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About The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 25, 1881)
THE RED CLOTH) CHIEF.
M. L. THOMAS, Publisher.
m:i CLOUD, -
TEE WAYSIDE WELL.
To stopped nt the wnv-al.Ie well.
Uicrc the water wns cool ami deep:
'rtT)rtt fMUlory lcrus 'i tho mosjy
Ana pray was the old well-sweep.
Ifo left hli carriage alone:
AoreouM c.iiciiinari or foottnnn tsll
nlrbjnV's.tcrs PI'"" ' thodiutyroad
uo drink at tlio vva,sitlo well.
llcswavcd with Mi glorcI hands
J " vil-svc. p cruamr and flow,
v ti It' from beam and su.tr In Uio Luoicfs
The water plashed back below.
And bent ilnwn tn ttv bucVefs brtm;
o ltirrouacr time or euro had marked
J he race that looked back at bun.
Ho saw lint a farmer's lxy
As he stcipel er tin- brim Op drink.
And ru Idv a i 1 timix d was tao Uushlnr faco
'Jbai met LiU over tbobriii.
The eyes wero unny and cloor.
And the brow imdiuun id by aro.
W Lilt-, from imdur ino brim or tho old straw
Strayed eurli of chestnut hair.
tie turnc 1 nwav with n -lirh
T could Oiiehman or ftixinn toll
AV by the mum it stopp.-.j j i:'4 ri0 that day
Jo drjuk at tiiu ivuj-aidu wli.
H'tiUer ;.ini'l, lit tlnifl Ctunpzn'j.
Wc frequently re id of wonderful fonts
nml ui:irvu!oi:s do n js of ants in foreign
countries, little thinking that the ants
of our own country perform ipiito as re
markable epio Is. Wo li.ive in this
orlhoin States two speces of h'avc
linking, two leaf-cutting :ijd several
carpenter ants, w.tli very interesting
habits, -md also h irvesting ants, th-it
collet t and store seeds. Tlio slave-making
ants Furmuu s iwuinra) not only
make war upon neighboring tribes anil
capture the young, whieh the rear as
slaves, but thev ilo inanv other things
quite as wonderful, whieh seem to indi
cate that thev have a laiigu n't; anil a
system of iiovernnn-iit or laws regulat
ing the community.
My observations were made on the
slave making unU in a giove wlii-h sur
rotui Is the hoti-c. where a larne co'onv
,r have had their formicary frv several
x oars past. Aficr liv ing in one p'aee for
a number of years, they concluded to
change their home not .swarming 1 he
bees, leavinir a part of the colon v in the
old quarters, but tho whole community
mov ng and taking with them their en
lire i.llecls. Notwithstanding the im-ineii-c.
uiimbi'r of .slaves and workers
engaged in the enterpri-e, the building
ot the new home proved to be a slow
and laborious proceeding. On the 1th
of dune I obseivcd a line of ant-, com
ing lrom the home of the slavc-iu.ihers,
which 1 followed twenty loot to a .spot
where the new homo was ahcadv in
progress. The place chosen was a litt o
hillock about fo:ir feet in di.uneter, but
the surrounding ground was lower than
the old home.
lVon all appearances, they had not
been at work more than a day or two,
us comparatively little eaith was thrown
out. The b ak eajdiva-. Form ca f'us
) were excavating at eleven different
point-:, and the red masters were walk
ing ss'owL from ncgioupo s'aves to
another. as if inspect ntneir work;and
now .sevc al i etui ned home and di-up-peared.
but soon emerged w.th new re
cruits ot biacks, which Icll iutol.no and
mar lied w.th them to the new quarters.
vher' they joined their fellows in the
work of ceaa$ion. The slaves did not
re'urn home, but kept ste iddy at work,
wh Ie the masters were rnus'nully go
ing I a-k ami fortli. 'lhe colony had
also another .species of slave tho
brown ant Formica srhnujii-sn). wh'ch
sMll renmnod at home, bringing m
food for the conununily and nursing
the oiuig. Not one ot the-e slaves, as
far as I could tee, w:is engaged at tho
Un tho li'th of Juno, eight days after
1 lir-t observed the move, tho budding
had prgres-ed .sullieicn'ly to admitthu
Aoucjj iuiothe new lv-con-inicted cham
bers. The bu-y jiorters fonneil an un
broken lino from the old to tho new
home, eaeh earning a largo chrysal s.
which contained a win.ed indivi lual.
heio chnsabds were larger and heav
ier thau the poitors who boru them.
the couta'uo I tho future queens ami
males, which in duo tini" would swarm
iiud Ieao the colony. The masters as
we'las the slaves wero engaged in tho
trau-poriation. A lar:o force of blacks
was al-o still eng-.tged iu mining.
