Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923 | View Entire Issue (Feb. 5, 1897)
.qaffiitV 11-' f.1.
H i JSgJSjWflj
A WOODEN SHOE.
T WAS announced
to all Paris that
Paganl had fallen
seriously 111 at the
conclusion of Ills
Vm mh (Bv flT smi(1 concert, had
111 W' III i ' 1jcc" at,ac,!C(1 u' ll
Mi lit b '' fever which refused
to yield to the rem
edies employed by
Some days later,
Paganl, whoso form was almost spec
tral, seemed to have his frail existence
suspended by a thread, which tho
slightest shock mlpht sever. The physi
cians ordered solitude and absolute re
pose, thcrcforo he removed to tho Villa
Lutctanea In the Faubourg Pols3on
nlerc. It was an excellent establish
ment and stood In a large pnrk-llke
garden, whero the patlsnt could enjoy
cither solitude or society at choice. A
great charm of the place was that every
one lived as ho pleaded; In the evening,
either retiring to tho solitude of his
apartment, or Joining In the games,
music and conversation held In the
drawing-room. Pagan! preferred pass
ing the evening In quietness anil retire
ment. There was plenty of gossip
about him In tho drawing-room and
thrco or four censorious old women fell
on him tooth and nail.
"Ladles," began one, "havo you seen
this great musician? He salutes no one
and never speaks a word. He takes
his bowl of soup In an arbor In the
garden, and then hastens away If any
one approaches. What an oddity he
"That's part of his malady." said an
other. "People say that there Is some
fterrlblo mystery nbout his life; some
love story, I Imagine."
"Not at all!" added a third. "Pnganl
Is a miser; there's no mystery about
that. Do you remember tho concert
which was organized In favor of the
families who suffered from the Inun
dation of St. Etlenne? The great vio
linist refused to take part in It be
causo ho would have to play gratui
tously. Depend upon It, ho fears that
wero ho to mingle In our society, ho
might bo asked for similar favors."
In tho entire household Pnganl never
exchanged a word with anyone except
Vlcette, tho housemaid who attended
him. She was a cheerful, Innocent
country girl, whose prattle, when sho
served his meals, amused him.
Ono morning Vlcetto presented her
self with a sad, drooping countenance,
and served breakfast without uttering
a word. Tin musician noticed this
chango In tho young girl and ques
tioned her about It.
"What's the matter, my child? You
look sad. Your eyes aro red; somo
misfortune has befallen you, Vlcetto?"
"O, yes. sir."
"Would It bo Indiscreet to ask you
what It was?"
Paganl fixed his great black eyes on
the girl's troubled countenance.
"Conic," ho ealtl. "I see how It Is.
After having, mndo you a thousand
promises ho has quitted you, and you
no longer havo any tidings of him."
"Ah! poor fellow I Ho has quitted
mo certainly, but It was not his fault."
"How Is that?"
"Becauso In tho conscription he drew
a bad number, and ho has been sent
away with a long gun on his shoulder
and I Bhall never see him again,"
sobbed poor Vlcetto ns sho burled her
face in her whlto apron.
"But, Vlcetto, could you not purchase
a substitute for him?"
Tho girl, withdrawing her apron,
smiled sadly through her tears.
"Monsieur 1b jesting," sho said.
"How could I over buy a substltuto?
This year men aro tremendously ex
pensive on ac:ount of tho report that
fw l CtL-i "I'l
there Is going to bo war. Fifteen hun
dred francs Is tho lowest price."
The musician pressed Vicotte's llttlo
plump hand between his long, sallow
fingers bb he said:
"If that's all, my girl, don't cry; wo'll
eco what can be done."
Then taking out his pockotbook ho
wroto on a blank leaf:
"Mem.: To seo about giving a con
cert for tho benefit of Vlcetto."
A month passed on, tho anow camo
and Paganl's physician said to him:
"My dear sir, you must not venture out
of doors again until after tho winter."
"To hear 1b to obey," replied tho
At Christmas eve, on the anniver
sary of the birth of the Lord, a cus
tom exists in Franco very dear to the
children. A wooden shoe is placed at
the corner of tho hearth and a benefi
cent fairy is supposed to come down tho
chimney laden with various presents
and dainties, with which lie fills it.
