The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, January 20, 1910, Image 2
f! k : l 'I URGES CONSERVATION OF THE NATION'S RESOURCES President Taft Sends Special Message to Con gress Recommending Prevention of Land Frauds, Control of Water Power, Fos tering of Soils and Kindred Subjects Washington, Jan. It --I'olluwlng Ib tilt) CUIIIfllClV tC'Xt Uf till' HIM rllll IIM'S rhro on (In i onsen. Hum ot the mi lion's (('sources sent to the Fcnuto and house or icpicmnintives hy Pres ident 'I aft to iluy: To tllO Hun. lie mill llou-e of Hi-pic-mta-Uvea: In my nnnnnl message I tiirn the subject nt tin' eiinsi-ri niton ot our mi Clonal resoiim fot i1Imhimii ioii in n spe cial nit'"sni;c, up follows In never.'! I ih'p it Uncut), ilicrc i pi aentPil tin' neiesslty fur li gist ilion tank Inn: to tlin liiitlici i oiim-i vniion of out national icmhiims, u ml tho siihici t is one Of such ilnMii ttitici ns lo ii'iinlin n more lotal'rd mill exii-mlcd di'cii-smn in. in run be end ml iipmi in Hum oniiniiiiH-.i-(lon. For Unit reason I -liill lake mm early oppnt Utility to send u npeil.il imps-nf-o to longtcss on tin- Mti. (.' f ot tlie Improvement of our watetwuv- upon the rocliiniiitloii nml irrigation ot n i til semi Arid nml swamp hinds upon the pn-ser-vailon ot out fotcsts nml I In- ie roti-sting of suitable areas upon tin- re 1 1 isxltu-a-Hon of the public tluuiiilii with n view nt separating ftom iigilcultuinl m ttlein-nt mineral, con I nml phosphate I. mils nml sites belonging lo the gnu iiuni'iit bor dering u nlrfiiina sult.ildu (or lite u 1 1 II caUon of water power In IfcGO wo ti.ul a public- dnmnltt or l.nVi, 011.283 acres We have nun Tll.Vilirxi acres, routined largely to the nuuiitliiin ranges nml the nilil nml semi it 1 1 1 1 plums We hnvo. In addition, Ji.xi K y;rt neics or land In Alaska. Disbursement of Public I and. Tbo public lands were, etuiln-; the earli est administrations. Irc.iteil .is m.iUdimI asset for Ilic tliiilil,tll(in or the. public debt nnd as u source of row, nil fur our soldiers nml s lots l.titir on they were donated In huge amounts in mil or tbo construction of wagon lo.ulii nml rail ways, In order to open up i niton- In the west (ben nlmost In.ict enslhlit AH the prlnclp'il binil stiitnti'ii were en ictcil more than n nimHer or u irniuiv ago Th home-Mend net, tbn pre-emption nml Mm-ber-citlliire net, tl-u roil I mil nml the. mining nctH wore among tin-so TllO rapid disposition of the public lands undor (be early statutes, nml tlin lux mothods of distribution prevailing, due, ( think, to the heller Unit then Innds should rapidly puss Into p-lvnto owner ship, Kino lisp to lln liuprcssinu Unit the public iloninln was legitimate piey for tbn unscrupulous ami lb it It wns not contrary to Rood monil.s lo i liciiinvent the Innd lows. This prnllgnl manner of disposition resulted In tbo passing of largo nreas of valuable l.iml nun ninny of our mitlomil resources linn in,, innd of perilous who fell III tit or no np-iul-blllty for pintnntlng the national wel faro through Ibelr development Fraudulent Titles. The truth In Unit title to millions of acres of public lands wns fraudulently nbtnlned nnd tlmt Un rlrlil to teenier n Inrso part of sncli l.uuls tor Uu Kiiinrn mont low? slnro rensed bv le.iron of stat utes of limitation- Then- ins ,h wlopeil In recent years a dee i cni in tlie public mind respecllni: tlie pi --it niton and proper iiho or our nitui.il ii-snnrces This bns been pirtlciil.it ly dlirt-ted toward the rmihorvntlun or the resiuiccs of tbo public domain A vtsi amounl or dlocilR'Inn bns nppe.treil in tlie public prints In Rencrnlled form on this tiiit Ject. but there bus been bllle pi iclbal RUggPtitlon. It hna been easy In siv thai tho nntur.il resources in toe! supply, in forealti, In water powir, nml In other public iililtlles, must be t.a.eil from waste, monopoly, iml otbei ibuseH. anil the gem ml public Is in .ucoul with this proposlllon, ns thev nic with most truisms Tbo problem, however, Is how (o snvo ami bow to 11UII70. how to Cl,. servo and sllll ib-Mlnp. for -hi s'lne per. son can contend that It Is for tlie com mon kodi1 that unturn'H lilfhslris nia ouly (or uiibnin Renur.ttloiiM Noteworthy Reforms AmnnK the most nntcwoilhy rerorma Inltlnted by my iIIMIukuIiiIiciI preilecesHiir woro the loious tinn-eeutlon or l.unl frauds and the brltu-liif- to public alten Hon of the necessity for pi. -serving th, romnlnltiK public ilnmnln (rum furlbor Hpnllntlnn, for the m.ilntenuuti- nml ex tension of our forest n-Miuues, and for tho ennrtment or l.iws ainemllui; llio ol soloto ht.itulcH no as to retain Kim-rn-mental control over Hint pan of the pub llo domain In which them are nlinbl deposltH of coal, of oil, ami of phosphate, and, In nddltlnn thereto, to