On the fidlowiug ilay very few chrvs
jtlidd weie earned, but tho mining
Heeniod to bo going on with redoubled
force. Some of the masters had now
taken hold, aud wore working as vigor
ous y as the slaves. Tho work contin
ued with unabated ardor for four or live
lays, ) to the 17th, wheu the jiorters
:iir:"in tunned in line both masters and
fclaves and brought tho heavy burdens,
whii-h thev let, in tho new homo anl
retuni'd for more. A large force of
slaves was stdl mining, but several of
the entrant's where they had been
funning galleries were now closed,
only the iieing.opcn. A large number
of " blacks wero still bringing
earth from four of tho upenms,
while tho fifth was wholly occupied
by tho poi tors with their burdens. He
sfdes the chry.-alidi ami larv:c. many of
the slaves brought bit; of wuod, and
pebbles, -and wild-cherry pits, which
they had previuu-lv piled about the old
home. 1 he nio-t difficult things to move
fcccmed to have tho mot value. Hits of
eoal and pebbles, whieh had cost them
a great etfort to get in place at the old
home, must now bo carried twenty feet,
through irr.iss to tho new home. Some
times it required live or six slaves to
carr. the va'ued article, and when the
arrived with it they laid it near one ot
the entrances, or piled it on to the
material closing one of the former open
ings. Tho construction of the new home
ami the moving continued up to the 21st.
taking seventeen das to accomplish
tho great undertaking. The old home
was uow entirely deserted. All inter
ests were centered in the new. The
blacks still continued the mining at
three of the openings, the other two
having been clo-ed. Some ubservers" are
inclined to belie ethat the black captives
du not conform to the habits of their
masters, but do precisely as thev would
in a colouv by themselves. The most
casual observer cannot tail to perceive
tlie great difference in the outward ap
pearance of the two formicaries. A
formicary of free blacks is spread over
a large surface of j-round and has many
open ngs. while that of the slave-maker,
r to a 1 oirward appearance, is compact
and has but one main entrance. The
slaves are compelled by their masters to
close the entrance as soon as the gal
leries aud chambers arc finished. In a
colony ef blacks left to themselves the
numerous galleries are all open. A
careful observer will see many other
things to convince him that the slaves
are under subjection.
In order to have a view of the nur
sery, 1 had a frame made of window
sash, twelve by sixteen inches. The
pieces were obtained at a sash-factory
and joined together by the obliging ar-
tisan. and a patio of glass litted in the
sah, leaving it about two inches in
depth. I la'd this frame over the for
micary, aboutsix fnches distant from the
entrance. 1 covered the glas3 with a
thick black cloth to exclude thejlght,
and titled a board snugly overjffo hold
it in place. While I was arranging the
frame, both masters and slaves came out
t Jn large numbers And walked over and
R around this strange contrivance for their
comfort. They touched each other's
atifcuna; and rushed about in an excited
manner for a few moments. Satisfied
that nos enemy was near, they soon be
came q-iiut. and tho blacks began to
pile all sorts of material around tho int
er edge of tho frame, where the little
inequalities of tho ground admitted a
ray of light.
After a few hours had elapsed, I
raised the.jcovcr and looked in upon tho
busy workers. The sudden Hood of light
caused great constcrnat on among them:
they hastily d sappoare 1 to the rooms
below through two w.de entrances which
thoy had opened since the frame was
placed. They had divided tho largo
space into two rooms, with ashght par
tition between and a door lea I nig into
each room. Tho ground had beeu le;--elednd
smoothed aud s.ighty scooped
out. Many of tho workers came to the
doors, put their heads out. and hastened
back as if afraid. I had disarranged
none of their work, having simuly
raised the cover, but they seemed to be
unable to comjrehend the unusu.tl
light, aud were frightened at tho
strangeness of tho sudden exposure.
Two of the blacks, more courageous
than their comrades, resumed work.
They scraped the earth w.th their feet
aud rollc i it in a lump, then took it m
their mandibles and carried it to tho
edge of the frame Mint dropped it.
1 carefully excluded the light and left
them in peace until the next d iv, when
I aga n raised tho c iver and found the
iiiiido of the frame nearly tilled with
ehrya!id-. A great consternation
seized the inhubi'auts; they r i-died
from the galleries, seized the chnvi
l.ds and carried them below. 1 so n
exc tided the light, but every day
looked in upon them. A large
number of masters and slaves were now
cons' ant ly outside of the frame, walk
ing "ver and a ound it as it o i guard,
so that 1 w:is obliged to raise the
cover very quickly to avoid being at
tained by the fur.ous creatures. As I
laid the cloths bacc they rushed upon it
and b'.t it, as if chastising the author of
On the 2.1th of June the chrysalids
had d sappca-cd and the interior of the
frame wa-s swarm. tig with winged mdi
v.dnals. 'J he woikers were .still ox
c ted; when I ra:sed the cover, thev
laid hold of tho young queens and
nia'es bv the mtenice or !e and hur
ried them below. The entrances were
s.oon blocked by the panic-stricken in
habit ants, and the wildest contusion
Hoth masters and aves exercise 1
great care over the" winged gentry. If
t he younqiieeiisor males wandered out
s.deof tlietrame, they were immediately
conducted back bv the vigilant guard.