On tho morning of Dec. 24, four of
Paganl's feminine critics wero in con
"It will bo for tho evening," said
one. "Yes, for this evening; that Is
settled," ropllod the others.
After dinner Paganl was, according
to his custom, seated on th drawing
room sofa, sipping his can sucree, when
an unusual nolso was heard In tho cor
ridor. Presently Vlcetto entered and
announced that a porter had arrived
with ft case, directed to Signer Paganl.
"I do not oxpeel any case." sr.Id ho,
"but I suppose he had better bring It
Accordingly a stout porter outc-cd,
bearing a good-sized wooden box, on
which, lies Idea the address, were the
words, "Fragile, with care." Paganl
examined It with somo curiosity, and,
having paid tho messenger, proceeded
to open tho lid. His long, thin, but ex
tremely muscular lingers, accomplished
tho task wltnaut difficulty and tho
company, whoso curiosity caused them
some what to trniiBgtess tho bounds of
good manners, crowded nround In
order to seo tho contents of tho box.
The musician drew out a large packet
securcl with several seals. Having
opened this, a second, and then a third
wrapping appeared, nnd at length the
curious eyes of twenty persons wero
regaled with a gigantic wooden shoe,
almost largo enough to servo for a
cradle. Peals of laughter hailed this
"Ah!" said Paganl, "n wooden shoe. I
can guess who sent It. Some of these
excellent ladles wish to romparo mo to
a child who -Iways expects presents
and never gives any. Well, ho It so.
Wo will see If wo cannot find somn
method of making this shoo worth Its
weight In gold."
So saying, nnd scarcely saluting the
company, Paguil withdrew to his own
apartment, carrying with him the case
and Its contents.
During three days ho did not appear
In the drawing-room. Vlcetto Informed
tho company that he worked from
morning till night with tho tools of the
carpenter. In fact, tho musician,
whoso hands were wondrously flexible
and dextrous in other things besides
violin playing, had fashioned a per
fect nnd sonorous instrument out of the
clumsy wooden shoe. Having enriched
If with one silver string, his .vork was
complete. Next day a public notice ap
peared that on Now Year's co Paganl
would give a concert In tho lnrge hall
of the Villa Lutctanea. The great mas
ter nnnounced that ho would play ten
pieces, five on a violin anil five on u
wooden shoe. Tho prlco of tho tickets
was placed nt twenty francs each. Of
these only 100 were Issued and they
wero Immediately purchased.
The evening arrived and Paganl ap
peared, smiling, with every appearance
of renewed health, and on his favorite
violin played somo of those marvelous
strains which never failed to transport
riis auditors to tho seventh heaven of
delight. Then ho seized tho shoe,
which In Its new guise of violin still
preserved somewhat of Its pristine
form, and his whole being lighted up
with enthusiasm, ho began a wondrous
Improvisation which captivated tho
souls of his hearers. It represented
first tho departure of a conscript, the
tears, the walling of his betrothed,
tticn his stormy lifo In tho camp and
on the field of battle, and finally his
return, accompanied by triumph and
rejoicing. A merry peal of wedding
bolls completed tho musical drama.
Long and loud were the thunders of
applause; even tho old ladles who dis
liked Paganl could not refrain from
clapping their palms, and bouquets
thrown by fair and Jeweled hands fell
nt tho feet of the musician. In a cor
ner of the hall next tho door, Vlcetto
was weeping bitterly. Tho sympathy of
tho conscript had gone straight to her
At tho conclusion of the concert tho
receipts wero counted nnd they
nmountcd to two thousand francs.
"Here, Vlcetto," said Paganl. "You
have flvo hundred francs over the sum
required to purchase a substitute. Thoy
will pay your brldcgroom,'s traveling
Then after a pause he continued:
"But you will want something where
with to begin housekeeping. Tnke this
shoo violin, .and sell It for your dowry."
Vlcetto rccoled from a rich nmateur
six thousan I francs for Paganl's
This violin is to-day In tho posses
sion of tho Marquis of Dufferln nnd
Ava. WILL M. CLEMENS.
How to Uho Vourt-riitHtrr.
