The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, February 22, 1901, Image 11

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tjWMMUlHli I r MOT MI'I " i " "" - 1-',T "
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Phil, the Fisherman's Son.
"So now, what'ro yo goln tor do?
Yo lost tlio chnnst o' goln' on tho
Northern Light, nn' yo wuz on'y Joot
lu tlmo, o' course, to loao the Job
.nriioro. Yo ain't nny llko yor father,
an "
"Oil, don't ma'am," pleaded tho bit;
hoy at tho window.
"An yo ain't llko yer brother both
on 'em luyln' out thoro on Ocorgos till
tho Uia trump noun's. Ken yo toll of
yo've got any Rpttnk or goahoad about,
yea. tit all, 'sldoa wantln' tor go tor
I'till did not nnswor, only lookol
sullenly and unseolngly out ot tho
window at tho driving sleet that
throatouod nt times to dash In tho
panes. When an occasional lull catno,
a gllmpso of tho "backshoro" wan
caught, with tho ocean spray dashing
to an enormous height along tho rocky
coast. Tho storm of words from Phil's
Htopmother, and the raging of tho ale
meats without both helped to stir u
a strange commotion In the breast of
tho llHhonnan'a boy. Ho looked out,
and felt that ho would rather face the
Hlcot and tho wind.
Now, as ho gazed dully Into tho up
roar without, In an Instant his eyo
dilated, mid his vision suddenly glowed
with a certain Intelligence that nearly
betrayed itself by a quick ejaculation
from hla partod lips. Ho got closer to
tho window and looked more Intently.
Then, without a word ho Jumped to hla
feet, and. catching up his hat, made
for tho door.
An ho passed out into tho yard, ho
toppod at au old shed, and taking up
a gun and a heavy hank of codllno
that lay In a cornor, ho was out and
away In n moment, making for the
"back shore" uh fust as his sturdy legi
would curry him. Ho followed a bcatoa
path over knolls and hollows, and
keeping his gazo fixed steadily bofors
him, he at length buffeted, his way
through the florce tempest to tho long
popplo hcuch.
YchI There wan no doubt of It, now
a schooner had struck on Wolf liar,
and moat of tho crow hnd taken to tho
rigging. Tho tblo was low, and tlio
storm had toased tho vessel upon that
unlucky shoal, where somany other
had found tholr grave.
Phil did not stop to ask hlmnolt
what was tho best thing to bo douo.
Ho know what to do, as ho had soon
his father act promptly lu a llko situa
tion only two winters before It was
Impossible, ho know, for his lino to
reach the schooner from tho beach.
There was nothing for hlra but to got
out on Table Itock, ten feet distant.
Ho watched his chance. Meantime,
every passing moment was one of
wretchedness and misery for tho
shrieking men out there In the storm.
At times tho breakers were enormous.
Phil must hurry If he would do any
thing. Now or never, he thought, as tho
fury of tho waves lessened a bit. Hold
ing tlio gun high over his head, with
out hesitation ho ran down Into tho
bitterly cold water that surged and
swelled to his arm-pits, but ho reachod
the rock safely, and climbed upon II,
soaked and shivering. Ho could hard
ly keop his feet, but he uncoiled tho
linn, and fixed tho stick fastened at
the end of It Into tho gun muzzle.
With his heart pounding fiercely, ho
rnlnud tho gun, and carefully Blghtlng
over the vessel's deck, ho tow'ied tho
Like a live thing and lu.nost as
swift as light, tho lino shot out from
the rocks. Holding Its end firmly, ho
wntched It anxiously as tho wind bore
It out ot Its course, until thank Oodl
It foil and hung over tho bow. He
suw one of tho poor fellows force his
wuy along tho tloodod docks and grasp
the line Just as It scorned about to bo
blown away. H watched him with
all his heart In his eyes ns ho mado
his perilous way up tho rigging, with
u heavy rope bound to the line. In a
moment l'hll heard:
"Pull away!"