This -tatc of alfairs cont.iiued until the
fith of .July, when I found that a gi eat
cJringo ha I been wrought iu theappeir
andot the interior, not a winged indiud
ual was to be -een. The rooms h til been
bWejit an I grni-hed and all the debris
was piled iu one coiner. About a hand
ful of larvie and pup.eof frit :re worners
occupied a portion of one ot the room.
The debris consisted nio-tlv of empty
cocoons and the wings oi the recent oc
cupants. The -.lave mtkeisareiiot noc
turnal in their habits, aud yet the
winged mouthers took their flight a lit
tle after sundown, between .seven and
eight o'clock. 1'roni the amount of
wings p led among tho debris there was
ev.dentl a large tiumberof queens con
cea ed within the formiearv.
Tho queens, after taking flight, did
not ret'irn to the neat of th.-ir own ac
cord; but the woiiers were on the
watch, and condiu ted back a large num
ber. Their wings were now removed,
and henceforth they remained within
tho formicary, taking no part iu the
wars or work of th- colony, but were
fed and tended bv the Slaves. Tho
ira'cs Hew with the queen-'. Irit after
their flight the workers paid no attcn
t'on to theso helpless, home'e-s wan
derers, passing them with the utmost
indifference, but eaerU seizing a queen
and burning her back to the lormieary.
On the mot u dig of tho 7th of .July--the
winged members of the colony be
ing (Ii-tii:il or a new movement wa-
evidently on foot. 'I he masters were
forming iu line and marching to battle.
No blacks were to be seen in this line.
Tho chivalrous slave-owners did not
a low their captives to particpatc in
the wars and invasions upon other
tribes, although but a few days pre
vious when the move was made, the
blacks had kept iu the lino and ma leas
good porters as their ma-ters. The
war-path was about six inches iu width,
and extended seventy feet to a coh.ny
of blacks, where tho vast army halted
and was soon engaged in conflict. Their
wars with other tribes I will not dwell
upon as they have been fully discussed
el-owhere. Observers aro divided iu
opinion with regard to tho primary ob
ject which tho slave-makers have in
capturiug so many blacks. Some in
cline to tho belief that the ants aro cap
tured tor food, and that those not eaten
are reared as slaves.
The invaders, alter a successful bat
tle, returned home with tho spoils and
remained closely housed for two or
three davs; it was easy to imagine that
a great feast w:is going on in the under
ground rooms. While the ants were
thus housed the slaves d d not move am
of tho Iarv:o or puna whieh their mas
ters had been bringing in to the nursery
above; but as soon as the warrioisagam
formed in line and marched to battle,
the slaves became very active. Some
carried out the debris that was piled iu
the corner of the nursery and deposited
it . the foo' ot the hill. "CMiors brought
7p pupa and larva and placed them in
tho warm nursery; but the number
brought up bore no comparison To the
great amount that had been carried be
low. If all the pup.e and 1 irv:e were
reared that were carried homo during
tho live or six weeks that these war-,
continued, there ought to hae been ten
or a dozen blacks to one red master.
wherca3 there seemed to be fully as
many masters as slaves.
On the other hand, 1 have seen some
things which make it doubtful if the
helpless young are eaten. The lir-t
colony of blacks that were attacked this
season had their upper nursery arrang
ed beneath a board, which I could hum
and thus have a good view of their
young. A laro cavitv was tilled with
cocoons, from which winged ants wou d
eventually emerge. These cocoons are
easily recognized, as they are consider
ably larger than those containing work
ers. Alter a tierce struggle, the vic
torious slave-makers drove the bkfks
from home and sacked the nurseries or
all the larva and pup:ethat would make
workers, but the large cocoons, holding
winged ants, were lett. These would
be of no use as slaves. Another fact:
1 have never found the remains of the
pupai or larva among the debris where
the refuse of insects and the dead bodies
of the blacks are piled. Notwithstand
ing these puzzling facts, I think the
weight of evidence goes to prove that a
large majority of immature blacks are
consumed as food.
That the s!ave-makers consider them
selves superior to their captives is in no
wav more clearly evinced' than in their
treatment of the" dead. After.a battle a
great many wounded. and dead soldiers
are brought home by their comrades.
