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About The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923 | View Entire Issue (June 7, 1901)
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How L'ctitia Kept Decoration Day
Lctltla came down the path and Into
the room with a Joyful little hop, Hklp
and jump. The room was Htnnll and
dark, ami a pile of hlnck cloth on the
table seemed to make It darker. I.Kltla
tood still for a moment until her eyes
became accustomed to the gloom but
her tongue did not havo to wait.
"Cousin 'Liza?" she began.
Tho woman, who was standing bc
sldo the table cutting a boy's jacket
out of an old coat, looked up for a mo
niont and then bent again over her
work. "It's you, Is It. Lctltla?" she
"Ycs'm," answered Letltla. She made
her way around tho tabic and stood
beside her cousin, waiting until sho
could speak. Sho knew by long cxpo
rlcnco when It was wise to do bo. At
lust sho drew a long sigh of relief;
there was very llttlo margin left, but
Cousin 'Liza had "got It nil out" with
"Now, Cousin 'I.Ira," sho said, hap
pily. "Well, what Is It, child?" answered
Cousin 'Liza, carrying her work to tho
window and beginning to baste up tho
Lctltla drew a llttlo stool to tho
window opposite her cousin. Tho light
fell full on her happy face and shining
"It's Just tho loveliest thing, Cousin
'Liza!" sho said. "You seo it'o this
way: Next week Is Decoration Day.
Thoro's always been Decoration Day, I
guess, but 1 novcr know about It be
fore So Miss Carrlo's going to glvo us
a holiday, and In tho afternoon wo'ro
going to put (lowers on tho soldiers'
graves. Wo'ro to form a processions,
and tho girls will wear white, Bomo
with red ribbons and somo with bluo,
so's to make red, white and blue, you
seo, and tho boys will wear tiny Hags
In their buttonholes; and tho minis
ter's going to meet ub at tho cometery;
and thoro'll bo singing we practiced
somo today and Isn't It lovely? I am
60 glad wo have Miss Carrie this year;
sho thinks of tho nicest things!"
Cousin 'Liza shut her lips tightly.
Sho dared not look at tho radiant llttlo
faco opposlto her.
"I don't approvo of It nt all," sho
said sillily. "I think Cnrrlo Adams haa
too many now-fangled notions. 'Taint
proper to my mind."
All tho happy light faded out of
Lotltla's faco, but sho did not say ono
word. Cousin 'Liza looked nt tho
child, battling so silently and bo brave
ly with hor disappointment, and her
volco grow sharp with tho pain of It.
"I never did bco why men should get
all tho honor," sho said. "I guess tho
womon had Just as hard flghta at homo,
and nobody over thought of houorlug
Lctltla looked up wonderlngly.
"Why, Cousin 'Liza, did they?" sho ex
claimed. "You Jest ask Ilathshcha DrlggB and
Nancy Anderson; I guess they'll tell
Lctltla sat on her stool thinking very
seriously. Just outsldo tho window
was a lilac bush, covered with cones of
purplish buds; as It Bwayed In tho
wind, Its leaves mako a flickering
tanglo of Bunllght and shadow at Lotl
tla's feet. Suddenly her faco bright
ened; Bho wont over to Cousin 'Liza
and leaned coaxlngly against her.
"CoiiBln "Liza," sho Bald, "If I can't
go with tho others to decoration, can
I go over and Beo Mlas Pago and old
Mrs. Prlco and ask them about war
times? They ain't men, you know,"
she added, sorlouBly.
Cousin 'Liza looked uncomprehond
Ingly at hor for a second sho had al
ready forgotten her own excuse; thon
a grim smllo touched her lips. "Well,
yes, I guesa you can," sho Bald.
"Oh, thank you so much, you dear
Cousin 'Liza!" cried Letltla, kissing
her enthusiastically. "I'm going up
stairs now; I'll bo sure to bo back tlmo
enough to pick up tho pieces and sot
After alio had gone Cousin 'Liza's
work dropped Into hor lap and hor
forehead roughened aa if wlt'a pain.
"Thero's no uso fussing," Bho Bald.
