB been told re
cently, It Is probable that congreBB
will Investigate the entlro civil sen
Ico tynteni of the government with
n view of having both tho letter nnd
spirit of tho law apply to promo
tions as well as to appointments, It
Ib probablo that the civil service com
mlrblonors who nro atntloned In
Washington wish thnt e-ongrehs would,
in audition to investigating the work
ings of the ayBtom, make a rigid ex
amination of tho building In which
the ofhclnlB of the service nre obliged
to transne' their business, with a
view to providing for them better
qua rlers.
Thero have been some communica
tions sent to congrqss which In a de
scriptive wny tho word "unique" fits
admirably, but It Is likely that no
paper intended for any president ever
contained a more striking paragraph
than ono which occurs In tho mes
sage which was sent not long ago
by the civil service commissioners to
the chief of tho nation's authorities.
The commissioners aro tired of be
ing moved about ftom place to plnce.
and nro particularly tired of their
present quarters. There Is somo hu
mor In tho situation, mid It is shown
hy this paragraph which occurs In
an ofllclal letter which carries the slg
nature of Ocn. John C. Hlack, the pres
ident of tho civil service hoard, with
the slgtmturcB of his fellow commis
sioners added.
Humorous Protest.
"The moral element In this propo
sition, Mr. President, Is worthy of con
side! ntlon. A mnu is hardly respected
lu-ad of the family until he owns a
roof under which he may gather with
his family. Any bureau" f depart
u.ent of flic government wholly peri
patetic and without permanent qunr
leilng Is subject to suspicion and n,
slighting consideration. Wo want to
he helped out of this situation."
This plea hordciB on pathos, but It
has a strength of Its own, and con
gress has been asked to give that
heed to tho request of Gen. Hlack and
his colleagues, which will glvo them
more room nnd will be In keeping
with the dignity of their work. Tho
day when civil service Is mentioned
by members and senators with the
sneer of Uoscoe Conkllng aB "snivel
sot vice." hns gone by, nnd while the
work of the commlssloneis has robbed
the congressmen of much patronage,
It Is likely that they will see to It
that habitable quarters nre given to
the ollkials and their employes.
It Is hardly probablo that the coun
try leali.cK the growth of the civil
service. The employes of tho com
mission supervise and complete the
work of 1,550 local boards composed
of 4,0'JO members, distributed through
out the territorial extent of tho United
States, Hawaii, the Isthmus of Pana
ma and the islands of I'orto Itlca.
There are now 225,000 In the competi
tive class, and in the last fiscal year
ll.ere were nearly 200,000 applications
for enmlnatlon.
Army Bill Meets Favor.
Congress Is taking more kindly to
the army appropriation bill this year
than . r.s bun the cami for a long
tlm Secretary of War Dickinson
managed to get several millions of
dollars from the estimates for the
support of the land forces, and un
der his direction (he chiefs of the
different bureaus made reductions
that have appealed to the members of
congress as an evidence that economy
this year Is the army's watch word.
General Leonard Wood before long
will bo made chief of staff of the
United States army with headquarters
In Washington Gen Wood Is the
ranking eillieer of the service. If the
general weie to he ordered into tho
Held In caso of war he could havo
placed under his orders within two
months over n half million Americans
armed with the latest type of Ameri
can ride, the new model Sprlngflold,
which Is believed by American army
olllclals lo ho the best weapon known
to modern military heience
The house committee on military
affairs at Its healings on tho needs
of the army complimented Gen. Cm
irier of tlie ordinance department on
the marked reductions that he hnd
made In expenses, reductions that the
general showed were- possible while
they did not tend in any way to do
crease the elllclency of the service.
The committee reported favorably
on the recommendation that a re
serve supply of one million rifles of
tho modem approved typo be provid
ed. When the authorized limit of ono
million Is icached the manufacture
of the rifles will be stopped, only to
bo tnken up again when the necessity
Is shown or when new Inventions
mnkc new rifles Imperative.
No Need for Large Army.
Congress does not believe that the
United Stntes will ever need an enor
mous army for war purposes. It takes
It for granted that the navy will bo
able to keep fill foreign foes nt a dis
tance and that being safe from Invas
ion tho army of half a million men at
the outset will be Biiuitient to meet
any seemingly possible emergency.
Tho nrmy officers, however, look at
the mattur In nnother light. They Bny
that the most unexpected thing hap
pen In military affairs nnd that It
would be little less than a sin for tho
United Stntes to be unprepared ns It
was at the time of the opening of
the Spanish war. Congress has been
told that thero Ib no tlrat-class power
other than the United States which
cannot put Into the Held almost in
stantly an army of li.OOO.OOO men.
Thero Ib a much closer relation ex
isting today than over before botween
tho regsjlnr service nnd the national
guard. It Is the Intention of tho wnr
depaitnient to order tho regulnra next
summer into camp with regiments of
tho Btate troopB In many parts or the
country for the purpose of Instructing
tho civilian soldlerB in tho art of war
nnd of bringing about n better under
standing and a feollng of closor fellow
ship between officers of the nation
and state. GKORGI3 CMNTON.
Turkish Retrogression.
Atdatlc, Turkoy had a clvillzntlon
thousands of years ago. Thu Intorior
of that country Is populated today by
farmers, to whom modern knives and
lorks nro unknown; the spoons thoy
use aro of wood I'.nd each family
makes Its own.