Jumping into the seething wator
again, and Just escaping being caught
lu a breaker, he ran high upon tho
ttiiore, and hauled in tho ropo ns rapid
ly as he could. Winding Its stout end
about tho base of a amnll boulder and
Bocurlng It, he waved his arms to the
men In tho rigging. In tholr danger
ous place they mndo the ropo taut and
attached to It a string running loop
of cnuvus. A bravo young fellow was
the first to test It, and drawing him
Belt along with all his strength, he
soon found himself by Phil's side.
Dack went tho loop by means of n
line the mon had tied to it and ashore
enmo another man, and do on, until
tho crow ot fourteen found themselves
thanking God and blessing Phil that
thoy were safe ashore again, though
they wore the losers of nearly all their
earthly possessions.
Somehow or other, the storm-boaten
party at lost found lta way to the
houso of Mrs. Torroy, Phil's step
mother. That Mrs. Torrey did posses
a heart was evidenced by her silicon;
und tireless efforts to mako the half
drowned men comfortable; and that
she succeeded lu doing so was plain
from the thankful ejaculations of tho
"Phil," she said to the boy, later on;
"I c'n seo now why it wa'n't meant
ye sh'ld go out In the Northern Light;
an' I hope ye haint took It too much
tor hoart, my speakln' ter yo so. We'll
eeo If thoy alnt somo way In the world
'at yo o'n go ter acbool, ef yo want
ter. I sha'n't opposo yo no more. This
day's doln'B Is euough ter satisfy me
'at yo'ro o' tho hero Bort, like yor
father wuz."
PW1 did go to school, "worked his
way," as horoes often do, through a
collie, and Is not only an ornament
but an bouored leador In tho com
munity In which ho lives. Frank
Walcott Hutt In Portland Transcript.
Mitta III for Itnail linprnvMimit.
Reports of somb of tho agricultural
meetings recently hold In Illinois ln
dluato that tho attempt to Interest
farmers lu tho subject of state aid
for the Improvement ot rouds Is meet
ing with some opposition. Tho objec
tion raised was that a stato tax would
mean that to Just the extent of tho
state tux paid by him, a citizen of ono
county would bo mado to pay for im
provements In another county that
would bo of no peisonal Interest or
value to lilin.
Is this position well taken? Can
thoro be it groat public Improvement
In ono part of a state that will be
valueless to tho people in other parts
of the state? Tho people In tho rural
districts of Illinois probably foel that
thoy have no Interest In the public Im
provements In Chicago, but Is it likely
that If no Improvements had been
made; If Chicago had remained tho
mud hole It was when old Fort Dear
born was built, that Illinois would be
the great stute It Is today? Would It
bare made tho great and rapid devel
opment It has oxperlouced without tho
stlmuloiis of a great city reaching out
for lta products?
No thoughtful man questions the
wisdom shown by the government In
encouraging the building ot transcon
tinental lines of railroad by Urge
grant of land or money, yet the same
sort of an objection might have been
made whoa the Union Pacific was
built, that Is rained now when state
aid In the building of wagon roads Is
proposed, viz: that It would only bene
fit the states through which It passod.
It Is generally admitted that the rail
roads nro the arteries ot coinmorce,
and therefore of value to every citizen
or tho United States. It thin bo true,
surely the wagon roads are tho veins
of commerco ana becauso they aro
nearest to the products on which the
citizens of our cguntry depend either
us consumers or exporters, the more
valunble. When the country roads aro
Impassable, as Is frequently their con
dition during tho winter season In the
corn bolt, farmers nro unable to haul
their produco to tho railroads and tho
shortago lu supply that such condi
tions breed, causes a rlso In prlcos, ot
which the middleman with a
stock on hand, reaps the bouoflt. As
soon as shipments are resumed the
market Is temporarily glutted and
prices drop before tho farmer has a
chance to realize on his shipments. If
all tho avenues of trade could be kept
open all tho year around, It would un
doubtedly bo better for all concerned,
certainly for tho railroads, who would
rather have enough business evory day
In the year to keop all their cars em
ployed than to have such a rush at
certain seasons that they are unable
to handle It. That tho railroads are
alive to their Interests In this matter
Is proved by the action of some of
them In shipping material for road Im
provement free or at a nominal cost.