Tho dead are soon carried out. some
times by the warriors andsometimes by
the slaves, and left a long distance off;
usually concealed under leaves, though
I have occasionally seen one carried
over fifty feet and left on the bare carriage-drive.
The dead blacks, so far
as I have observed, are never carried
far away, but left among tho rubbish
One of the most remarkable instances
that I ever observed of the-eunning and
saTOcity of the slave-makers happened
iuhe earby,part of August. For three
davs they hud been engaged m battle
with a largk colony of blacks over a
hundred feelfrom homo. On the after
noon of they-d day the spoils were all
taken, and" of the soldiers were re
turning hS rd empty - handed.
WiieuaDODx -ay, a large detach-
ment branched oil. crossed the cirrlage
drivc. and marched directly to another
largo co'.ony, siliuted beneath an oak on
tho highest ground in tho gr vc. Tho
fornucar, extended over so vend square
feet, and had many cnlr.inccJ Tho
panic-stricken blacks, instead of fa -in 4
the enem ?, tied in all directions, many
ol them earning younganls. and others
pupx. Hut the army of the invaders
came thick and fasC and soon spread
over the entire formicary. oinc were
stationed at the openings, while others
passed Within, aud now each black that
attempted Ij escape with a pupa or
young aut was immediately sei.cd and
the jotuig wrested from it. The in
vaders, instead of returning home with
tho booty, carried it luck into the for
micary. This unus'ial proceeding con
tinued for about an hour. The adult
bl.icks were driven out. The invaderi
had reiolvcd to reta n thi-i eligible s.tu.t
tion and make it thcit future home. A
large number of them returned to the
old home, and eaeh seized a slave and
carried it to the captured home of the
blacks. Tbcy seemed to be in too much
haste to spend tijue iu making the slave?
coinprehendtl.H new move. The slaves
crouched before their masters and 1 filed
themselves m a ball, ready to be car
ried. In this position the were trans
ported as easily as a pupa or larva. The
transported slaves bewan at once to
cioie the 11 microtis entrances Icailrj
t the chambers of their vanquished
As darkness approached all labot
ceased. The divided inhabitants took
their repose in both formicaries The
following morning bv eight o'clo k thev
wero out in full force. The line ex
tended from one formicary to the other
an tin rokeu column sity feet in
length and from six to eight inches in
width. All the invaders that wero go
ing toward tho captured home were
laden with burdens. Some were earn -ing
young slaves, others pup.i: and co
coons, and a large number of queens
were being transported which by this
time had become will ng members ol
the coium mity. and uo longer had to
bo dragged by the antenna or legs, but
were rolled in balls and carried 111 the
Mrong maudiblos of the porters, bomo
of the slaves were still carried, but
most of them seemed by this time to
understand what was going on, and
wero iu tho 1 no earning burdens. Hut
1 saw very few 011 the return hue; ap
parently tlio command had been given
for the slaves to remain at the captured
home and cloe the numerous doors
and make tho necessary changes in the
interior to suit their masters. '1 he
move was completed in less thau three
days, as iu this case they had little or
no mining to retard thorn.
The poor, homeless blacks that had
been driven out motllv congregate I
about twenty feet diMant under a tree,
and had secreted their oung beneath
lallcn leaves. It was pitilul to see a
small detachment start out to recon
noiter their late home. Thu ap
proached with great caution, ami, hav
ing discovered the state of alfairs, hast
ened back. If one was caught by tho
outside guard ho was almost sure to bo
i'sually, when the b'aeks have been
driven from home, thev return as soon
:it the invaders eea-o tho altak. So
lbs colony rotnaine 1 huddled together
for several davs. as if wailing tor the
eneinv to leave. At last, becoming satis
lied that they did not intend to leave,
the blacks "move! about thirty feet
farther and commenced mining into
one of their ol I deserted formicaries
After tho invaders wero well settled
in their conquered home, 1 noii-ed
some singular-looking ants which had
been loft in tho old lormieary. Bringing
my lens to a d me, 1 found that tho-o
aiits both masters ami s'aves -were
covered with parasites. A single speci
men looked like a mere stock, scarcely
vis bio to tho unassisted o o, but so
numerous wero the' on many of tho
ant that it gave them the appearance
ot being covered with wh te fungus. 1
sunplied them with sugar an 1 hone.', of
which the slaves partoo'c freely and
with which "they fed the infested
masters. The war sp rit was not ot
quenched in theo ivd marauders. They
walked about with extended mandibles,
readv to light whatever might coin iu
their way. They attacked tho Ilios and
bees thai were attracted to thehoiioyiw
fiercely as ever.