preserve con trol, under comlitlou.s favor il.le to the public, of the laml.s aluiii; the streams In which tho fall of water i-au ln in.ulo to Kenernte power 10 be iriusmltteii in the form of electricity many nillen to the point of Its use, Known as "wuirr power" cites. The lnestl-,itlniis Into moIUIoiih of the public land laws ami the prost-eiition of land fr.iuilH hae bi-en Wpnnusly ,.0. tlnuntl under iny nilinlnlsttnUnn, as has been the wltluliaual or mil lands fot ClaRHincatlna nnd aluntl m ami tin- tem porary withholding of power slien Since 1 March i, IW, temporar unbdi iwnln of power Hltes hao In en nude on luj streams nnd these withdrawals therefore eovor 229 ier cent more NtieauiH than were fnveied by tbo ultlidi.iwitlR timde prior to that date. Tho present statutes, except so far as they tllspoHit of the precious metals rind tlin purely UKrlculttini) lands, are not ad.tpted to e.iiry out the modern view of the brst disposition of public lands to prlutto ownoi.ihlp; under con ditions nHYrliiK on the one Innd sulll dent Inducement to ptiute apltal to take them 01 er for proper develop ment. with restrictive conditions on the nthtr which shall hi cure to the public that eh.ttui-ter of control which will prevent u monopoly or mlsii.se of tho lands or tin it- products The powi r of the seeietiirj of the Interior to with draw from t u- operation or existing stattlti-M ttails or land the disposition of which under such statutes 'Vtiultl bo detriment il to the public Interests la not tlear or satlsfaetoiy This powet has been exercised In the Intercut ot the public, with lh hope that congress inlRht alllrm the action of the execu tive hy laws adapted lo the now condt tlons l'nforlui ntely. cnnKtess has not thus far full), actul on the recommen. datlons of the executive and the qucs tlon as to what the extcutlvc- Is to do Is under the circumstances full of dUllculty. It seems to me that It Is tho duty of conKress now by it statute, to validate tho withdrawals which have been made by the secretary of the Interior and the president nnd to use Hie secretary of the Interior temporar ily to withdraw lunds pending submis sion to congress of recommendations us to 1-nisl.ttlon to meel conditions or emcrf-endi-H as they nrlae Properly to Classify Lands. One of the mont ptesslmj needs In the mutter of public land n form Is that lainlM should be clnssirhil nccord liur to their prlmlptl value tine This oiiKhl to be done by that ot depirlinont Whose forcn Is best nillpled It) (lull work II should be done bv the Inter ior ilep-tt itniMil throuuh the Keoloijlenl Mirviy Much of confusion fraud, nnd contention which has existed In the present has atlsett front the Intlt of an olhilnl and iletet initiative classifi cation of the public lauds nnd their conlents ll ts now proposed (o dispose of nR 1 lr til 1 11 r 1 1 l.ttiil't us such, and nt tlie Kitne lime to reserve (or other disposi tion (be tre.i'tiirc of coal. oil. nshphal tiitn. ii-iltiral i;as ri nil phosphate con tiiltnil then-Hi TblM may be best nc coioplinlied by sepatntlUK the rlRllt to mine from the title to the surface. t'lvlMK the neeessnrv use of ho much of the hitter as may be renulreil for the (Xlracllon of the ileposltH The stir fuce iuIkIiI he illioseil of as aRrlctil (uriil Innd under the Rcneral iiRrlcul litril si itiiles. while tlie coal or oilier mineral 1 mild be disposed or by lease on ii royally hisls. with the provisions tcilulrltiR a certain amount of develop ment each Veir. nml In order to pre vent the itsii nml lesslnn of said lands with others of similar cbnrneter so ns to conslltlilo a monopoly forbidden by law. the lease should contain suitable provision stlbleclltiR to fot feltiiro the Interest of pet. -Cons partlelpidnR In Mich monopoly. Such law should ap ply to Alaska as well an to (ho United States Statute Difficult to Frame. If Is exceetlltiRly dldlt-tllt to frame a statute to rel tin Rovettimetit control over n property to be developed by private capital In such a manner na lo secure the Rovernmental purpose nnd nt tho same time not frlRhtcn nwnv tliu Investment of tho necessary capital Hence, It may be necessary by laws that lire really only experi mental to ilelermlne ftom their prac tical operation what Is tliu best method of secutltiR the result aimed nt Tin extent of the va'tie or phosphate Is hardly realized, nnd with tho need that (hero will be for It as tho years roll on and the necessity for fcrtlllz ftu: the laud shall become more acute, this will tin n product which will prob itily attract the Rreed of monopolists Public Land Alonq Streams. Willi respect to (be public. Innd which lies nlotiR the streams offerltiR oppottunltv tn convert water power Into transmissible electricity, another Important phase