"I dunno how wo'ro going to get
through, n"ywny; and I ran't get tho
child a whlto dresi. And she shan't
go without It! I ain't going to havo
pooplo aay I can't support her! She's
got to glvo It up, that's all." Sho bent
over tho coat again, but thoro was
somo trouble with hor eyoa. Onco or
twlco Hho rubbed them Impatlontly;
nobody guessed what sho Buffered In
refusing Letltla "thlngB llko other
When Letltla camo back sho was as
bright aB If sho did not know what
disappointment wob. Sho got down on
th,o floor and carefully picked up all
tho ravellngs and pieces, her touguo
going merrily nil tho while. At suppor
bho glanced out of tho window to tho
"When do you suppose It will
bloom?" alio asked.
"I guess likely by next week," an
swered Coualu 'Liza.
Letltla smiled contentedly, but aald
Tho next morning sho started for
Bchool as usual, stopping at tho gato
to wave good-by to Cousin 'Liza. As
Letltla turned from tho gato this morn
ing her faco grow eober; but sho
walked Bteadlly on. A group of girls
were standing In tho school ard, and
they called her eagorly.
"Letltla, what color ribbons, are you
going to wear?"
"Oh, Letltla, my mothor sajs I can
havo a new drcsa!"
"Letltla, lot mo march with vou?"
"No, I want to. I aald bo irst!"
Lctltla looked soberly arou.id the
group and a llttlo quiver choked hor
"I guess It won't mako any differ
ence about tho marching, I mean. I
Tho girls looked at her In nmazo
ment "Letltla Hanks, what do you mean?"
"Why. Letltla. you've not to! w
can't got along without you; you'ro
our best singer!"
"Won't your cousin let you? Woll,
I think sho's Just tho stingiest"--
IiOtltla turned quickly. Her usually
gentlo faco was flushed with anger.
"I don't know what you moan, Lu
cllla Androws! I guess my cousin's
Just tho nicest cousin In tho world!
1 thought you woro my friend." Sho
broko off and walked away to tho ond
of tho play-ground. Just then LucIIla
ran after her penitently.
"Don't get mad, Lctltla! I'm real
sorry I truly am. It won Just be
cause I waB bo dreadfully disap
pointed." "So was I," nnswered Lctltla, still
soberly. "I didn't mean to get mad.
I guess I feel crooked somo way to
day," Hho added, slowly.
Tho bell rang then, and thoy had to
go In. Lotltla took her seat, still with
a Bcrloua faco, for Miss Carrlo was to
tell moro about tho Decoration Day
plans; alio wished that Bho could study
during tho talk, and she began think
ing over tho products of South Amor
ica, yet drifting betweon them camo
tho teacher's words. MIsb Carrlo wob
telling about a committee to Investi
gate records, and seo that all tho
graves and all tho old soldiers woro
honored. Suddenly a thought camo to
Letltla, and she forgot nil about tho
products of South America, nnd almost
spoko out loud. "Why, how funny. I'll
havo to bo a commlttco all by iny
Belf," aho said.
For tho noxt week Letltla was very
busy. Cousin 'Liza lot her havo noar
ly all hor afternoons for play, and
Letltla spent them In making visits
or In working up In her room. Cousin
'Liza asked no questions; Bho waB con
tented to Beo tho child happy.
Ono night nt supper Letltla looked
up BUddonly. Sho wna Just lifting hor
glasa of water, and sho put It down
nnd Btnred at Cousin 'Liza with eyes
shining with a new thought.
"Why, Cousin 'Liza!" sho exclaimed.
"Were you nllvo In tho war?"
"Of courso. child! What put that In
"Oh, nothing." answered Letltla.
with n happy llttlo laugh; "only It's
bo queor I nover thought of It beforo!
I guess those lllncs will bo lovely next
weok. You don't caro if I carry some
to old Mrs. Prlco when I go noxt
Thursday, do you?"
"Land no, child. You can havo tho
wholo bush if you want It; I don't
Lctltla opened her mouth to say
something; then Hho changed her mind
nnd only smiled happily acrosB tho
purplo top of tho lilac bush.