Wh Ie I was watching these ants and
wondering at their sagacity, mv atten
tion was attracted to two ant? ap
proaching tho old home: they wore both
slao makers, and one was walking
backward and leading tho other bv tho
tip of tho antenna, as if afraid of con
tamination. She led her up tho little
hillock and left her near the door. Tho
ant thus left was infested with a fow
paras tcs, not vis bio without tho aid of
the lens. She made no attempt to re
turn with her conductor, and soon dis
pcared within what had now become a
My attention was now wholly direct
ed to tho conductor, who had started
toward home. Sue soon stopped to
make her toilet rubuing her-olf nn tho
ground aud then -stan ling nearly up
right aud passing her forelegs ovur hor
body. After going on a low feot. sho
stopped and repeated tho per'ormanco.
After completing it to her sat'sfactton.
.she soon reached the outer boundaries
of home, where she was stopped, lirst
by one and then another of hor com
rades. In some instances they held
their antenna together lor the space of
a minute or two, as if conversing:
others merely touched the antenna and
passed along. Having satis led them
that she was all right, she was soon
mingling with the rest unchallenged.
1 returned to tho lazaretto and picked
up a good many of the infested ants
and dropped them iu a'cohol. On plac
ing them under the micros 'ope 1 found
the paras. to to be a species of nutc.
These mites, like aphides increase with
astoirshuig rapidity and are easily
transmitted from ant to ant. I put one
of the in ested ants from the old nest
in a glass jar w th earth in the bottom
three or four inches in depth. 1 then
introduced twenty ants from the new
nest, ten blacks and ten reds, entirely
free from mites. In a little more than
a week every ant was nearly covered
with the parasites.
It will be seen from this how neces
sary it was for the community to rid it
self of all the infe-td ants. But none
the less marvellous docs it apj. ear that
such insigniticant creatures should
manifest so much wisdom and
forethought. All the ants at the
new nest, so as I could see, were
tree from the pests; but 1 have not
the lea-t doubt that the one led up
to the old nest by the antenna; was
brought from the new home. The be
havior of the conductor and tho way in
which her companions met her were
proofs of this. Alary Treat, in Lippin
At Winnipeg. Manitoba, the dis
covery of the supposed real heir to the
Tiehborne estate has been made. He
is an invalid in the hospital, from inju
ries received on the Pazitic Railway.
His name is James Hiches Coles. Riches
being his mother's ma den name, and
Tiehborne the title ot the estate, lie
says that he is li:ty-two 3-ears of age,
and admits that he is uneducated. His
story is that he left Eugland when be
tween nineteen and twenty years of age,
to follow tho sea. He came -from Aus
tralia, via England, to Canada.
An .advertiser in a "Washington
newspaper wants a position in any ot
the Government departments, and" of
fers one-third of his salary for the
place. Another says: "Will give any
one 550 and ten per cent, for the first
four months who will get mo work in
any of the departments at a salary ol
from $60 to S75 per month."
RcliE-ious Head in?. -
E VESIXG SOSG.
FJo-xtr nllarnnnd u srath'-r
Shndoif ttlf cittill Ic:
Ib'Ric wft-Kfnf to T'.- it Father.
I-t our heart lt flute &1 1".
We ore wr-ic an f wtcn. i4 wntirr.
Ctuiffd by tiMi. itHd . an t strife,
Th u !' f ii we u- bery
To Thy hBJr? or love and Me.
IJrii-'it r th 4 vr-drwn ' i&c aemicr,
Co 1 uUr Uf etriy H.at.
Lai-iii .111 1 -e 1 nd r mUttiHZ
W HA i' .i Hdur puie Jd tri;it.
Hint t eir in it it-o :-r wtv slam
In the 1 Mi-r.nil Its',) l.ori.
IjH-rits-befvtUil X. wrsIj-iriinti
Were the jcK0-":' k --
We f nut tu&t r! wr whWbz
Al tte X'till touch uf dii.
1'rom tt l-m : -la b-r !mmV!b;:,
IVrtnif iim.ir wx" wy.
AH dy I. ir 1 fa w vurfe unly
tv-at t U i os Uf tire KJ7.
Ihj vrv .,' !k I .lv
Hate otr ti loett ft4wtxr.
Iipl if nniuK cvnr JS
'iii:Tjy cnfu' tiij-ts are near,
!'rtn ' rdjei-f cittaot aH.
1 liMeff will lie kjt w mo ffttr.
tnrtijjerthli lib- -.ttuinft aaVd
An Tt efi I' tursJ:
?bai iHiirttt M, rieeaHfOt,
In tn:u bi. fm.h wtfb.de.
Theref .r. thmirti th tuiilows ditricn.
'1 rudiiu wcariii atony.
Vet u kii, Ihi-ie u -r -w lit tiarkun
White we .n iir et on n;r.