of the public land tlin stlnit Is presented Thete nro val-u-ihbj water power sites tbroiiRli till the public land states The opinion Is held that the transfer of soverelRtity from the federal Kin eminent to the ten Itoi lal rovci timeuts an they become stales. Included the wnltt power in (ho rivers except so fat as that owned by riparian ptoprietors T do not think it necessary to ro Into iIIscushIoii or thl! somewhat mooti d iiiestlon of lnw. It seeniM tn tne sulllcietit to say that the man who owns and controls the land nlotiR tho strt-tut from which the power Is to bo cotiverlul and trnns mlttid. owns land which Is Indispens able to tbn conversion and use of that powet I cannot cnncelvo how the power In sttcums llow-ltiR tbroiiRli pub lic lauds can be made mailable nt nil except by iisIiir the Innd Itself us tho site for tbo consttucllon of tbo plant bv which the power Is Riuet.ited and converted and securing n tl,-ht of way thereover for (tausmisslon lints. Un der these condition. If the ko eminent owns the adjacent land Indeed. If tbn ROcrnment Is the rlpatlaii owner -It iiinv control tho use of the watu power by ImpnMup: proper conditions on the disposition of the land neci'siry In the creation and tttllUatiou of tliu wntor power Value of Water Power. The development In electrical appli ances for tliu rnnveislon of the water power Into elccttlclty to bo ti.inrunltted lotiR distances has proRressed so far that It Is 110 lotiRer pinhlcmatlcal, but it Is 11 ctrtatu tulctrnce Hint In tho future tho power ot tlw water fallltiR In the stienms to a InrRP extent will tuUi- the place of ualutnl ruels. in tho disposition or the domain ulrendy Rritited, mnny water power situs have cotuo undor absolute ownership, nnd may drirt Into onu own ership, so that nil the untei power under private ownership shall be ti monopoly. If. however, (be water power kites now owned by the i;nv eminent nml there are enoniih of them shall be disposed of to private persons tor the Invi stnietit of 1 1n lr capital In Mich a wav as to prevent their union fot purposes of monopoly with other water power slles ami under conditions that shall limit the riuhf of use In not ei ei dim; thlttv tears with renewal prlvllcc,! ami some ei iltnhlc means or IKIiir trims or rental anil with propel me ins fot delerinluliiR a rni-.nn.ihlc ri.iiI uatid lental. It would seem entirely pos sible to prevent the nbsoiptloii of these most useful lauds by 11 povut mounpoly As IntiR as the t,overntiieni letatns eon ttol ami can iirevent theli liuptoiier union with other plants, competition ninnt he iiialntatued nnd pi lees lieiit te.isoiiabbi. Soils Must Be Conserved. In ninslderlnR the coiitiervatlou or tho mttutal ti-soiiires of the iouuti, tin- fe.i Hire that transcKiids nil othets, lueltiilltiR woods, waters, minerals i ipe soil of Urn countty It Is Imuuitiint upon the rov einment to foster by u II av.nl.ililii means the risouties of tho countii that ptodiice the food of t tic people To tilth end the lousetvatlon of the soils o the outitry should bo en ted lor with all means til the Riivetnmeut'ri disposal Their ptoducllvc liowers should have tho attention or 0111 siientiHts that we may mnsi-ive the pew sells Impiovc tho old soils, dtaln wet soils, ditch swamp soils, levee river over flow soils, mow trees on thin soils, pas tille hillside soils, rotate ctops on all noils discover methods fm iroppiriR drv land soils, ilml Krnsst-s nml Iccnnicj for all soils feed rtjIiis and mill feeds oil tbn farms wheie they oriRlii.nc that (he soils from which thoy couiu may bo en 1I1 bed A work of Hip iittnnst Impmtanre (o In fonn nnd instruct the public on this chief blanch of the conservation of our re sources Is beliiR tarried on successfully In the department o( URiutilturo. but It otiRht not to escape public atti ntlon tlmt state action In addition to that of the de li irtment of uRrlrtiltuic (as for Instance In the dr.ilntiRC of swamp Inuds) Is es sentlni to the besl treatmenl of (he suit in the manner ubovc Indicated. The net by which, In sonil-arld parta of (he public domain, tlio nrea of tho home stead has tctn enlarged from 160 to 320 acres has restittcd most beneficially In the extension of "dry farmlnR" nnd In tho demonstration which has bepn mndc of tho possibility, through a variation In tho character nnd mode of culture, of rnlslnR substantial crops without the presence of such n supply of wnter ns lias been heretofore thoui;tit to bo neces sary for agriculture nut tbero nre millions of neres of com pletely arid land In the public domain which, by the establishment of reservoirs for tho slrtlns of wnter und the Irrl Ration of (ho lands, mny bo made much more fruitful nnd productive than the best Innds In n climate where the mois