If the grnln growor could bo suro of
good roads for hauling and good ship
ping facilities all the year around, he
would not feel obliged to sell bis grain
as soon as It is threshed rather than
tako tho risks ot getting It to market
later In the season, as he is often con
strained to do now. Nothing would so
greatly aid in thu economical distri
bution of produce nB good roads. Whon
tho corn crop falls In one state the
feeders ot livo stock want to purchase
tho corn ot some other stato ami tho
condition of the roads in that stato
over which It Is hauled may consid
erably nffect the prlco they will bo
compollod to pay.
In n country llko ours, what Is tor
tho best good ot tho whole is for tho
best good of tho Individual and no ono
can afford to opposo great public im
provements because ho falls to see di
rect personal advantage to himself.
Such a spirit Indulged In und carried
to Its legitimate ends would overthrow
all our Instltutliis, for the whole
pchimio ot government, of civilization
Itself, Is tho combined effort of all for
tho good of all. As tho good book puts
It: "No man livoth unto himself and
no man dleth unto himself." We can
not get very far from the golden rulo
without retrograding commercially as
well as morally. In a Inter Issue wo
hopo to give full particulars or the
road Improvement bllU recently Intro
duced lu the Illinois legla'aturo by
Representative Curtis.
Hurt Hale at Chicago.
Salos at the Chicago horse market
during tho week ending January 26
lncludod an unusually large number
of coach and drntt stock of u superior
order. Thero was considerable demand
on tho part of eastern buyers some
Individual animals bringing 1250 to
1350 and extra choice teams ot 4,200 to
1,440 pounds, $000 to $700. A good
many orders for farm chunks weigh
ing 1,200 to 1,600 pounds, were placed
at 190 to 1135. Bussers brought 85
to ?120. Thero was good Inquiry for
coach horses, which sold for the high
est urlcoa of tho season, high class
single animals ranging from 300 to
$1,000, whllo fancy teams realized 6Q0
to I1.17G. Exports did not equal In
numbers thoso of tha corresponding
weok Inst year. Dealers say that tho
volume of Chicago's export trade thus
tar for 1001, is llghtor than it has
been in throo years daring tho corre
sponding porlod, but they antlclpato a
larger business next month.
Rotation economises applied ma
nures by making uso in due tlmo ot all
their fertilizing Ingredients.
The grntest catorpult In the wurld
t tho yoomau tung; It kin mako skan
dill fly clean acroat tho continent.
Tho largest mosquitoes In the world
ire found In the arctic regions.
Clever Eskimo Dogs.
"Talk about dogs," Bald tho old
Alaska miner, whoso remarks have
been published In tho Now York Sun,
"why, theso cura of high and low do
grco In tho cast nro not In It whon
compared with tho Alaska matnaloot.
"From puppyhood up ho takes to har
ness like a duck to water. Ho goes ut
It with vim nnd vigor characteristic of
bis ancestors. Rig tho pup In nny old
harness, nnd it's amusing to see how
good nnturcdly ho buckles down to
business, staying with It llko an old
stager, novcr tiring, never feeling dis
couraged. Ono becomes very much at
tached to theso exceedingly useful and
companlonablo animals, and they al
ways Improve on acquaintance. The
longer you know them tho better yon
llko them. With white mon thoy are
at first disposed to be a little shy, but
they gradually mako advances, and ul
timately take the visitor Into full con
fluence. "When we pitched our tents on
Nome beach last summer we had a lit
tle experience with huskies from the
Reklmo huts, la our absence from the
teats theso dogs were lncllaed to take
liberties with our previsions, but they
did it la suck a sotentllc manner that
wa felt More amused than outraged,
Tko dogs weuld form a skirmish line
on tho outside, and then send their
most skilled thief into the tent to re
conaolter for meat and bread. It this
thief failed they would send another,
and It he was successful they would
divide the plunder In as Intelligent and
equitable a manner as dog thieves
were capablo ot doing. These dogs
wore honest Injuns at home. When
thoy becamo better acquainted with us
wo could lcavo tho mess chests open
and they would never touch anything;
they woro on their dog honor, and
never violated It, only accepting food
when It was offered to them.
