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About The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 16, 1888)
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2 he Western
Have just received their fall
Girt, Ms, BliMs,
0tftf Z.iif, CLOTHING,
end BOOTS AND SHOES,
Were purchased direct from the. manufacturers
in the east, and will be sold accordingly
Highest market price paid for
Remember We are the cheapest
cash house west of Chicago.
Call and see us.
The Western and Mm Mercantile Association
MASON'S OLD STAND
. Chas. Schaffnit, Manager.
Red Cloud, Webster County, Neb., Friday, November 16, 1888.
A. r.w Comment on tht Cm of Alas by
Considerate exaggeration has been
perpetrated in reference to the adulter
ation of bread with alum. The quan
tity actually used is very small, and
the question whether the term adulter-
'ation in fairly applicable to Mich addl
'tion is a debatable one. From tho
! baker's point of view it is not an
adulteration but an improvement. Ho
la fairly justified in maintaining that
if the alum which he adds is an
adulteration, bo alo is the salt and tho
baking powder which are added to
home-baked bread. According to Tom
linson the proportion of alum com
monly used is but 2 ounces to a sack of
flour, weighing 280 pounds. As on
sack of Hour is with water made
into 80 four-pound loaves, tho quan
tity of alum to each pound of bread is
but 1-1C0 of an ounce, or 1-2.5G0 part.
Oddly enough in this caso tho baker
supposes himself to be more guilty
than ho really is. Ho purchases what
in called "stuff," or "rocky," in
packets, supposing it to be
alum. Tomlinson linds that
i Hair to
eists of three parts of common
one of alum. Half a pound of thin is
added to a sack of flour. Tho xnod of
action of this minute quantity of alum
is a chemical conundrum not yet an
swered, but it 'actually does imprcvo
tho appnaranco of the bread. Hatch
bread madoof ordinary flour without
alum has a lumpy fracture when tho
loaves are pulh?d apart, or tho bread
otherwise broken; tho alum renders
the fracture more silky. I havo re
cently observed that tho batch, or
household, loaves commonly sold in
Kdinburgh show a more silky and in
flat frncturo than London loaves, and
attribute this to tho u.o of more alum.
It may bo that tho Scotch bakers pre
pare their own "rocky,1' omitting tho
common salt. In Ilelgium and North
ern Franco Milphate of copper is
added to improve tho appearance of
bread; 1-1.500 to 1-3,000 part has a
perceptible effect. It is said that tho
baso of this and of alum combines
with the gluten and renders it in
holublc, but this theory docs not ox
plain tho mystery of tho efficacy of so
small a quantity. Pure flour contains
alumina. Mr. A. II. Allou, comparing
the results of his own analysis with
those of other chomNts, estimates tho
average quantity of natural alumina to
correspond to about 8 grains of alum
in tho four-pound loaf, which nearly
correspond:, to Tomlinson's allowance
for tho baker. H'. Matlieu Williams,
in Gentleman s Magazine
HOW MANY VARIETIES.
Wholenouir Atlrire for Farmer AHIct.4
with the "Chirkeu ferer.
When somo people contract tho
"chicken fever" it goes diroctly to
their brain and they loo their head,
so to t-poak. We gel letters occasion
ally from persons v. ho arc about to
Hart in tho business of breeding fancy
fowls, asking how many varieties thoy
had better keep. Some think that toa
would bo a good number.
Those who talk in this way do not
know whnt they nro about, and show
their lack of fitness to breed any varie
Ono variety, or at most two. Is
enough for any ono to breed who has
had no experience in the business.
The eye must bo trained to see and un
derstand tho points required to make
a valuable bird. Each breed is a study
and require- peculiar treatment in re
spect to mating and feeding.
When more than ono variety is brod
on tho premises, the owner is kept In a
state of constant anxiety, lest by acci
dent they become crossed, and his rep
utation suffer in consequence.
It is difficult to rear enough chicks
of several varieties to supply the de
mands for any one of tho number,
especially if ono of them be popular.
A large number of each must be reared
to nllow for culling freely, so that
there may bo no temptation to sell or
breed from birds of inferior quality.
Thore is a temptation to crowd the
flocks into contracted houses and
yards, when several varieties are bred
on a single farm or plot. Breeding
birds need yards of liberal area ia
order to produce vitalized ecus and
vigorous chicks, and young stock in
tended for breeding need wide range
to attain their fullest development
The man or woman who begins with
a single variety, and gives it close at
tention, will have more money and a
better reputation at the ead of ire
yean than the person who begins with
ten or even sore.
If more than one breed is to be kepi
have them bred on separate fame.
Several persons in the saae neighbor
hood on different lanes mmj
makes specialty 1 seme ea
and then all unite in adTerUde aai
selling under the management f
single individual. This mote f ee
operation is frequently seUowei by fss
A aiagie rariety of turkeys.