Did you ever notice tho way a physi
cian prepares tho court plaster for a
wound? First, ho holds tho pleco
lengthwise- directly through tho mid
dle. Tho plaster should bo considerably
larger than tho wound, to keep well
over the edges; then slash tho plastor
lengthwlso nearly to tho edge. Straight
en tho court plaster out Hat and cut
tho slashed pieces at opposite ends.
Place tho straight edges of tho court
plaster to the flesh on either side of
the wound, bringing tho strips across
the wound. Moisten them, and taking
a strip from each side, draw them to
gether gently, closing tho cut, nnd stick
tho plaster In placo. Contlnuo with all
the strips, and tho cut will be dressed
In a manner to insure a perfect heal
ing, and as well as any doctor could
Clii-wlng Money Killed Illin.
Alexander Waltzfelder, a betting
man, well known ns "Sheeny Dan,"
died In Now York from th? habit, It
is thought, of holding greenbacks In
his mouth when ho was counting money
or trying to make bets on tho raco
track. A short time ago ho bit his Up
accidentally and tho result was blood
Ilcat with Ulailng Slick.
The "flro robbers" are busy again.
Their latest victims Is Jack Keel, an
old Germnn storekeeper near Sprlng
flold, III. They tied him to a bed and
beat him with blazing sticks, in a
vain effort to mako him illvulgo tho
hiding placo of his money. Keel Is In
a precarious condition.
The Moil foully Toinli.
The most costly tomb In cxlstenco Is
said to bo that which was crectod to
tho memory of Mohammed. Tho dia
monds and rubles used In tho decora
tions nro worth 2,000,000.
THE RED CLOUD CHIEF,
I'rotlili'il by it St. I.oitU HoM for Hn
A wealthy St. Loulsan living lu the
vicinity of I.ifnyotte park provided a
novel form of entertainment for hie
guests one evening last week, sas the
St. Louts Republic.
Tho hostess was extremely nnxlout
to provide something original for tlte
edification of a scoie of guests whom
Bhe Intended to call together for an
Informal evening. Her husband prom
ised to provldo such novelty and took
ii boon companion into his confidence
to that end. They had not exchanged
Ideas thirty consecutive seconds beforo
they hit upon the device of converting
the elegant parlors Into a gambling
house pro tern. A faro bank, a roulette
whole and poker and keno "lay-outs"
were easily procurable, as the confer
red well know, nnd that part of the
programme was soon settled. The
fiienil suggested ns n pretty epilogue
the Introduction of n pair of bulldogs,
guaranteed to reduce each other to
nilueemeat In three rounds. This rather
staggered tho ambitious host, but his
friend Is a ward politician, and, with
tho eloqupiire ho always keeps on
draught, soon convinced tho other that
the evening would bo n failure without
The evening arrived and with It
camo the guests. The ladles were prct
tlly shocked at sight of the gambling
paraphernalia, but became accustomed
to It In an astonishingly short time
and shared In the gniwvt with becoming
vim. It wns when the yellow bull
dogs made their unexpected entrance
that the horror of the fair guests
proved genuine. Tho beasts yelped and
growled and showed other peculiarly
canine symptoms of "spoiling for n
fight." Thereupon the ladies sought
refuge on tho piano and card tables and
chairs, conducting their retreat as from
Notwithstanding excited femlnlno
protestations, the friend who had been
consulted ns to a novelty In enter
tainment unleashed tho dogs. It was
an exciting climax to an "original"
evening. Tho dogs feasted for five
minutes on choice bits of each other's
anatomy. The ladles screamed and the
friend who was consulted exulted In
tho success of his novelty. When ho
was quite convinced and It took a con
siderable time to convince him that
tho ladles desire for gore had been
fully gratified ho doused the dogs Into a
convenient tub of water and separated
A WiltlUtiK I'IhIi.
A queer fish called tho "walking
goby" or the "hopping fish," Is found In
tho Indian ocean, ns wcjl as along the
shores of West Africa. Crowds of these
curious creatures, resembling tndpoles
in their outlines, bask in tho sun on
a muddy shore and scamper off on be
ing disturbed. Many of them keep the
ends of their long tails dipped Into
water, while they Ho on tho sun-heated
mud, or sit on the Mangrove roots, and
Prof. Haddon has suggested that thero
may be an organ of respiration In tho
end of the tall, additional to the sim
ilar organ In the gills. A more recent
lnvestlgntor, Dr. Forbes of Liverpool,
thinks the fish nro ablo to storo n suf
ficient quantity of water In their gills
to mnlntnln aquatic respiration during
their prolonged nhsenccs on the shore.