Decoration Day waB warm and
bright, and as soon as tho dishes woro
washed Lotltla went out In tho yard to
get her lilacs. She cut very carefully,
leaving somo still on tho bush. Cousin
'Liza was busy In tho kitchen. Letltla
ran hurriedly up-stalrs and came down
with something that sho put on tho
fllttlng-room tnblo; then she picked up
her lilacs and appeared onco moro at
tho kitchen door, hor bright faco shin
ing over her frngrant burden.
"I'm going now. Cousin 'Liza," sho
said. "I'll bo sure to bo back In tlmo
"You needn't hurry . It's going to
bo pretty warm today. It won't hurt
It dinner Is a llttlo late for onco."
"Oh. I'm bo glad!" aald Lotltla; "not
about tho hurrying, you know; but be
causo I'll havo moro tlmo for callB. I
guess Ifa going to bo a nice Decora
tion Day, Cousin 'Liza."
Sho nodded brightly, nnd then wont
happily down tho road. Cousin 'Liza
llnlshed her work, and thon went Into
the sitting-room, but stopped short ut
tho table. Thoro lay a pteco of paper
on which wore fastened two tiny flaga
tied together with a bit of red ribbon
and surrounded by a wreath of Ivy
leaves; under it waB a note, In care
ful, childish writing;
"Dear Dear Cousin 'Liza: I glvo
you this because It's Decoration Day,
and becauso you lived In war tlmo and
know all about It and becauBo you'vo
been so good so good to mo. I hopo
you'll llko tho Hags and tho wreath.
I thought mabo thoy would InBt bettor
thun Just flowers. I wish I could havo
niado It look hotter, but somehow tho
leaves would twist a llttlo crooked, but
you won't mind It bo very much, will
you? Good-by, dear Cousin 'Liza, from
The woman stood looking at tho
awkward llttlo wreath. Thon sho cov
ered her faco with hor hard, worn
hands that had labored so faithfully,
but so proudly and resentfully, through
tho hard years slnco tho "wnr tlmo."
Ilecauso sho could not glvo Lotltla tlio
beat and fluent, sho was trying to keep
her from ovorythlng-to mako her
proud and cold and bitter llko her
self; but now she lifted tho paper
gently, almost reverently, nnd laid It In
tho upper drawer of tho old secretary
thon she took It out again and pinned
It to tho wall.
"Letltla '11 llko It better bo," alio said
"Sho wouldn't understand tho other'
And I guess I'll mako somo rasln cako'
sho alius did llko that best of overv
Lotltla went down tho road with hor
load of nodding lilac plumes. Onco or
twlco sho met somo of tho schoolgirls
who called out to hor; but sho did not
mind or nt least not much. Was sho
not keeping her own Decorntlon Day?
Sho went first to old Mrs. Price's.
Mrs. Price was ovor sovonty ami
growing vory foeblo; but her oyes woro
still bright and her senses sharp. She
welcomed Letltla warmly. Lotltla sat
down and looked at hor shyly; sho had
thought It would bo easy, but found
It hard to begin. Presently Mra. Prlco
"Thoso aro real pretty laylocks," Bho
"Ycs'm," nnswered Lotltla; "would
you llko some? I brought some for
you If you would. You bco It's Decora
tion Day, and they're going to deco
rato tho trravcB of tho soldlnrn! hut
Coustn 'Ltza said she didn't think It
was fair only to decorate tho men
when tho women did bo much too; bo
I brought you these, nnd thon I'm go
ing to four otherB."
Mra. Prlco took tho flowers In hor
old knotted hand. "If that Isn't for
all the world llko you, Lctltla Banks!
You alius did havo Bech queor notions!
Hut I'm real oblecgcd for tho lnylocks,
Her oyes grew dim and scorned to
bo looking far away. Letltla Btood still
and wnlted. Finally sho put hor soft,
warm hand over tho old wrinkled ono.
"I guesa I've got to go now," Bho Bald.