PERSONAL ANO LITLRARY.
E. P. Hue wrote
of "Miss Lou" on
e last chapter
the day of his
Howard Seclcy, tho Texas writer,
makes use of a human skull for an ink
stand. Carlyle's present popularity in
England is estimated by tho fact that
during six mouths 15.003 volumes of
a cheap shilling cditiou of his works
have been hold.
John To J, a Scotchman who has
just published in Edinburg a book en
titled "Bits About America," says
that American women have great' pow
er of expressing what they mean.
Tho moU expert stenographer in
the country is said to by Mi. Harrows,
wife of tho editor of tho Christian Reg
ister. She is able to "take" Carl
Schurz's speeches without difficulty.
Alexandra Dumas is ono of the
fow wealthy authors in the world, lie
has a magnificent house in Paris filUl
with art treasures. Near Dieppo Le
owns a beautiful chalot covered with
ivy and decorated on tho irisido with
handsome furniture and rare paint
ings. Dumas is sixty-four years of
ago, but strong and vigorous.
Mrs. Dr. B. H. Badloy's "Lifo frJ
Queen Victoria" ha already had three
thousand copies sold, and another odt
tion is ordered. Tho author has re
ceived the thanks of Queen Victoria
for a copy df tho work, and it has
been adopted a a text-book in the
vernacular schools of tho American
Mothodist mission in Oudh aud Ilohll
cund. Prof. Edward A. Freeman says:
' 'Anglo-Saxon1 is such a very foolish
word that I never use it- I see no
reason whv tho two branches of the
English folk should bo called in tho
nineteenth century by an antiquated
description ued for a particular rea
son in characters of tho tenth and
eleventh centuries and hardly any
Tho encyclopedia published by the
academy at Pekin, a fur as bulk M
concerned nt least, is tho largest in tLe
world, it being composed of 160.000
volumes. Wo are not informed how
long it takes to find a given topic, er
how long to rca'd it when found. VTe
havo been accustomed to look upon
tho "Britannica" a a stupendous
work, but here is an entcrprio which
appears far more colossal in its pro
portions. Miss Agnata R:uney," who recent
ly married the master of Trinity and
received as a wedding present from the
learned bridegroom elegantly-bound
volumes of Plato, Sophocles and Dante,
was not above exhibiting a worthy fom
lnine desire to have a pretty wedding.
She wore luce said to havo been Car
dinal Wolsey. and also diamonds and
pearls. Sho hnd a page and eight
bridesmaid-, and these fair ones wore
Cambridge-blue sa-.hes and carried
bouquets of pink ro-es and mignon
ette. Each ono also received two
books of poetry from the bridegroom.
James Trimble, a lineal descondaat
of Daniel Defoe, the author of "Robin
son Crusoe," died at his country place
in Cecil County. Md. Ho possessed,
among other mementoes of the great
traveler, two chairs used by Daniel
Defoe in his study when he was writ
ing tho story of "Crusoe." One of
them he gavo to tho Delaware Histori
cal Society many years ago. The oth
er he bequeathed to the Pennsylvania
Historical Society. Mr. Trimble was
born in Pennsylvania. He was a lead
ing member of the Society of Friends,
a noted botanist and an astronomer,
having a large private observatory and
telescopes at his country home.
At the horticultural show "Thie
is a tobacco plant, my dear' "In
deed! how very interesting! But I don't
see any cigars on it.'
"Bravo, my child; you were a bom
actress." "Yes. sir. My birth was
encored." 4Whatdovou moan?" "I'm
a twin." .V. T. JruM.
Mustard comes in at a duty of lx
cents a pound. It will receive honor
able mention when mustard out. ac
cording to its strength and services.
Old Lady "Pray. Mr. Jones, what
does your friend. Colonel Murphy, do
for a living?" Jonc "He's got mon
ey." Old Lady "Ah. that's plenty te
da" WasktngUn Critic
Old Gentleman (to boy behind the
bat) "Haven't you got a ark.
little boy?" Boy "Tes. sir." Of
Gentleman "Why don't yon wear
feT' Boy "My big sister's weariaU
The papers make a geed dealef faw
of a chiropodist who wants a
corns treat soldiers'
Swmtlm the corn-curing hero af
kicked me down the
St SrWIrh Itli .relr Kstract
tram Ike. Krpta.