Good butter hns been selling nt 10
cents n pound at Oakdale, Neb.
In Drown county, Kansas, n family
named Bryan havo had a now baby
Eleven times has Emllo Zola been a
candidate for election to the French
Academy, and cloven times has be been
Two churches of Jasper county, Mis
souri, havo been visited by thieves who
stoic even tho carpets of the aisles and
An American robin wns recently
found near Manchester, England. Brit
ish naturalists aro wondering how It
crossed the ocean.
Elghty-flvo hundred collars, the
whole profit for last season of the
houso of commons kitchen, has been
invested by the committee In claret.
Mother Oh, John, you should hear
baby talk. Ho can talk Just as plain ns
can ue. Father You mean ns plain as
you talk to him. Boston Transcript.
Horse racing on tho Ice hns ahead;
become a fad in a number of Maine
towns among the younger men, whe
are "developing" prospective trotters.
Burled in a pauper's grave near
HartBhorno, I. T., was tho body of an
old man named Johnson, who, it is said,
was onco lieutenant-governor of Flori
da. Ho was brought low by drink.
To his coll mnte, John RUey, recent
ly sentenced by Justice Bond, of Leav
enworth, Kob., to a year's imprison
ment, has confessed that within the
last thirteen years he hns been in
Mother My dear, there can bo no
domestic happiness unless thero are
mutual concessions. Married Daughter
Nonsense, mother. We could get
along very well If Charles would make
A resident of Amesbury, Mass., con
signed Beventy-flve barrels of No. 1 ap
ples to Boston parties, nnd after some
delay received word that ho was In
debt to them 5, they having pnld
freight nnd cartage.
BoyB, In trying to climb over a seven-foot
fence, thirty feet long, after
their football, at Oakland, Cal
knocked tho feneo down upon an elder
ly woman who was pnsslng, and tho in
juries sho received were so Hovero thnt
llttlo hope wub entertained of her re
covery. Tho peanut Is a natlvo of Brazil
EMMY, FEBRUARY 5 1897.
IN A PIE FACTORY.
TURNS OUT AN AVERAGE
18,000 PIES A DAY.
Men nt Work on n .Mimntitln ,if Kmtcli
The Own l a IIIk U'Iii-pI ullli Iron
Hut form,. Hiiiik from II Hint Not n
F you want to seo
esting," ho said to
the New York Mall
and Express man.
8$ tjuPiMl "0(,l"t-, with mo. It
C-ipS&) will make y o u r
mouth water If you
have a taste for tho
sweets and, In ad
dition, It will give
you an Insight Into
a business that hns reached liniuenso
proportions within the last ton years."
Down this street and up the next, and
up n long fiKht of stairs to an ollleo
where the lucky number of thirteen
misses wan at work. Thl wan the In
itial bow to the largest pip ruetory In
the whole of Gotham and. for that
matter, the entire country. Here It Is
that an aveiagc of 18,000 plea Is turned
out eory day of the week except Fri
day, when the Ilguies go over the 20,
000 mnik because of the demand for
Sundny. Pies little and big nnd In nil
conditions of pieparatlon, aie to bo
aeon here, nnd the average olUeo boy
or downtown "clink" would imauino
himself In pie heaven were he to got
upon the ground
Ask tho most expniiencd housowifo
and sho will readily testify to the state
ment that It Is no ensy n.nttcr to mnke
ENGLISH SEA TROLLEY ON STILTS.
GL.i ! A'zi i j .i
Tho strangest of nil electric rail
ways Is thnt at Brighton, England, con
necting that famous seaside lesort with
Kottlngdenn. several miles away on the
shore. The peculiarity of this railway
Is that Its car Is mounted on four steel
stilts twenty-four feet high. As part of
tho railway Ie submerged at high tide,
this arrangeni''iit makes the electric
car In a maimer amphibious, able to
run through water that Is many feet
Each ono of the stilts on which the
car Is supported rests upon a truck hav
ing four wheels, the four tiueks being
braced together by steel tubulnr struts.