I.lsht of I If. ile part in tetter,
f.Ulit n't e irlh. Mild llzht of Heaven,
K.ethlv -inn into !. Irtit eer
Will Tuy I it'inik"- Mht it rven!
Altzuinlcr l(. 'iVwiM'Miit. l).l) ut !i. i'. Tlnut.
International Sunda) -ScIkidI frcssoni.
Ill I HI) ,!. tltTr.M. I
July 10 TheCt.!). 11,- ! it. r r to.'uh 2 .-!
Jul. IT I he I ll'lnt i.e I T de K- lit
Jidt H Vimwid Aaron 1 y. t 2.-H. " 1-
Jul .1 Mo.cmi llh- fcu- c.i.H I'xo !;--!:
Alii " Hie 1 utt r - .1 iilwi li. 1-1
Ansr 11 The lt-l -cii ... i't.i.i li t!-:;
Au'.'.'l T- M.nini i:..lus 11. 1- ) t
Aujr.- -lherim iiaiidinerit l.ailii-.a) t-lt
S-i t. -Ttic (iiniiiuiidiiiuriij. i:-inliis2i.ir-;t
Sej.t 11 Ido.atry I'.iiwln-l KaoIiis .? 1
Sent. Ifi !tciewif 1 lie I.M0I1S
ttpt.-i femio mice 1 Cor. 9. ;
The Kealitj and Value of iteligien.
The two narratives that follow cou
tain a few ot llit many tr.butos that
skeptics and men of the world have in
duectly and, perhaps, almost uncoil-'
'ciousiy. given to the reality and value
of theChri-tiati religion: their praeti-J
cal admission and te-.timony against
their own profe-ed theories as well as
their lives, and their virtual eonfo-siun
ol the ttuih and excellence of Christi
anity. 'I hey are we.! worthy of perma
nent record, as the names and dati s al
luded to can be given for each.
Some thirty ears a'o a oungnnn
from Southern I'ennsUvania was on his
ivai to college, aud entering the stage
coach he found as pa-sen :ers several
men. whoso loo-eta k was chid! v in rid
icule of religion and the Uiblo. Ho
himself was not a Chri-tian, but was of ,
a Christian latnily. and he leverenccd ,
his father and mother and their faith'ul ;
piotv, which ho felt were both the
siiength and beauty of his earh home. 1
Tamed and piovoked by the blasphe-.
mies oi his fellow t ravclers, he wa -.ilent
t.ll ho could bear it no longer, and then '
he contradicted their .statements and
denied and uppu-ed their as-crtions.
Amu-ed at his unejieeted boldne-s,
am' thinking to make short work of the 1
outh. thev became more reekles-. and '
iiupuileut than before. Ho was not
then tin keen and pra tired deiiater In ,
afterward beeaine, but bv the ChrNt'nu '
teaching of hi- home and church he had
been well in 01 mod. and with his spirit
ron-ed and soea.ing on the side oi
t nth. ho gave them blow for blow n ml j
facts for arguments, till soon thev were I
silenced and gave un thediscu-ion. At ,
the nd of the -tagc route the all en-1
tered the s'camboat which was in wait
ing, and had not been long on board
when one who had been foremost m op
posing and ridiculing leligion came to
the younir man aud asked: "Have you
a state room?"
"Will oh let me share it with von?"
" I'iccau-o I have a large amount of
money with me. and 1 am afraid to
slcep'with any one I do not know lest
I should lie murdered for 111 money.
It ou will Ie. me have one of the two
berths I -.hall esteem it a great favor."
His request was granted. Hut what
a commentary 011 hi- picvious words
and his ridicule of the Bible and Chris
tians! s-oinc fifty years ago a gentleman
from one ot the Southern Mat"S was
obliged, on a journey, to pass through
the then wild icgion now known "as
West Virginia. He was an avowed in
l.del, often saving that Christianity was
fal-e, and would ultimately lose its in
lhience and die out. He had been ad
vised to 11 ake a ceitain part of hi- jour
ney by d iv. as at night the region
spoken of was unsafe. lint being de
lacd ho was on hi- way through this
cry region when night overtook him.