'I'm led to there remarks," aald tho
old minor, "from seolng men and boys
on tbo streets endeavoring to break all
manner of domestic dogs to harness.
They can't do It; lt'a utterly Impossi
ble, because the poor brutes were not
born that way. Tho Newfoundlands,
or St. Dernnrds don't appear to havt
any Intercut In their new calling, and
they show it In their downcast faces,
and they show It In their downcast
tails and dejected countenances. You
must remember that dogs have very
expressive faces, and show their feel
ings in a remarkable degree; they are
tbo only animals that laugh and cry.
They have shared my Joys and sor
rows In the bleak arctic, and this is
why I have a tender heart for dogs.
ITY. T the Farmers' Review: During tho
past few years wa have heard a good
deal about humus, yet so little Is It
understood that some remarks In ref
erence to it may not be amiss. There
are a good many farmers who can talk
quite readily about the elements of
fertility, but their knowledge of them
seems almost usoless In practice ow
ing to their not understanding humus.
They seem like people who have learn
ed sufficient words to speak a lan
guage, but nover having learned tho
grammar of It aro continually misplac
ing the words. Now, 1 don't want to
be understood as cantlug any reflection
on farmers' English, but what I mean
to exemplify is that until wo ground
ourselves proporly In tho principles
underlying humus In the soil we can
not cultlvnto very Intelligently. If all
tho countless experiments in manur
ing carried on by tho agricultural sta
tions had boon guided by first estab
lished principles, wo would not todny
bo floundering In tho mlro of empirics
on the manuring question. The de
crease In tho fertility ot our farms can
Invariably bo traced to destruction of
humus and want of bnlanco in tho hu
mus restored.
It is difficult to find a Blmlle to Illus
trate humus, but perhaps the reader
may gather 6omo idea of It In contem
plation of charcoal. Charcoal, like hu
mus, results from the partial destruc
tion ot vegetable matter, In which the
more readily combustible gases aro
driven off. Charcoal will not readily
docompuBO, yet it can bo burnt up, and
Its constituents largely pass off Into
the air, leaving only tho mineral soil
elements In ash. The manure heap,
consisting of straw and dung ,or a pile
of grass, practically burns until tne
more readily combustible gases are
drive off. If it has been kopt suffi
ciently well wetted to prevent "Are
fang," there remains a mass ot black
and brown stuff, which wo call humus,
and which decomposes only very slow
ly, practically conservod by Its own
acids. This stuff, like charcoal, has
Important absorptive power, ana HKe
charcoal preserves for a tlmo from de
composition what It absorbs. It has
within lta own structure all the min
eral elements and most of tho carbon
and nltrogon of the plant or manure
from which it 1b derived. It absorbs
from tho soil tho mineral elements
wbioh are constantly being set tree by
th various aaents at work there. In
this way it becomes a storehouse for
plant food, and It Is from It the plants
oock and obtain their food. As a mat
ter of course this humus is not alto
gether Indestructible. It is conse
quently breaking down, or perhaps
more correctly burnlug up, and the
carbonic acid resulting from it frees
more possible plant food from the soil
basis. The passing ot seasons leaves
more material to dlo on and in tho
soil, to form more humus to absorb
tho nowly freed Ingredients. Thus In
time, the boII becomes what wo term
rich and this Is the condition ot vir
gin soils. Thus tho young plant at
eaou successive season finds its sus
tenance In tho food propared and
stored up for It by Its ancestors and
parontfl, and for which thoy have loft
tho charcoal ot their bodies a store
house. If wo would keep up the condi
tion of fertility wo find In a humus
virgin soil wo must provide first for
keeping stationary the percentage of
humus. From time to tlmo wo must
add sufficient now earth from tho Btib
soll to allow of a ronownl of the min
eral Ingredients for humus storage.