"I'm going way up to Miss Ahdorson'B,
you know. Thank you bo much for all
tho stories you'vo told inc. I guess
you'ro glad you woro so bravo, ain't
Tho old woman caught tho child's
hand and held her back.
"Look hero, Lotltla Bnnks," alio aald.
"I Jest want to tell you ono thing.
People can bo Jest as bravo right along
ovcry day aa thoy wcro In war times.
isow bo 8uro you don t ever forget
"No'm, I won't," answered Lotltla
seriously. "1 guess that's tho way my
coualn 'Liza la, Isn't aho?"
Tho old woman dropped hor hand
nnd gavo hor a llttlo push. "You'd
hotter bo going, child It's gettln' hot,"
aho said. Sho could not tell her that
Bho and 'Liza PcrkliiB had quarreled
In thoso war times and uover Bpokon
Letltla wont on to Miss Nancy An
derson's and mndo a call thoro; hut
at tho other places she left llttlo notes
with her flowers. It would havo taken
too long to stop at each place. As It
was It was uoon when Bho returned,
warm and tired from her long walk.
Cousin 'Liza waB watching for her, and
bathed her faco and smoothed hor hair
"Tho wreath is real pretty," Bho said,
awkwardly. "I pinned It on tho wall."
"Did you llko It?" asked Lotltla, her
weary llttlo faco all smiles. "Oh,
Coualn 'Liza, I'm so glad!"
After dinner sho began wiping the
dishes, but Cousin 'Liza made hor Ho
down; alio had not thought that sho
was tired, but In a very few minutes
sho waB fast asleep.
Sovoral houra later alio waB wakened
by the sound of voices. Tho room wub
cool and ahady and full of fragranco
from tho lilacs outsldo tho windows;
and In tho dim, sweet gloom Letltla
saw Cousin 'Liza and old Mrs. Price,
both with faces strangely moved.
"Why, Mrs. Prlco!" Bho exclaimed,
sitting up in surprise.
Tho old woman turned. "I thought
I'd come over seoln' Its Decoration
Day and I don't got out very often,"
sho said. "Sam didn't huppen to bo
UBlng tho horses. I brought you somo
preserved ginger, Letltla."
"Oh, thauk you, Mrs. Prlco!" said
Letltla. "I think your glngor Is Just
tho nicest I over tasted."
Mrs. Prlco peered through tho lilac
bushea. "Who's that coming up tho
road?" Bho naked.
Letltla left tho lounge and rnu and
looked over hor shoulder. "Why, It's
Miss Nancy Anderson and Mrs.
Brlggs," sho sajd, delightedly; "and I
do bollovo thoy'ro coming hero! And
why, thero aro Mlsa Itlco and Miss
Phebo Rico behind them!"
CoiiBln 'Liza rose in a flurry; it had
boon ycarB since sho had had so many
vlHltors, but Letltla waB already at tho
gate welcoming them. Sho camo back
radiant with tho four old ladles be
hind her. "Its a real surprise party,"
Bho cried; "and I nlways wanted a sur
"Woll, I guess you've got oue now,"
said Cousin 'Liza. She was shaking
hands with her guests; tho unwonted
uesa of company made her nervous,
but tho welcome in her faco supple
mented hor awk. urd words. In a mo
ment sho beckoned Letltla aside.
"Wo might get oupper whllo they're
here,' sho Bald. "I guess thoro'll bo
enough. I baked a rasln cako this
"Letltla," called Mlsa Nancy, "wait
a moment. 1 brought you some of my
doughnuts. I had real good luck with
"And I made somo sugar cookies,"
said Mrs. Hrlgga. "I thought mobbe
you'd llko a few, Lotltla."
"And wo brought you somo of our
blackberry joll," chimed In the Mlssea
Then thoy nil looked at each othor
and began to Inugh, while Letltla, with
a plato of cookies In ono hand nnd a
bag of doughnuta In the other, gazod
In happy bowllderment at tho jar of
"It don't look Jest llko war times,
does it?" said Mrs. UrlggB. i miad
when wo thought cookies was a won
"And when wo sent all our Joll to
tho Boldlors," added Miss Rico.