ture comes front tho clouds. ConRress recognized the Importance1 of this method of artificial distribution of water on tho nrld lands by (ho pass.iRe of (he reclanvi (Ion nc(. Tho proceeds of the public lands creates (he fund (o build the worl.s needed to store nnd furnish tbo neces snry water, und It was left to tho secre tary of the Interior to determine what projects should be started ntnotiR tlioso stlRRPsled and (o dlrec( tho teclamatlon service, wlllt the funds at hand and thrniieh the eiutlneers In Its employ, to consttuct the works Nn one entt visit (he far west nnd the country of nrld nnd seml-arld Innds with out belnR convinced that this Is ono of the most Important methods of the con servation of our natural tesourtes that (he government has entered upon. It would nppenr Hint over Sd ptojects have been undo! taken, nnd that n few of these nrc likely to be unsuccessful be cause of Intk or wnter, or for other rea sons, but Renerally the work which 1ms been tlonc has been well done, nnd many Important cnRitirciltiR problems have been met nnd solved Funds Inadequate for Service. Ono of the dllllctiHIes which linn nrlsen In (hat too manv projerta In view of the nvallabli- funds have been net nn foot. Tlie funds tivallable under the reolnmnllon statute are itutletiuate to complete these protects within u rensonable time And vet tho projects have been boRtin; settlers have been Invited to take up und In many In -stances hnvc taken up (he public land tvlthln the projects, reiving upnn their prompt completion Tho failure tn complete the prolertH for their benellt Is. In effect, n broach of faith nnd leaves (hem In a most distressed con dition I tirRc thnt the nation ought to afford the means (o lift (hem out of the very desperate condition In which they now nrc. This condition docs not Indicate nnv excessive waste or any corruption on the part of the rei lam itlott service. It only Indicates nn nvcr-7ealous desire to extend the benefit of reclamation to an many acres nnd ns many states as possible 1 recommend, therefore, thnt authority be Riven to Issue not I'XceedlnR $.10,000,000 of bonds from lime (o (line, as (he M-ircdiry of the Interior shall Und It necessary, the proceeds to be applied to the comple tion of the projects nlrendv In-Run nnd (heir proper extension, und tbo bonds runnltiR ten yenrs or more to be taken up by the proceeds or returns to tins reclamation fund, which returns, ns the years no on, will Increase rapidly In amount There Is no doubt nt nil thnt If these bonds were to be nllnwed to run ten years, the proceeds from the public lands. loRothcr with the rentals for water furnished tbroiiRli tho completed enterprises, would iiulcklv create a sinkitiR fund InrRo cnmiRh tn retire the bonds within (ho llnie specified I hope that, while tho statute shall pro vide that these bonds are In bo paid out nt the reclamation fund. It will be iliawn In rucIi 11 way as to secure In terest nt the lowest rnte.'tind (hat the credit of the United Slates will be pledged for their redemption I urge consideration of tho recom mendnlinns of the secretary of the Interior In his annual report fot ntnenilments of tbo rtcl.uu itlon act propositi); other relief fot settlers em these prolects. New Law Requisite. HespectltiR the coinpatatlvely small tlmbcted mens nn the publk domain not Included In national forests bccau--e ot their Isolation or their j-peclal value for iiRrlcultural or mineral put poses, II Is up. patent from tbn evils resulting by vli tue of the Impprrectlons or existing law for the disposition of tlmbei lands tbn' the lots of June 3, 1ST--, should be to pealed and 11 law enacted ror the depo sition or tho Umber at public nlo, the lands nfter tho removal of the Umber to be subject to appropriation under Hie iRrlcultuial or mineral land laws What I have said Is leallv tin epitome of the recommendations or the secretary or tho Intot lor In tespect to Hie rutin t conservation of the public domain In his present nnnual repot t lie has Riven close attention to the ptoblern of disposi tion of these lands mulct such conditions ns to Invito tbo private capital m-irssuv to their development on the onu hand, and the malntennnco of (he restrictions npcpss.11 y lo prevent monopoly and abuse from absolute ownership on the other These recommendations are Incorporated In bills he has prepared, nml tliey are nt the disposition of ihn t (ingress I earnest ly reiotmuemt that all the HuggesUoits which ho has miidu with tespect to these hinds shall ho embodied In statutes nml. espei l.illv. that (he withdrawals alreuly made shall bo validated so far ns neces Miry nnd that doubt as to the authoiliy or the secretary or the Interior lo with draw lands for the purpose of submitting leconituemhitlous