Also wo must make provision for tho
storage of nitrates, cither from tho at
mospheric air or from nltrnto salts.
We find It Is necessary to keep up tho
balance of tho plant food contained
and stored In tho humus, Just as nec
essary Indeed ns It Is to bnlanco tho
food for our nulmnls by using as foods
the grains of ripened fruits ot tho
plant us well ob tho foddem. Here Is
borno In upon us the tremendous valuo
of the legumos (pod plants and clov
ers) as manurlal agents, for they sup
ply nitrogen as well as humus.
8upposo we have, us most farmers
have, destroyed the humus condition ot
our soils which it took nature many
years, perhaps hundreds of thousands,
to accumulate by leaf, straw and in
sects. What shall we do? Can we
readily restore it by plowing In legume
crops? Certainly we can, and If we
have the courage of our convictions we
will do it thoroughly and In a compar
atively few years, But will we then
have the original virgin condition In
our soil? No, and for soveral excellent
reasons. We have taken from the soli
we are now about to reclaim so much
of its available mineral matter, partic
ularly Its phosphoric acid and lime,
that our hu mates will be deficient In
balance even If we could produce them
rapidly enough. Then wo can manu
facture humus pretty rapidly, but Its
gradual decay nnd consequent action
In liberating soil Ingredients Is too
slow to fully nnswer our purpose. With
tho removal of tho lime and magnesia
tho phosphoric acid may have fallen n
prey to the steel-Jawed Iron and alu
mina and Is held so tightly that tho
weak nclds resulting from the destruc
tion of the humus cannot readily re
leaso It. Tho silicic ncld also Buffers
In a llko manner nnd as a result we
have such a poorly balanced plant food
In tho humus that we do not get the
full benefit In ripened crops that our
plentiful supply of nitrogen would
predicate, and our straw but poorly
supports what grain is formed.
In a later article 1 will tako tho op
portunity of expanding this subject to
show conditions necessary to the pro
duction of greater crops than normal
soils are capablo of. Thomas Wallace.
Kaergjr la Milk 1'roUnrtloa.
A bulletin of the Storrs experiment
station says:
The digestive tract prepares the food
for assimilation Into tho tissues, the
udder elaborates the milk, tho heart
forces the blood with its load of food
and oxygen through the body, tha
lungs supply oxygen to the blood and
remove from It the products of the
oxidation which takes place In the"
body; but tho brain aud nervo sys
tem aro concerned In nil theBO opera
tions. Through tho lnflucnco of
this system tho activities of all the
organs are aroused, guided, controlled,
and harmonized. In the cow tho heart
and lungs are ever active. The di
gestion, absorption nnd assimilation or
food, nnd perhaps the mysterious
elaboration of milk, are constantly go
ing on. Colllor estimates that a cow
giving au average quantity ot milk
produces, on an average, 138,210,000 fat
globules per second during each twenty-four
hours. This and tho Eocre
tlon of tho other constituents ot tho
milk illustrates tlio amount of activity
In tho milk organs nlono, and sug
gests the need of a highly developed
nervo system. Tho more pronounced
of tho outward signs thnt indicate this
nervo development are a bright, lively
and prominent eye, thlB prominence
causing a dished face; a wide fore
head; a wide Junction ot the skull and
spinal column, Indicating a large
brain; a lnrgo, prominent backbone,
giving room for a well-dovelopod
spinal cord; a long, slim tall; and
considerable energy and vigor and
stylo of action.