The snako Is sclxed a snort distance
behind the head by means of a staff
having at its end a throng of leather
passing over the end and through a
staple, and this is tightened or loos
ened, as occasion may require, by
means of a string extruding up tho
handle. It has been found nfcc-tiary
not to confine the snake's hood too
tightly, as otherwUo it can not h in
duced to strike. The head Wing -cured,
a stick having its end covered
with absorbent cotton is proved
against tho snake's mouth, and it is
teased until sufficiently irritattnl to
strike its fangs into the cotton, which
receives tho venom and obviates any
danger to the fangs, as it has been
found in allowing snakes to striko
against a saucer tho fangs aro
frequently broken off. (tenorally a
snako will striko threo or four times
very viciously and then rolapoo into a
sullen apathy. Wo havo in vain en
deavored to procure venom from our
snakes by pressing over the pohon
glands, but this ha been unsuccessful,
oxcept in ono instance, utile? tho snako
was chloroformed, and if this is dono
the reptile generally succumbs w ithin
a fow days. This fact is mentioned, as
it has bocn learnod through tho public
prints that some exporimouteni in a
neighboring city havo succeedod In
squeezing out the venom while tho
snake was active.
Tho quantity of venom obtained
from d iff o rent individuals varied great
ly. From a largo rattler, weighing
perhaps three or four pounds, our first
attempt resulted in Mcuring about
fifteen drops of venom after tho reptilo
bad struck throo times; but if the
process is repented every day
or two but a very mall
quantity is obtained. Tho smaller
snakes give a much smaller quantity.
Tho cotton, after having received its
charge of venom, was removed from
tho Stick and washed out carefully in
glycerine, and by measuring tho quan
tity of this substance first, and then
after tho venom hnd been addrxl. o
wore ablo to toll accurately tho
strength of tho solution, which con
sisted of eight drachms of chemically
pure glycerine and ono drachm of tin
venom. This is tho preparation which
was used in all the cxKri merit, and it
is called glycorino-venoin. Ono fact
should bo stated as bearing i.pon tho
popular bcllof that snakes, if kept
from water, are not poinjiiotis. It was
found that by keeping tho rattlers
without water for a weok or two,
tho quantity of venom was materially
smaller than when wo allowed them
free access to water, and that tho
color of the venom, which was
yellowish green when no fluid was sup
plied, became much lighter in color
when thoy had freely drunken. Wo
havo ncvor been ablo to induce our
rattlesnakes to eat. although they havo
been tempted with a variety of food,
but water they consume largely.
When tho preient supply of rattlers
was first received it was a very easy
matter to grasp any one of them b
hind tho neck with a snnke-taff. but
experience has taught them that they
must do something against their will,
and now it is quite difficult to secure
them, and even when secured it is
difficult to make them strike; in fact,
ono specimen is now so tamo that it
may bo handled with impunity, and it
is the writer's belief that a rattler, if
carefully and tenderly handled, will
not bite the hand that grasps it. It is
believed the Moqui Indian are aware
of this, and it enables them to handle
with impunity the venomous snakes
used in their fearful dance, so well de
scribed by Captain John G. Bourkc. U.
S. A. Many persons suppose that the
fangs of a rattler once removed the
reptile is harmless for all time, or that
at least a year is required to rcplaco
the fangs. This is an error, for the
writer has in his po5eion a rattler
ia which the fangs were twice replaced
after an interval of three weeks only.
As the rattler doubtless know when
the contents of the poison gland is ex
hausted, as is evidenced by hi rc.'ual
to bite after two er threo efforts, he
probably also knows that it is useless
to show fight when the faags have
been removed, and this has been
practically tried on one of our snakes.
She eontisues to coil and rattle, but.
no matter how much teased and irri
tated, makes no attempt to bite.
An interesting f act has been noticed
impert-iat to record. It is that the rs
tier deas aot invariably cm both fangs
ia striking, the masealar movement of
either aide of the jaw being- qai in
tepaaaea af she ether, and quita at
tfcewiilef e reettlA. Tm
bearhag ef this point to that
ally la snake bite Vit eae
will be loead, and aoase deabt may ex
it if this was really due as the aar
paaVsasafserwat. Another paiat of
interest See in th fact that If only eoa
tang isntaagei! lata tic Ussees. the
patient will aot have rscssrad se large
a dose ef the via ae if both teeth
Going to Buy a Pair
of Shoes ?
We arc making a special sale this week of
Men's Fine Slices at 81.35.
Also, Ladies' Kid and
Goat and Lace Shoe 1.35,
Either kind worth twice the monev. If voti
need a pair it will pay .you to examine
them. Come and see
Our fall and
We have the best line of Dress Goods and
Notions to select from in Red Cloud.
Call and examine our stock.
1. M. MAKTIN.
Highest price paid for butter and
11 SI ILL REMAINS A tri I Ji T
S. F- SPOKESFIELD, '
KUKPS OS HAND LtROK LI.NKOK
Dry Goods. Groceries, Etc.
Which h i IUnj t remttkibl 'rm Sar
don't alike a eras ho Wat 2J
OLD STAND, RED CLOU).
Dry Goods & Grocery House.
Keep on hand s full line of
Dry Goods, 5
Boots, Shoes, ' "
Andcll them at the lowest living - price.
call and see them. A full line of outrgTS
s-IWAVS nn Uuna.
goods arriving daily.
How You Vote
iu krpax with tha tior ti
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