"Oh!" breathed Letltla, Boftly.
Sho ran In and out, helping Cousin
Liza get tho suppor. Tho old lnd.s
talked eagerly togethor; It was years
slnco they had all met boforo.
Presently Lctltla called them to sup-
por. Thoy filed out to tho dining
room and seated themselves with llttlo
nno, company airs, as befitting tho rnro
delight of tho occasion. Lotltln, at tho
head of tho tablo, could ecaily eat
at all. Onco, through the opon window
tho sound of fresh, girlish voices float
ed In to her and she caught tho flutter
of whlto dresses; they were coming
back from tho "Docorntlon." Letltla
looked around nt her aurprlso party
with shining eyes. "Oh, I'm so glad
thoy weren't left out!" sho thought.
Down by tho river tho quiet graves
of tho dead heroes were drifted deop
with flowers. Outsldo Cousin 'Liza's
window tho lilacs nodded and swayed,
their shadowB, like faint memories,
touching lightly tho old facoa of thoso
unnoted patriots, who had given of
their beat nnd dearest In the war tlmo
bo long ago. Mabel N. Thurston, In
Tii mi I ii r Hkunk Skim.
The prlnclpnl thing In successful
tanning Is to remove nil grease nnd
flesh from tho hide, nnd to rub well
whllo drying, as this 1b tho only way
to make the pelts soft, sayB Animal
World. This cleaning proceas la called
"fleshing," ufter which the akin ehould
be washed In Btrong suda to remove nil
grease from tho fur, ufter which they
should bo well rubbed In hardwood
sawdust, which takes out all remain
ing grease. After tanning, dry In tho
shade, and without the heat of flro or
sun. To whip them with a rattan
after thoroughly drying brings out ad
ditional life and gloss to the fur. It
pays to take the greatest posslblo
pains as flrst-clasB skins uro not only
In demand, but bring sufllclently high
er price to pay for tho labor.
All hides must bo fleshed off, and
If dry must soak In soft water until
perfectly soft boforo tanning.
Fleshing beam can bo mndo from
an outsldo alah from any log, with
two legs on one end, so It will set up
the right height. Tho fleshing knife
can bo made of an old piece of scythe,
or n straight knife, with edgo turned a
little, und n handle at each end. After
fleshing well, place tho Bklns In tho
process given below nnd let them soak
two hours; then pull them each way
a few minutes, nnd let them hang over
the tub and drain for two hours, and
repeat until tanned, which will bo
about twenty-four hours for small
hides. When tanned, wnsh them In
warm soft water with a llttlo salnratus
and soft soap; then pull and rub them
well while drying, to keep them soft.
Tho tanning liquor la made by add
ing to two quarts sour buttermilk
two quarts topld soft water; add
twelvo oz. salt, half oz. bornz, ono oz.
saltpetre; then srowly add, with agita
tion, four oz. sulphuric ncld, und see
that tho chemicals aro thoroughly dis
solved. add, with agitation, four oz. sulphuric
acid, and seo that the chemicals nro
Sulphuric ncld Is a dangerous pois
on, nnd we advise purchasing the exact
quantity wanted, so that tho acid may
not bo kept standing nbout. This Is n
sure way to prevent uny mistako or
Another liquor may bo niado by
adding to two quarts sharp vinegar
ton ounces alum, well pulverized, ono
ounce borax, ono ounce saltpetre and
ten ounces salt.
It takes a little more tlmo for tho
last process, but It is equally good;
both mixed together make a very
HoYen-Ymr CoiupnrUon of Wlirntn.
About sixty dlfferontly named sorts
of wheat aro annuully grown In com
parative teat at the Ohio Experiment
Station. In this test tho different va
letlew aro grown ou plots of one-tenth
ncre, tho plots being arranged so that
a standard variety, Pouqulte'a Velvet
Chaff, appears on every third plot In
tho series, and In computing tho results
tho yield of a given variety la com
pared with that of the two plots of
Velvet Chaff between which It grew.