The Ngro anil tha Mult,
Why is It tho negro Is so successful
at managing tho mulo, nnd Is so un
successful at managing a horse? It
Is generally ndmltted that both theso
propositions are true. Tho negro Is
a noisy driver; whllo he Is teaming
he 1b constantly shouting at his beast
of burden. Tho mule Is by no means
ns sensltlvo to nolso as the horse Is;
ho Is less excitable and more patient.
The horso's excitement exhibits Itself
In violence, that of tbo mulo In stub
bornness. Tho phrase "horse sonso"
Is founded upon nbsurd error, for the
horse actually lias very little of thnt
which humanity terms "sense." Yot,
have we a right to expect any vast
amount ot sense In an animal whose
eyes are so constructed as to magnify
obJectB from elgty to twelvo times
their actual size? '
Whllo it Is truo that tho negro soon
ruins the average horse, it is not truo
that he is more successful than othor
people In the management ot the mule.
Tho mule Is adapted to every class of
driver, but the negro can bo adapted
only to the mule, and this, we suppose,
is really why we Indulge tho humorous
heresy that nobody can got along with
the mule but tho negro. The fact Is
that tho mule is tho only quadruped
that can get along with tho nogro.
Chicago Rocord.
Clay 'soil that Is well drained and
rull of humus will be frozon to a great
er dopth than soil that is full ot water.
Hard clods will hold neither neat
nor moisture and hence cannot be used
by tlTe feeding rootlets of plants.
Wood Preservation.
There Is now being Introduced Into
England by the Xylosoto Company a
process designed to provent decay in
wood, nnd known ns the Hasselmnnn
system. In this the timber to bo treat
ed is enclosed In a cylindrical vessel
In which n fairly high vacuum Is pro
duced by a suitable air pump. When
tho Bap has been drawn out of the
pores under tho diminished pressure a
solution ot metallic and mineral salts
Is allowed to flow into tho vessel, and
tho wood is steeped In this for eomo
hours under steam prcssuro and at a
temperature of about 130 degrees C.
Thon after being dried, it is ready for
use. The Impregnating liquid Is a so
lution of the sulphates of copper and
Iron whoso preservative properties are
generally acknowledged, together with
some aluminium, potassium and mag
nesium salts. The Inventor of the
process maintains that the copper de
stroys any germs of decay that may
be present while the Iron comblaes
with the cellulose, or woody Mere to
form a eompound which Is Insoluble in
water, and hence cannot be washed out
by the action of rain. The salts In this
way are made to permeate the sub
stance of the wood, and are not merely
deposited mechanically as minute crys
tals In the pores by the evaporatloa of
the solvent.. It is claimed for the proc
ess which apart from the drying takes
about four hours, that it greatly re
duces the inflammability of the wood,
enables it to take a brilliant polish and
increases the hardness of certain soft
woods to such an extent an to render
them available for purposes to which
formerly they could not be applied.
Another advantage attributed to It Is
that it saves tho expense ot seasoning
In tho ordinary way since perfectly
green wood nfter treatment neither
shrinks nor warps. Tho process ap
pears already to have gained consider
able recognition abroad; thus It Is
stated that the Bavarian Stato Hall
ways and postofflco have contracted to
have all their sleepers and poles up to
1905 treated by It, while the Swedish
government has adopted the system
and ordered C00.000 Bleepors preserved
by Its use.
Llka UagaU I.lkf.