Tho trucks have thn appearance of
Inverted canoeh, thus affording easy
nnactrn Mll-nlish HlO Water. TIlO CU'C-
trie current Is convoyed to the car by
iinr-trti.' wwn" ---
n first-class pie. Picniaklng Is cat
with tho young bride only. Still, In this
big fnctory spoken of, It really does
seem a simplo affalr-the putting lo
sethcr of fruit and dough hecniiho the
workmen go through the performance
In "apple-pie order," but It Is practice
and experience with them rather than
personal pleasure. To make a pie cor
ectly, as well as digest 1 vely. It Is neccs
3Jiry to resort to four processes.
Tnke, for Instance, a mince pie. Tho
work of preparing the filling Is tho
first undertaken, and then In regular
order como tho task of making the
crust, filling tho pie nnd baking It.
Contrary to some ideas, it is essential
to tho welfare of the aforesaid pie that
the meat required bo of a superior
i,i..,i Tl.lu filitnlned. It is consigned
to an immenso stcam-Jacketed copper
kettle that has tho capacity of a medium-sized
barrel. In this way It Is
cooked nnd then Intrusted to the bene
ficial graces of an enormous chopping
machine, that does tho work ns finely
as a projectile from a twelve-Inch gun
might do with a wooden fence. Next
come for attention the beef suet, ap
ple, citron, currants, spices and, finnl
ly, the brandy, and these nro mixed
with tho mincemeat by anothor ma
chine and aro sent to the filler. While
tho mincemeat Is being mixed with the
other mlxturo, another force of men Is
engaged In preparing the crust. TIiIb
force of men works before an Immenso
trough nnd Ib rigged out In clothes of
immaculate white, with baro arms na
powdered with flour as tho hair on
their hends. The trough Is partly filled
witn nour anu snortening or inru is
worked Into It by the whlto workmen.
Water that has been specially Iced Is
worked Into the mixture In the trough
nnd tho whole thing soon takes on
quite a doughllko appearance.
This dough Is taken to another force
of men, who roll It out Into thin slices
nnd plnco It on tin plates. This opera
tion Is perhaps the quickest of any of
tho processes. Tho men go through
tho mountain of dough llko wind
through a sand hill, Quicker than It
takes to tell, tho whlto covered tins are
taken to tho flllcrs-ln, and no army of
old topers ever filled In ns rapidly as
do thoy. All use a long-handled dip-
nfir whlpli linu n nnnnollv (nut nnfHolnnl
r - 'pm
'EST'-iS'--- YjX Af ' A I l
to fill one pie. With this dipper Id one j
hand nnd the dough-covered tin pinto
In tho other, the flller-ln dlpa tho dip
per Into the barrel of tilling alongside
of him, raises It In the air ami', with n
graceful movement of tho wrist, turns
It Into tho waiting plate. This ac
complished, everything Is ready for the
oven. The hitter Is a gigantic thing
operated much on tho style of tho Fer
ris wheel. Suspended by Its nxle nbovo
a red-hot flro Is a wheel about twelve
feet long nnd sixteen Inches In diame
ter. Eight Iron platforms nro hung
fiom the rims of this wheel nnd upon
these platforms the pies are placed. The
manner of suspension Is such that tho
pies always remain hoilzontal. Ono of
the platforms Is always over the open
ing of the oven. The attendants cover
tho platform with pies and tho wheel
Is then turned until the next plntform
comes Into view, which In like manner
Is filled. This Is continued until tho
eight platforms havo been covered. Tho
next turn brings Into vluw'tho first
lot put lu, all baked to a nicety. They
nic then removed and the plntform
filled ngaln. Again tho wheel turns nnd
another army of baked pies Is present
ed and removed. This continues hour
after hour so long an the demand lasts,
an average of about 1,000 pies Is baked
hourly over thas oven. Tho pin fac
tory is a great Institution and must bo
seen to bo appreciated.