Approaching a small cabin ami imp! r
ing wheie he was. he found to his dis
may that he was iu tho very neighbor
hood lie hail been warned to avoid; but
thinking it as dangerous to go back as
forward, ho determined to stop wheie
lie was. So he entered the hut. iu
which there was only a woman, and
among the rude furnituio saw knives
that to Irs ees looked very
large, and guns enough for many
assailants. Hefore long the cottager
h inolf came in, a rough mountaineer,
and iu a lrank but uncouth manner
welcomed the stranger, who quietly
took a seat. When -upper was icady
they asked him to draw up and eat w.th
them; but as his appetite was spoiled by
anxiety and fear, lie declined, saving ho
was not hungry. After sup: cr and a
long silence, as he expressed a dfs re
to rest, the cottager replied: " You can
lie down whenever you like on the lloor
there. I am sorry I havefi't anything
better to oiler you. Hut we always, be
fore we go to s ecp. read a chapter in
thUbook," taking down a Ihbie. "and
ask God to ta'ce care of us through tho
'1 he stranger s relief from anxiety
and fear was instantaneous. The book
which he had o'tcn ridiculed and op
posed he at once felt was the guaran
tee of his safety during the silent
watches of the night, and he lay down
as securely and quietly to his rest as if
he had been in his own home, and with
a le.-son to hi- conscience and sober
judgment that made him a wiser and a
Similar faet3 and testimonies might
be multiplied by the score, but these
two are most striking tribu'cs from the
world to the reality and value of relig
ion. Illustrated Christum Weekly.
" Noticing now how this re
actionary influence upon ourselves of
helpi'ig others takes place, observe its
operation with respect to our individual
tr als. Heavy as these ma" be. a good
half of the.r weight is more imaginary
than real. Any one can be wretched to
any degree by cultivating the habit of
a pining, disconsolate brooding over
losses, crosses, unpromising prospects,
just as any one can have a dark-room
at any time b dropping the curtains
and closing the shutters and blinds.
This is the state of so-ne Christians. It
is a habit often growing out of tem
peramental, dispositional morbidness a
wearisome, wasting captivity. It dries
up, the sprigs of comfort, parah zes the
sinews of activity, as it quenches from
the eye its light and takes its smile
from the eheek. A cruel tyrant is this
melancholy discontent? llow can. it be
You have been housed Jhrongh along
ppell pi bad weather, until your nerves
are'enfcebled and irritated to the point
of almost unendurable discomfort.
What do they need to readjust their
action, to relieve yonr ph.sical and
mental suffering? "Ventilation, exer
cise in the free, outdoor air. Precisely
so with tUito tanitrun or ovcr:nnjg
feeling s'in th' relig ons life. The r;eV
i;ee-!s to be broade led. the nath M
ij.n nted over a wider ipto. to t
brought in contact with ot.'f r who a!o
have a lalo of trouble to tell, in lten
iag to whi'di you might almost forgot
th.tt jou had Inuch rtojio to cmuphx.ii.
Troubles. hk almost anything h)mi ai
-hort range, look very huge. looking
at little le. you become moroe In an
i-olnlcd inofJ The cure for Um i to
cme into correiponlenco with outset
.-utTerln.-. to open the cws and ilia
heart to surrounding privnto!ii an I b?
reuvuntetiiis. A n:ot va uabht medtcu
ting v rtuu let in '.hi eouiraim t of
kuowleile slid fellow-feel ng. It 4uw
jood much to tioMj who uxtrnd It as
to tho-o who receive It. I: eut- th
fastenings of Urn, miserable jud rum
oib iiKHilmes- wh eh. like ib coils o.'
trC-rpent. wdl cruth an I si. tie it icrtm
It not thus rrVi.ied. 'lliere is an. hHn
for a por-on wko :ivo- up to d-pod-euey
under fow or mttiv misfortune.
It is not right, aud can. therefore. on!y
breed more m -erv. "That way in.uf
iiom i:o."' Self-dienthraUuieiu eomw
ftoai helping to bborate other captivoJ.
- J. T. lu.A.r, ii Otttrch iiitvti.
What We Want.
"What we want is not so much, not
h.nlf so tniu'li. light for tl.o intellect, as
dew upon the hear:;" if Koberwui had
spo'en but th!- one sentence he would
h iv been the world s benefactor.
Childhood i- charm. ug bocau-c it has
not lost the dew, old ago 1- heau'iful
wheu it re-overs it. W e w .nder when
men of intellect -elect for their friends
or choose lor their wive-, those greatly
interior in mind; but the reason is .-im-p
e. they desire only dew upon tho
.Mark tho anxious, care-worn faces in
the -treet. they know not what thev
want, they th.nk if they hint a lut.e
more le -tire, money or lame, they
would be at rc-t; but what thev want
is dew noon tho heart." It makes
one charitable to think of the-e duitv,
tod vo 11 men and women, ruun ng
hither aud thither to no purpo-o and
with -otiiuch pain.