as to future disposition of them where new legislation is needed shall be made complete and iiiiuiiestlniieil Disposition of Forest Reserves. Tbo torest reserves of tho United Stnten, some t'")0f)oiK) acres In extent, are under the contiol of the department of iiRrlcultuie, wlllt MUthutlty adequate to pteserve them ami to extend theli glow Hi so far as Unit may be 111.11 limbic Tbe linpoitnncr of tin- mtlulemimc or our forests cannot be exaRgerated The pnssl bllltv of a scleulllli ttuiltneut or forests so that they shall m made to yield 1 latgo 1 ot 111 11 In llinbei without reallv re dining Urn supplv bus bei n ib muiiHtiateil in other coilutiles und we should work tow-aid the .standard set bv them as far as their muthodj 1110 applicable to out conditions Upwards of four hundred millions neres of forest laud In this lountry aie in pi va(o ownership, but only three per cent of It Is being treated scleniiilcally and Willi a view to the maintenance of the Tmesis Tlie part placd by the fori sth in Ihn equallralioit of Hie supply of ivutei on wnlershetls Is u mallei of discussion and dispute, but the general benellt in be (IpiIvpiI by the public front tho extension of finest lands on wnteistieils nnd tin promotion or die growth or (rees In places (hat are now denuded and (hat once had great Itouilshlng forests go,, without saying. The contiol to be exei elsed over private nwueis In tticli treat ment of the forests which they own Is n mntlPt for state nnd not national regit Intlnn, because there Is nothing In the constitution thnt authorizes the federal gov eminent to exercise any cuntrnl ov'i forests within n Mute, unless the forests are owned In n prnpriuao vuy hy the federal government Improvement of River. 1 come now to the Improvement nf the Inland waterways He would bo blind Indeed, who did not realize that the pen pie of the far west, und 1 specially those of the Mississippi volley, have lieen moused to tbo need there Is for (bo tin proveinenl of our Inland waterwuvs Tliu Mississippi liver, with the Missouri on (lie one hind nnd the Ohio on Hip olher. would seem lo offer a great mil urnl means of Intetstaiv (rnnsportatloi and tralllc How fat, If pioperly luipruveu they would telleve the railroads or sup plement them In respect to the bulkier nnd cheaper commodities Is a matter of conjecture. No enterprise ought to b undertaken tlie cost of which Is not def initely nsccrtalned and tho benefit nnd advantage of which nro not known and assured hy competent engineers und other authority When, however. 11 project of 11 definite character for tho Improvemflnt of 11 waterway has been developed so that the plans have been drawn, the cost detltdlcl) istlmntcd, nnd the traffic which will bo neioiiuniidutcd is renson nbly probable I think it Is the duty of cotigress tn mulct take, (he project nnd make provision thercfot lit the ptoper ap propt Intlnn bill Ono of the piolfils which nnstvers tho description I have given Is that of Intro ducing dams Into tho Ohio liver from l'lttsburg to Cairo, so ns to maintain at all seasons of tho venr, by slack water, a depth of nlno fet. Upwurd of seven of these dams have nltendy been con structed nml ii st are under 1 nnstructlon, while tho total requited Is CO Tho re maining cost Is known to be JGC.Mxi.OOO It seems lo me tint In the duvuloptnent of our Inland w.it-rways It would be wise to begin with this ptrtleiilsr project and curry It through as ntpldly n:i may be I assume from reliable Information thnt It enn be constructed economically In ten yenrs. I teiommemi, therefore, that the public lands. In river und har bor lulls, make ptovislnn for continuing (onlract't to complete this Improvement, and I shall recommend In tliu future, if It be ticics-nry, that bonds bo Iseued to enny It through. What lias been said of the Ohio river Is It tie tn n less complete wav of the Im provement of tho upper Mississippi from St Paul to St. Louis to a constant depth or nix feet, und of tho Missouri, ftom Knnsas t'tty to f-t l.uuls to u constant depth of six feet und ftom St. Iouls to Cairo of n depth of eight feet Tlteso projects have been pronounced practical by competent boirds of 111 my englneeis, their cost has been estimated and tbero Is btitdiiess which will follow tlie Im ptovciuent. As thet.e improvement nre being made, nnd the Unfile cncoutugul by them shows Itn-lf of sufllelent Importance, the Im provement of the Missis ilppl buvond C11I10 down to the gulf which is now going on with the mulutenume of n depth ot nine feet everywhere, tntv be changed to tinntlier nnd greater depth it tlie neces sity for It shall nppenr to tuNe out of the tialllc which can bo ddlveti 1 on tho river ut Calm. Cheap Rail Rate Necessary. 