I'rlriul of llio YVorldiigituin,
MIbs Ellen Key, a Swedish lady, has
attracted much attention In her native
land by her effoits to ameliorate, the
condition of wnrklugiiieu. Jointly with
j Dr. Anton Nyatrom, sho founded the
Worklngmen's Institute of Sweden,
which now owns a hanilHonui building
lu Stockholm and branch establish
ments In all provincial towns. It has
J j. . Jml.
a trclley polo to an overhead wire tho
same as is In use on the trolley elec
tric roads In this country. This queer
little electric lino waa opened to the
public on Satin day, Nov. 28, and is
now in regular operation. It makes tho
distance from Brighton to Uottlngdean
nnd back to Brighton lu a few minutes
over an hour.
Tho possession of this curious lino
gives Brighton tho distinction of hnv
ing something lu tho way of a railroad
tliut Is absolutely unique. Thero I
nothing llko it anywhere else In th
world. The nearest approach to It Is a
St. Malo. where n toll structure I j,
pulled through tho water for a distance
Of 110 vntitn 'PL, .n.i.... i. .i.i.. i..
. .... ,..... , uu uiuiwi in huh UIL--
stance Is simply a stationary stoniM
engine operating nu endless chain
courrea of lectures by the most dls
Unfinished literary nnd scientific nti
thorltles of the country on hlstoiicnt,
phllosophlcnl, scientific nnd lltornry
rubjeets, adapted to tho comprehension
of laboring men, who attend In largo
numbers. Swedish literature Is the
topic treated by Miss Key, who, hi ad
dition to her philanthropic labors, has
dnno literary work, publishing books,
chiefly on sociological themes. Ono In
a biography of Anno Charlotte I.oef
fior, Duchess of Calanollo, who Is wide
ly known through her sketch of the
life of Sophie Kovnlevsky. MIbb Key
Is n sort of lay confessor of tho work
ing classes, who como In crowds every
Sunday to her modest lodging to con
sult her on every possible question,
from family tiffs to controversies about
wages. She Is a bollevor In socialism
for Sweden, but only as n transitional
means to lnrgor ends. Sho deslrCB tho
enfranchisement of women.
Where (Julxnln Wan KnlRhtcil.
The ruins wero of nn Important ven
ta, such a caravanserai as was found
overy few leagues whon all traveling
nnd traffic between Madrid and Seville
passed on tho royal highway, says
Scrlbner's. Should the ingenious sur
mises of tho learned, who have Indus
triously erected tho ponderous com
mentaries around Cervantes' romnnco.
he truo, this venta had the rare good
fortuno of being visited by Don Quixote
in the beginning of his wanderings.
Ho kept his night vlgll-at-arma in its
courtyard and on the morning follow
ing was by tho rowdy, canny Innkeep
er made a knight. To me let it bo
only what It surely Is, and that Is
enough: One of the rare pages of the
days of old the mute witness of tho
comedies and tragedies of tho pleasures
nnd troubles of some of our predeces
sors In tho human procession.
I.ttllo lilt of h llnl.y.
Tho tiniest baby, perhaps, In tho
A'orld hnB been added to the fnmlly of
Samuel Donaldson, a harbor, who llveB
hi Camden, N. J. It weighed only 7,i
ounces when it camo Into tho world,
hut Dr. Frederick Pfelffcr says it Is
healthy, and with good care will live.
Tho baby Is a girl. Her head will
easily go Into an ordinary toacup, whllo
her hand will not cover a silver 25c
HOW OLD IS NIAGARA?
About 30,000 Vrr U thn HclcnUfl
The Niagara Hlvcr, which had first
been n strait Joining Lako Erie to tho
Ontaiian gulf, gradunlly becamo n
wide, shallow, rapid stream, and then,
as tho waters of tho lower lakes sub
sided, Its bed narrowed and Its fall In
creased to 420 feet, says Knowledge.
But tho river was soon greatly en
larged. Tho land was rising to the
north'of Ontario ns well, nnd ultimately
tho outlet from Lake Huron to the
Ottnwa Valley was blocked, and the
surplus waters of these greatest lakes
flowed by their prcsont courso to Lake
Erie, and thenco to tho Niagara ItUcr,
With tho continued rise of land, espe
cially townrd tho caBt of Ontario, the
water level roso until It attained Up
prcBcnt elevation, nnd tho fall of the
river between tho two lakes was re
duced to the present 360 feet. Can
dntes be assigned to thes oventB? The
first cstlmato of tho ago of Niagara
Hlver wns given by Elllcott over a
century ngo at cn.-iOO ycarB; Blakowell,
1K.10, gave 12,000; Lycll's cstlmato of
.15,000 wns accepted for many years af
ter 1811, hut recent writers, using the
mean rates of recession during forty
eight years as determined by suryeys,
mako the valuo D.000 years. Dr. Spen
cer has mndo n now and careful com
putation of the ngo of Niagara lllvct
and falls. Ho shows that tho rcccnl
estimates have not tnken Into account
the various changes that havo occurred
lu the fall and volumo of tho river.