Tho treatment of the crop Is as near
ly uniform for nil the varieties as pos
slblo. The land was selected In tho
first placo for Its apparent uniformity;
a tile drain Is laid at ono sido of every
plot; tho plowing Is dono across tho
plots; all aro manured nllko with barn
yard manure, distributed by a manuro
spreader, which also la driven across
the plots, thus giving no opportunity
for differences hi tlmo of plowing or
manner of manuring to effect tho yield,
and the greatest possible caro Is taken
In seeding, harvesting and threshing.
Uolow aro tho general results of this
test for tho soven years, 1893 to 1899,
Tho following sorts havo exceeded
tho Velvet Chaff In ylold: Poolo and
Mealy by nn nvcrngo of moro than
four bushelB per ncro each; Red Rus
sian by nearly four bushels; Nigger,
Early Ripe, Curroll's Proline. Gypsy
and Egyptian by two to threo bushels;
Mediterranean, Now Monarch and
Democrnt by ono to two bushels, and
Uearded Monarch, Valloy, Deltz, Lob
anon and Hickman by less than ono
Of tho sorts which havo fallen bo
low Velvet Chaff In nvorngo ylold aro
Jones' Winter Flfo, which haa aver
aged moro than three bushels less;
Thelea and Sliver Chaff, between two
and three bushels less; Royal Aus
tralian (or Clawson), Early Red Claw
Bon, Yellow Gypsy, Missouri Dlue
Stem, Now Longberry, Lehigh nnd
Martin's Amber between ono and two
bushels less, and Fulcaster, Hlndos
tan and Early Whlto Leador, whoso
average yield has been leas than a
bushel below that of Velvet Chaff.
Thoso testa havo been niado on a
rather thin, somewhat Bandy clay. On
gravelly loams tho Valley has made a
relatively larger yield than that
quoted above. No variety has proved
oxompt from attack by tho Hosslan
fly, but Mealy, Mediterranean, Fulcas
ter and Clawson soom to Buffer less
from tho fall attack of this Insect than
most othor sorts. Tho Ohio Station
has novor succeeded In growing spring
Debts of the World.
The recent announcement of n new
British loan of f300.000.000 lends In
terest to a statement Just Issued by
tho treasury bureau of statistics re
garding tho nntlonnl debts of the
world. This statement shows In brief
that tho national debts of tho world
aggregated moro than 130,000,000,000 nt
tho eloso of tho nineteenth century, or
ten times as much as In the closing
years of tho eighteenth century.
In 1793, at tho beginning of the Na
poleonic wars, the national debts of
the world nmounted to approximately
two and a half billion dollars; in 1900
they were, according to the beat In
formation obtainable, thirty-one bil
lion dollars. In general terms It may
be said thnt tho world's national In
debtedness In 1900 aggregated ten times
what It did at tho beginning of tho
nineteenth century. Meantime popu
lation hns Increased 150 per cent, and
gold nnd silver, which form the basis
of the money with which debt pay
ments aro mado, 300 per cent, though
tho proportion of the existing gold and
silver which Is turned Into coin Is now
much greater than at the beginning of
mo nineteenth century, while the utili
zation of tho various forms of credit
aa currency may have Increased tho
world's circulating medium qulto In
proportion to the lncreaso In Its na
Whether national wealth has In
creased as rapidly as national Indebt
edness is equally dlfllcult to determine,
since official catlmates of national
wealth woro made at tho beginning of
the century In tho case of only a few
nations. The wealth of the United
Kingdom, France, Spain and the Unit
ed States In 1800 is estimated at $20,
214,640,000, whllo Mulhall in 1S93 esti
mated their wealth at $105,750,829,000,
or practically ten times that at tho
beginning of the century. Tho debts
of these four nations In 1793 aggre
gated but $1,630,279,000, and In 1900
wore 111,704,000,000 or seven times ns
mucn as In 1793.