1 urn Informed that the investigation bv Hie watctways commission in Kuropa shows that the existence of n waterway by no means nsstires traflb unless thero Is ttafllc adapted to water carriage nt i heap rates ut one end or tho other of the stream. It also nppe trs In Kuropo tlmt 1 bo depth of tho streams Is rarely more I ban six feet, and never moro tlmn nine nut It Is certain Hint enormous iiuatillth's of merchandlsi! are transported over the rivets utul canals in (Sctmany and Franco und Uugland, nnd It is also cpttnln that tho exlsteme of such meth ods of tinfllc materially affects tho rules wliii It the railroads churge, and It Is the best regulator of those totes that we have, not even exccptlm; tbn govern mental regulation through tho Inter-tato loiiiinercp commission For this renson, 1 hope that this congress will tuko siilIi steps that It may w called tho Inuugu tutor of the new system of inland water wuvs Tor reasons with li It Is not nee pssnrv bpre to state, congress has seen (It lo outer nn Investigation Into tho ln t ulor department and the forest seivlce of llio ucrlctilturnl department. The re sult 4 of that Investigation nro not needed lo determine the value of. nnd tho tie result v for. the new legislation which I have recommended In respect to the pub lie I mils nml In respect to reclamation. I earnestly lit go that the measures be tak en up and disposed of pinmptly without awaiting the Investigation which has been b'leili lined upon WILLIAM H, TAFT. A Bird's Savings Bank. Ill California tho woodpecker storon ncoi n? nway, although ho never eats tlioni Ho limes several holes, differ Iru: slightly In size, at the fall of tho year, invariably In a pino tree. Then lie ilnd an acoin, which ho adjusts to one of the holes prepared for Its re eeptlnn Hut lie docs not eat tho acorn, for, is a rule, he Is not n veRetarlati. His iihlect Is storliiK away the acorns ex hibits foresight and a knowledge of n suits more akin to reason than to instinct The surreeding winter the (corns remain Intact, hut. hecoiiiliif s.aluialed, are predisposed to decay, when they are attacked bv maggots, which seem to delight in tilts spetlal Innd It Is than that the woodpecker reaps (he harvest his wisdom has pro vided, at a time when, the ground he ing covered with snow, he would ox perli'iice a dittleultv otherwise in ob taining suitable 01 palatable food Hie "Penitentiary Den." "And now I must kIiow you what I call my penitentiary den. said n popu lar author 'This.' he tonllnueri, as he drew open a door, is where 1 oc rnsinnnlly spend mi hour or so when I am developing symptoms ot that hy no iniMiis iincomiiioti ni.ilndv aiming sue eessiul men called swelled le-ail ' " The room wan a charming little snuggery about seven teet square, the only teiiiarkalile tc-ttnte of which was the wall covet lug 11 von look close ly.' explained the bust, "you vvlll h( thnt inv vvall paper consists, on two sides of the mm. ol those too-ramlllar and unwelcome pi luted tonus on which editois nxpii-Hs their regrets at let lining one's pet iiiiinuscrlpta " Zooloqlcal Puzzle. Italian 70oloRisls Imvo a piiyle. to solve, ovvliij- to I lie discovery on Mount lllane of the hotly of it whito be.tr, which has hot 11 brought tc.i Aosla It was thought nl lust that the hear must have died some three hundred vearn ago, and must have been pre st 1 veil hy tho ice, Blnce It has alwavs been held thnt while hears vanished irom the Alps Ihiei centuries ago. Hut It has since been demonstrated that denth could only have taken plnm n tew dayB previous to discovery At tills would seem to show thnt thens ire Ptlll white hears In the Alps ox podltlons are to be sent tn test llio 'heory Tooly Lural! 'Mow fnr Is It between lhes two lowns?" asked the lawyer "About Tour miles ns tlm flow cries" replied llio witness 'You mean na the ciy flows" "No." put in the Judge, "lie means as the fly crows " And they nil looked at each other. J feeling that t-oiiiothinR wae wrong rvoi-yhody s Mtien7lne 1TEH BILL TO BEREPDRTED Congress. However, Likely to Be Slow to Sanction Certain Specific Projects. RIVALRY AMONG PROMOTERS Civil Ciervlce Commission, Tired of Moving, Makes Plea for Permanent Quarters Army Affairs In Good Shape. Washington It Is piohnhle that the rlvera and harbors committee of congress will report n hill at this session recommending; tho appropria tion ot a good many millions of dol lars for the Improvement of the water ways of the country. It Is yet a mat ter of great doubt, however, if the sanction of the committee vvlll ho given to certnln specllle projects In favor of which thero has been coun-try-wldo agitation. It may he, per haps It Is safer to say probably vvlll he, tho opinion of the committee that the recommendation for uti appropriation to hegln the digging of a