Ills calculations result In a value near
ly that of Lyell's.
Dr. Spencer believes that Niagara
Hlvcr was formed 32,000 years ago, nnd
that 1,000 years later the falls worn In
existence. For 17,200 years tholr
height wns about 200 feet; thereafter
the water fell -120 feet. Seven thou
sand eight hundred years ago tho drain
ago of Lakes Superior, Michigan and
Huron first flowed through tho Niagara
gorge, and 3,000 years ngo the waters
roso lu Lake Ontario until tho lovel
reached that of today. Tho falls, thon,
arc 31,000 years old. This .estimate,
calculated from tho rate of erosion, Is
confirmed by another made from tho
tcrrestlal movements ono ns to tho
pnBt, the other concerning tho future
Tho lakes camo Into existence after tho
glacial epoch and Niagara after tho
lakes, and calculations based on tho
menu rate of rlso of tho beaches In tho
earlier period of tho lakes' history
show that tho close of tho Ice ago may
safely be placed nt 50,000 years ago.
As to the future: With tho present
rate of calculated tcrrestlal uplift in
tho Niagara district, and the rate of re
cession of tho falls continued, or even
doubled, beforo the cataract shall havn
reached tho Devonian escarpment at
Buffalo, that limestone barrier shall
have been raised so high as to turn tho
waters of the upper lakes Into the
Mississippi drainage by way of Chica
go. An elevation of sixty feet nt tho
outlet of Lako Erlo would bring tho
locky floor of the channel as high an
the Chicago dlvldo, and nn elevntlon of
peventy feet would completely divert
the drainage. ThlB would require 0,000
to 0,000 years nt tho estimated into of
(li-rniiiii ltiilucH Woiiii'ii. ,
The registration of business in Ger
many has had the effect of showing
how largo is tho number of women en-
.ii int.-adiiIjiCiictDDlt2 jiWim.B.
1 iltj O.U. w...,
vising city chartors Is spreading In
An English Journal says that Qucon
Vlctorln has been a total abstainer for
A peddler arraigned hi Suncook, N.
H Inst week, boro tho famous name of
A Belfast (Me.) Judge has ruled thai
shaking dice for cigars Is not gambling,
but shaking them for money Is.
About 000,000 trees aro annuallj
planted by Swedish school children un
der the guidance of their teachers.
But three old soldiers havo thus fai
availed themselves of the privileges ol
becoming Inmates of the home at St
An unmarried woman has made a
reputation in Gago county, Nebraska,
as a corn-husker, doing seventy-five
bushels a day.
Lord Lolghton's house In London bat
been offered by bis sisters to the Brit
ish nation on condition that it bo pre
served as it is.
The Canadian government is con
sidering the advisability of deepening
tho St. Lawrence and the canals from
Montreal to Lako Erie.
Japan's steamship lino to the Russian
ports of the Black sea will begin run
ning in the spring. The fleet will con
sist of sixteen steamers.
The Pottawatomie Indians of Ath
ens, Mich., are about to devote a dis
tribution of delayed annuities to thf
construction of a church.
Tho work of the new Episcopal
Church Army has commenced in Bos
ton. Fifty posts have already been
organized throughout the country.
A certain farmer or Gllmanton, N
II., netted Just 2 cents on five bushels of
apples sent to Boston. Last year the
same quantity brought him $13.75.
An Arizona editor has been found
who 1b slucero and honest. He hangs
this sign on his office door: "Gone out
to take a drink. Will bo back to-morrow."
"How do you llko this stylo of cuff?"
asked tho detective, snapping a pair of
slender steel bracelets on tho wrists o.'
tho confidence man. "I am a good deal
taken with it," responded the other.
Powered by Open ONI