Thl3 enormous increase In national
Indebtedness Is chiefly tho result of
wars, standing nrmtes, aud works of
public utility. To this may be added
a tendency In many cases to create an
nnnunl deficit by expenditures exceed
ing revenues made In deference to
popular demand, which deficits ulti
mately take the form of funded or
bonded Indebtedness. But the bulk of
these enormous uouts Is from war and
war preparations and the construction
of public works, such as railways,
canals, harbors, and the improvement
or wnterwaya. Of tho railways of tho
world, whoso total cost has been esti
mated at $30,000,000,000, about one
third aro owned by natlonnl govern
ments, indicating that approximately
one-third of tho Increase In Indebted
ness has been applied to tho works of
this character. But tho fact that great
wars have compelled the nations en
gaged In them to Instantly mako
enormous additions to their funded In-
debtedness clearly Identifies this as tho I
principal factor In tho great lncreaso
In natlonnl indebtedness which has
characterized tho history of national
finances In tho nlneteonth century. In
1748 tho debt of England was 76,000,
000, whllo tho Seven Years' War
brought It In 1763 to about 133,000,
000. Tho years of peaco Intervening
between that dnto and tho beginning of
the American war somewhat reduced
the debt, but at tho termination of tho
war with the American colonies In 1784
tho debt of England waa 273,000,000.
A reduction followed during the ten
yeara of peace, but the twenty-ono
years of war from 1794 to 1815 left
the total debt at 902.000,000, tho
highest point which It has ovor reach
ed. Tho thlrty-nlno years of peace
which followed reduced It to 800,
000.000, but the Crlmcnn war, which
lasted two years, again Increased It to
834,000,000, whllo tho South African
war at the close of tho century record
ed another lncreaso of 30,000,000 of
funded Indebtedness, besides n consid
erable lncreaso by exchequer bonds, to
which may still bo added tho recent
loan of 60,000,000 Just announced.
"Will It my?"
This la the query propounded by
Prof. Baker In his bulletin on tho
construction and caro of earth roads.
Ho answers It luferontlally In tho af
firmative by saying: All improve
ments and advances In civilization
cost. Will tho suggested improve
ments In construction nnd mainte
nance pay? Thoy will mako bettor
roads, which will decreaso somewhat
tho cost of travol; but tho saving In
cost of transportation nnd miscellane
ous travol will probably not ho equal
to tho Increased cost of securing tho
better roads. To live In a good houso
coats moro than to live In n poor ono.
Good roads aro deslrablo for tho same
reason that a man buys a carriage or
builds n lino nouao, I. o becauso thoy
uro a comfort and n pleasure. Whether
good roads "will pay" or not, deponds
upon tho relative estlmato puc upon
money and lnbor on the ono side and
comfort nnd convenience of travol on
tho othor. Tho man who prefers to
rldo in n lumber wagon becauso It Is
cheaper than a carriage, will prefer to
ride In tho mud instead of spondlng
money or labor In improving tho
roads. It la cortaln that comfort nnd
easo of travel add to the- knowledgo
nnd lntelllgenco of tho cltlzon. and
thus Indirectly, but nono tho leas cer
tainly, ndd to his ability to get on In
tho world. A reasonablo expenditure
for good roads Is nlways a good In
vestment financially, socially and
educationally for tho community.
Wo nro ndmlnlshcd to "nover do
things by halves," but how about
ODenluc oysters? Chlcaco News.
OLD MOTHER HUBBARD.
Old Mother Hubbard
Went to hor cusbonrd
To get her poor dor a lxne;
llUt when she got there
Her cupboard was burn,
And o hor poor dog got none.
Hut young Mother Hubbard
does not to her cupboard
To get hor wise doc a bono;
Hlio Rends doggie down
To the meat-shop In town
With a note and lie always gats one,
Then ho says, "How-wow!" as hard ai
Which means "I thank you, Mr. Meab
From I'ets and Animals.
A Wonderful Boy.
Left deaf, dumb and blind In his In
fancy, young Orris Benson of Now
York promises to be a rival of Laura
Brldgman and Helen Kcllnr. At tha
Stato Institution for tho Instruction ol
Deaf Mutes he Is regarded as u prodi
gy because of the development of that
Btrango f- culty called "tho sixth
sense," and becauso of tho fact that he
can unswer questions orally.