deep water way from tho lakes to the gulf or from Capo Cod to the Caiollnas shall bo put off until the congressional wa terways commission, which has been studying tho general subject of com mercial highway Improvements, shall have turned In Its icport. Tho friends of the deep waterway from Chicago to tho ICads' Jetties aro active In their methods of promoting tho plan which they have at heait. Tho same thing hold true of the men who want congress to sanction tho ship channel from Cape Cod down through tho coast states to a point somewhere In South Carolina or pos sibly Georgia. There Is an Intense amount of rivalry between the piotno tors of these two great plans, but tho rivalry Is kept under tho surface as much as possible In order thnt tho promotion offortB may not caiibc con troversy enough to upset the chances of success of either project. Other Highway Projects. The Mississippi valley waterway and tho coast line waterway are not 1 tho only Interior commercial high-1 way plans which have friends in con-1 gress. The projects which have been , suggested and to a considerable ex-, tent ndvanced In planning, nre tinnier- j our. The southern Htntes want easier water communication between differ ent points, and there are plans for wntervvny Improvement In tlie north nnd northwest. When President Taft was In New, Orleans at a meeting of the water ways congress he said a kindly word for tlie general plan of Improving the rivers of the country, hut he advised making hasto slowly. As soon as tho president finished his speech nnd tho ' men who aro devoting their time and j energies to paving the wav for water- j way legislation had had time to digest , tho rematks, they met and In effect made a political Issuonit of the cam paign for deeper river channels Tho political aspect of the matter has to some extent Inlliienccd con gress, and representatives fiom many districts have been told In effect that they must use every effort to push waterway Improvements, even If their plans seem to tin antagonistic to the wishes of the loaders In congress and of the administration itself. To Investigate Fully Congress always has a way of meet ing demands for work along certain lines with n seeming approval ot their general features, but it also han a way of delaying things so that it can be given time for a survey of the field and obtaining of nn actual knowledge of the needs of tho e-ase. Tho fricndB of tho plan for an Immediate Improve ment of the waterways sav that con gress simply seeks a means of post ponement hoping that some of the de mands made will bo moderated. He this as It may, congress appointed a national waterways commission of which all tho members weie either senators or representatives. On this waterways commission are men who nro extremely conservative on the subject and men who havo been Insistent that tho work should be begun at once. Tho chnlrman of tho committee, Senator Theodore K. Hurton of Ohio, was for somo years prior to his election to tho senate chairman of the house commlltco on rivers nnd harbors, Mr. Hut ton knows nil about overy harbor and strenm In tho United States nnd It Is admitted by tho men who think that he Is too conservative that he haB a pretty clear idea of the needs of every lo cality. Senator Lorlmer of Illinois has been for many years nn active advocate of u ship channel from Chlcngo to the Oult of Moxlco. Mr. Lorlmor Is Impa tient of dolay. There aro other mem bers of tho commission who mny bo said to occupy tho middle ground In tho matter at ntako. .It is expected that before long tho commission will mako Its report. MeIt Board Wants Home. As tho country haB been told re cently, It Is probable that congreBB will Investigate the entlro civil sen Ico tynteni of the government with n view of having both tho letter nnd spirit of tho law apply to promo tions as well as to appointments, It Ib probablo that the civil service com mlrblonors who nro atntloned In Washington wish thnt e-ongrehs would, in audition to investigating the work ings of the ayBtom, make a rigid ex amination of tho building In which the ofhclnlB of the service nre obliged to transne' their business, with a view to providing for them better qua rlers. Thero have been some communica tions sent to congrqss which In a de scriptive wny tho word "unique" fits admirably, but It Is likely that no paper intended for any president ever contained a more striking paragraph than ono which occurs In tho mes sage which was sent not long ago by the civil service commissioners to the chief of tho nation's authorities. The commissioners aro tired of be ing moved about ftom place to plnce. and nro particularly tired of their present quarters. There Is somo hu mor In tho situation, mid It is shown hy this