A new beginner asks: "Do you think
It likely that tho daughter of a sow
that haB been noted for her largo Ut
ters will be a breeder of the same sort
or more so than a sow from a dam that
has always had small litters?" We
have to say In nnswer to this that it is
to be expected that she would luherit
the good characteristics of her dam. If
she did not in some measure, there
would be what is called "atavism," or
harking back to the characteristics of
a remote ancestor, which is unusual
and not-to be counted upon. The whole
plan of breeding is based upon the
truth of the saying that "like begets
like." We would not expect to get a
good milking cow from a poor milking
one unless the sire influenced the prog
eny towards milk production. The lat
ter effect is to bo counted upon to help
the prepotency of the dam, but the dam
should nleo have prepotency towards
the production of that product for
which she Ib kept The scrub cow is
bred to withstand tho rigors of the clt
mnte without shelter and to Jlvo upon
poor food, but sbo has no prepotency
towards the production of a largo flow
of milk or towards producing a max
imum amount of flesh or fat from a
minimum umount or food. Tho breed
ing of sows is based upon the same
laws as those applying to cattlo breed
ing and Indeed tho breeding of all nnl
mals. The sow Is expected to produce
after her own kind and llko horseir,
and tho boar Is to bo chosen possessed
ot thoso attributes and characteristics
which will not counteract tho prepo
tency of tho sow, but being of tho
samo sort, Join with It nnd mako tho
progeny even stronger in thoso attri
butes than Is either of tho parents, or
at least as strong. Tho bow or n dam
that had always proved to be the
breeder ot email litters would bo like
ly to have small Utters also unless sbo
were bred to a boar that had descendod
from a line of females noted for their
prolificacy. The boar might not al
together overcorao the prcpotoncy or
or the sow to produco a small litter,
but it would be found that he would
help matters and lu tlmo' the bows of
the small Utter-producing sow would
Increase in their prolificacy nnd so
provo profitable breeders. In tho same
way the breeding qualifications of the
family of largo Utter-producing qual
ifications could bo Improved by mating
with boars having tho samo sort ot
prepotency, but would bo spoiled In
time by breeding to boars from the
othor kind of family. From these
olnts It Is to be seen that, In breed-
ing, prepotency towards a desired end
should bo present on both sides of the
family, and when It is thoro, it is to
bo Improved upon by continued breed
ing ot the rnalos and females of the
same family or lino of descent.- So well
was this proved by the early breedors
that they hated to change the male
which had given good results, for they
found that his work as a breeder was
even stronger In the desired direction
when he wob bred over and over again
to his own offspring or their descend
ants. In fact, la was found that In-and-in
breeding would clinch the progress
made by selection and establish the
strongest kind of prepotoncy. Such
prepotency 1b found today In tho ca
pacity possessed by tho Poland-China
hog to make lard out of corn, a pro
potency which has been established by
the continued breeding of the same
line of blood. Whon carried too far,
close breeding gradually lost its value
and 'showed bad effects in loss ot vi
tality and constitution and invariably
less likelihood to produce large 1 1 tier
of pigs. A now beginner, then, must
select the right typo of bows and bonra
possessed of prepotency to produce thof
product or typo he desires. He may
clinch his work by a fow crosses of
close breeding, but must not go too far
or ho will dofeat his own purposes by
weakening his hogs constitutionally or
au producers of litters. "Like begets
like," 'tie true, when all things aro fa
vorable, but man may lntcrforo with
this law of nature olthor towards im
provement or tho reverse nnd so must i
breod his animals with caro and lntol-
Hhnep Nl"w '"land.
A correspondent In an exchange
writes of New Zenland's sheep Indus
try as follows: Sheep farming may
fairly be called the leading industry
of Now Zealand. There nro over 1!),
000,000 sheep In the colony.. During
tho year ending March 31, 1000, wool
to the valuo of 4,741,212 pounds ster
ling, and 3,339,163 carcases ot rrozen
mutton and lamb were exported. Con
siderable eapltal Is invested by In
dividual farmers, as some ot tho flocks f
aumber over 100,000 sheep. Anything
uader 35,000 Is eeasiderctt a smalt
lock. It is said that thero is not
mueff moaey la the business ot late
years, and at keet the profits nro not
more thaa latere en the money in
vested. Much or the load devoted to
this branch ot farming Is extremely
rough ana hilly, aad to a stranger at
first glance would appear to bo quite
worthless. It is astonishing, however,
to see the kind of oountry over which
the sheep will erase, and many dis
tricts quite useless for any other pur
pose of agriculture will' carry two to y
three sheep to the acre. In southern
districts where tho winters aro more -i
severe, It Is the practice to grow tur
nips, into which the sheep nro turned
during the winter. In other districts
they depend entirely on the pasture.