Tho boy Is the sou of a country car
penter of Uiahamvllle, N. Y. Disease
left tho babo deaf, dumb and blind.
Tho child grew up In this condition,
having no instruction until he wns i
years old. Thon ho was taken to tlu
Now York Institution.
Training at this school has made
him a master of tho manunl language,
tho boy rending It by tho senso of
touch only. By n purely mechanical
process he haa been taught to utter
many words nnd sentences, especially
thoso in answer to micMtlmiK ntul
stranger than this, recent experiments
havo shown that he may bo made to
hear spoken words.
But all of this la accondary to the
boy's wonderful sense of touch. In
fifty minutes after ho was shown the
arrangement of u typewriter ho could
write intelligibly on It nud now he
is an expert. Ho uses tho machine for
all written work in school, and In
his letters to homo aud friends he
ahows originality and imagination.
Aa a modeler, however, ho oxcels.
Guided only by his sense of touch and
his power of grasping description, he
has made a model of the Grant monu
ment ut Riversldo which would ue
At 14 yeara of age he mado a water
wheel, connecting It with tho llguro of
a dancer, bo that when tho water was
turned on the paddles tho figure be
camo an nctlvo toy, almost liteliko in
At the Institute young Benson, who
13 now 18 years old, Is tiking tho
usual studies history, geography,
language and arithmetic. The speed
and accuracy of his work In mental
arithmetic uro surprising. In geog
raphy ho puts together a sectional map
of tho United States, and with a rapid
touch ho can identify any ono of the
states, if handed to him. On a relief
map his Angers locate cities, rivers and
tho several mountain ranges, with all
of which ho Is familiar. Ho took a
great interest in tho Spanish war, and
through tho aid of his boy frionds who
can read tho papers ho kept well
posted In nil Its principal events.
During thoso days he passed much of
his tlmo whittling out with his pen
knife little models of battleships,
schooners nnd other boats.
On the playground, with ono hand
on tho nrm of n friend, ho joins In al
most any gamo with nil the enthusl.
asm of a hearty boy.
The t'ooklug of Cereal.
Oatmeal is a tlmo-honored breakfast
dish on American tables, but tho old
stylo of preparation, requiring sovoral
hours' of cooking, Is fast becoming a
thing of tho past, and probably to tha
detriment of tho people Partially pre
pared or so-called breakfast foods uro
now taking tho placo of boiled oats or
tho original "oa.tmeal." Thoy consist
of the partially baked or softoned ce
reals prepared In different ways, or
sometimes eaten practically wholo, as
In the cnau of cracked wheat. Nearly X
all tho cereals aro represented in these
partially prepared or breakfast foods.
Oats probably occupies the first rank,
and oatmeal in somo form of prepara
tion Is almost a constant article of
diet on tho breakfast tablo. Wheat and
malzo aro not far behind, aud these
products aro also used to a vory largo
extent as breakfast diets. Many of
thorn havo been subjected to a high
temperature by which tho starch
grains aro softened nnd formed into a
kind of paste. Tho hulls and skins
aro removed from other corenls, so that
tho product does not represent the
wholo grain, but only a portion thoro- i
of. In Bomo cases, as In tho manufac
ture of cereallne, tho germ Is also re
moved, as well as n portion or all of
tho outer envelopes of tho grain. Ono
object In this manufacture nppcars to
be the preparation of a food which
can bo mado ready for tho tnblo In a
few moments. Thoro 1b no question,
however, that too little time Is con
sumed In tho final cooking of theao
breakfast foods, and lnatond of U3ing
only a few moments In their prepara
tion, their wholesomeneas, palatablllty,
and digestibility would be greatly Im
proved by subjecting them for a long- ''
er tlmo to tho temporaturo of boiling
water In tho process of final prepara.
Many salad recipes call for tarragon
vinegar. This Is simply vinegar fla-
vored with tarragon leaves, which are
easily grown In any garden. A good
salad vinegar may bo prepared by put
ting a handful of tarragon loaves Into
a Jar of vinegar, with a bit of plmpor
nol and garlic. Whou this haB stood
for a week It may bo bottled and put X
awnv for future uso.
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