paragraph which occurs In an ofllclal letter which carries the slg nature of Ocn. John C. Hlack, the pres ident of tho civil service hoard, with the slgtmturcB of his fellow commis sioners added. Humorous Protest. "The moral element In this propo sition, Mr. President, Is worthy of con side! ntlon. A mnu is hardly respected lu-ad of the family until he owns a roof under which he may gather with his family. Any bureau" f depart u.ent of flic government wholly peri patetic and without permanent qunr leilng Is subject to suspicion and n, slighting consideration. Wo want to he helped out of this situation." This plea hordciB on pathos, but It has a strength of Its own, and con gress has been asked to give that heed to tho request of Gen. Hlack and his colleagues, which will glvo them more room nnd will be In keeping with the dignity of their work. Tho day when civil service Is mentioned by members and senators with the sneer of Uoscoe Conkllng aB "snivel sot vice." hns gone by, nnd while the work of the commlssloneis has robbed the congressmen of much patronage, It Is likely that they will see to It that habitable quarters nre given to the ollkials and their employes. It Is hardly probablo that the coun try leali.cK the growth of the civil service. The employes of tho com mission supervise and complete the work of 1,550 local boards composed of 4,0'JO members, distributed through out the territorial extent of tho United States, Hawaii, the Isthmus of Pana ma and the islands of I'orto Itlca. There are now 225,000 In the competi tive class, and in the last fiscal year ll.ere were nearly 200,000 applications for enmlnatlon. Army Bill Meets Favor. Congress Is taking more kindly to the army appropriation bill this year than . r.s bun the cami for a long tlm Secretary of War Dickinson managed to get several millions of dollars from the estimates for the support of the land forces, and un der his direction (he chiefs of the different bureaus made reductions that have appealed to the members of congress as an evidence that economy this year Is the army's watch word. General Leonard Wood before long will bo made chief of staff of the United States army with headquarters In Washington Gen Wood Is the ranking eillieer of the service. If the general weie to he ordered into tho Held In caso of war he could havo placed under his orders within two months over n half million Americans armed with the latest type of Ameri can ride, the new model Sprlngflold, which Is believed by American army olllclals lo ho the best weapon known to modern military heience The house committee on military affairs at Its healings on tho needs of the army complimented Gen. Cm irier of tlie ordinance department on the marked reductions that he hnd made In expenses, reductions that the general showed were- possible while they did not tend in any way to do crease the elllclency of the service. The committee reported favorably on the recommendation that a re serve supply of one million rifles of tho modem approved typo be provid ed. When the authorized limit of ono million Is icached the manufacture of the rifles will be stopped, only to bo tnken up again when the necessity Is shown or when new Inventions mnkc new rifles Imperative. No Need for Large Army. Congress does not believe that the United Stntes will ever need an enor mous army for war purposes. It takes It for granted that the navy will bo able to keep fill foreign foes nt a dis tance and that being safe from Invas ion tho army of half a million men at the outset will be Biiuitient to meet any seemingly possible emergency. Tho nrmy officers, however, look at the mattur In nnother light. They Bny that the most unexpected thing hap pen In military affairs nnd that It would be little less than a sin for tho United Stntes to be unprepared ns It was at the time of the opening of the Spanish war. Congress has been told that thero Ib no tlrat-class power other than the United States which cannot put Into the Held almost in stantly an army of li.OOO.OOO men. Thero Ib a much closer relation ex isting today than over before botween tho regsjlnr service nnd the national guard. It Is the Intention of tho wnr depaitnient to order tho regulnra next summer into camp with regiments of tho Btate troopB In many parts or the country for the purpose of Instructing tho civilian soldlerB in tho art of war nnd of bringing about n better under standing and a feollng of closor fellow ship between officers of the nation and state. GKORGI3 CMNTON. Turkish Retrogression. Atdatlc, Turkoy had a clvillzntlon thousands of years ago. Thu Intorior of that country Is populated today by farmers, to whom modern knives and lorks nro unknown; the spoons thoy use aro of wood I'.nd each family makes Its own.