Wyoming dispatches say tuat re
ports from the north say a month ago
cattle men nlong Powder river nnd
Otter creek sent warnings to tho shocp
men to get out of tho country. Tho
flockmnstcrs refuted, and a band of
masked men captured a sheep camp
and drove 3,000 sheep over a cliff, kill
ing them. R. R. Seway owned tlio
sheep, and he has offered a rewnrd of
$2,000 for the arrest of the raiders.
Tha Sheap Hiatal.
"Today the seat of the sheep-rearing,
ladustry of the Union has shitted frotnr
the Mlddlo West to the plateau region'
between the Rockies and tho Sierras.
Ohio 1b still doing very well In thei
business, with nearly 3,000,000 head,
but she has dropped from first to
fourth in the list ot mutton-producing'
states. New Mexico is at the head,
with more than 4,000,000; Montana has,
nearly as many, while Wyoming leads'
Ohio by a few hundred thousand head.
Idaho closely follows Ohio in the rat
ing. Oregon, California and Texas
each has about 2,50,000 sheep.
llaalU af tha Farnifir.
In one of the publications ot tho
Field Columbian museum Dr. Elliot
gives a description ot the curious lit
tle North American rodent known as
the sewellel, and often called tho
mountain beaver or farmer. The lat
ter name is derived from lta habit of
making hay. The little rabbit-like
animal excavates its burrow in tho
neighborhood of a low-growing water
Illy. It cuts down the stem and loaves
of this plant In great quantities and
carries it to tho mouth of the burrow,
where It Is spread out to dry in iho
sun. When properly made Into "hay"
it Is carried Into the burrow, where it
Is used for feed and bedding. It fre
quents swampy places In the vicinity
of small streams.
The Canadians are elated over the.
fact that both their butter and cheese
received high marks ut the Parts Ex
position. ThlB strengthens their stand
ing In tho forolgn market. The Cana
dians nro striving to win on the buttor
trade as well as on tho cheese trade,
so far as tie English market Is con
cerned. However, we cannot bellev
that It -will bo an easy matter to build
up a large foroigu trade even for
Canadian buttor. They aro hampered
by the same circumstances that keep
ua down the Inclination of the home
market to take at a good price all tha
first-class product that can be turned,
out. Thnt this state of affairs Is no
Imaginary Is proved by the Canadian
oxporta of dairy products last yearj
Tholr exportation of cheese was In
creased and the price received was
largor than the provlous year by 26
cents per box. On the other hand the
exports of butter dropped from 451,000
to 256,000 packages, though tho price la
England was 70 cents per paekage
more than last year. The amount of
buttor being sent to England by Can
ada Is only equal to the amount Bent
by New Zealand, and Is only half that
sont by Australia. We do not believe
that Canada will ever be able to com
pete with the othor colonlos in this
matter for the simple reason that aha
has access to populations at homo that
are used to paying high prlcos for what
thoy want.
A system of rotation of crops should,
be so arranged as to economize tha
natural supplies of fertility contained
in the soil. Different crops feed upon
different soil Ingredients, or at least
they require these ingredients in vary
ing quantities. A proper succession of
crops brings all tho eloments of plant
food into uso and hence prevents any
of these from lying idle and being
wnsted, as for example, by being car
ried away by water in its constant per
eolation through the soil.
What wo call a spider's thread con-
slsts ot more than 4,000 threads united.