How ii this dew to be gained? Fir-t,
by tning to give it to another. How
can wo do tin-? In inanv was, in little
a- well as great. What power the
human voice has to shed "dew ii'ion
tho heart." Ask not tor the voice ot
the -mger, charming as is the gi.t. ask
rather lor what was once called by a
hiinib e. ignorant woman, "a kind
voice." How it melts the heart! How
coiivincing.y it teaches that woaioot.
one fain.lv on earth, and shall be one
family in Heaven. How rudene-s soft
ens and co.tr-cne-"M idiiies before the
power ot a gentle, persuasive voice, .-o
that tho rude .and coarse are retut .ed
into silence as in the presence of death.
Sympathy, appreeiaton, plac ng our
selves m iinagiiiat.ou iu aicd her's lot.
will shed "dew upon the he tit." We
are too given to advice, rebuke, blame,
eritici-m. Tho largo hearted, chanla
b'e, loving people are the true reformer-
of the r.icc. I cannot believe that
theio is any one so fallen that ho cainot
be melted by a Iovi.g voue. and I be
lieve that inanv an apparently cold, in
diilereut nature is p.iMig fur a word of
"We shall find this "dew upon tho
heart" in the wr tings of goo I men,
thev need not I o great men. Have von
never come acio 111 some huinbio
bo ik, or in a new-paper, a sentcne
lull of feeling ami leire-hmetit? Per
haps v our heart was dry and burn. tig,
and thoe woid '. -pok -n by anothet
heat t, shed low on our-.
1 have a hymn which I read almost
dailv ; there is noth ng wonderful about
it, vet the more I icalil the more
strength it gives me. It is more to mo
thau a toitime; for it shod? "dew tijtoii
my heait "
Hut more than anything we can do
for others, orany others can do funis, du
we need to seek the dew of Heaven As
the lluwer- gladlv drink the dew which
not onlv re're-he-. but retouches the r
fad-d colors, .so sliou'd we open the
I otals of our h-arts t rcco.ve tho-e
He ivenly ini'ucnces those kindling
asiiat ons which our He ivenly 1 ather
is so much mote ready to give than wo
to receive; tor wo forget, if wo have
over learned, that "what wo want is not
so mu 'h. not ha i so much. 1 ghttor tho
intellect, as dew upon tho heart."
iStspltst II tit'.
Tlie Cockle Ilur.
TIih is one of the worst weeds that in-fe-t
the prair.es. It is not as had as
the Canada thi-tle, hut it is bad enough
lor all practical purpose?. Although
its seeds are not sea! tut ed far by the
wind they have a variety of wavs of
getting over tlie ground. They ai'ach
themselves to tho wool of sheep, the
hair of cattle, horsi s and wild animals,
and to the feathers of some kuids of
birds. Thev arc swept away from field
iu Hoods and are carried long distmccs
iu streams and rivers. Thev vvill stand
more abu-o than a strav log without
receiving 11113 permanent injury. They
cause a largo amount of work when
thev- spring up in fields that arc under
cultivation. The presence of the wee Is
in a grain field cauos a large reduction
in the crop. The burs in wool detract
large. v from its value. It is now af
firmed by many that tiic young plants
are poisonous to stock. Mr. .John
illiams. ot Logan, Iowa, in a local
paper gives this testimony ro-jicctmg
them. Icanie from Illinois ten cars
ago. but lived near the Illinois bottom,
and one jear in paiticular there canio
a wonderful tlood of water and raised
the river until the whoa bottom was
under water for live miles in width,
and the cockle burs grew largely in the
bottom and wa-hed the seed to the
shore, and when the water went down
the-e burs came up first, and we farm
ers let our hogs -aud cattle run at large,
and the first tiling vve knew they were
dving all along the bottom at a terrible
rate hundreds died in a few days.
When thorough invostigition wa? made
it was found that it was the uting
cockle bur that killed the stock.
It s very poisonous. hen very
yonng it is sweet and tender, and
being the lirst thing green iu si,ht the
cattle aud hogs eat thera greedily. Our
cattle would "come up at'night, and in
the morning there would be from three
to twelve dead, and some s ck. Our
remedy, when in time, was heavy
drenches of me' ted lard. On examining
those that died their call was generally
large or bursted, and the farmers anil
stock-men took their stock off of the
bott ni lor about two weeks, unt.l veg
etation got up in goud shape, and there
wasn't any more of the disease." The
wise lawmakers of this State some
years ago sought to exterminate cockle
burs by directing a statute against
them. "Hut for some reason the weeds
have pad very little attention to it.
They continue to grow and multiply,
and when a large crop of burs is pro
duced, they take the river route to the
hea-board. They have invaded the
sacred soil of several Slates where no
untricndlv legislation exists concerning
them. The cocklc-bnr w.li -oon be to
tlie United States what the thistle is to
Scotland a National weed. Tlie ch'ef
difficulty lifextenntnatiiig the pest lies
in the fact that the seed "will retain its
vitality several 3 ears. The best way to
eradicate it is to put the infested held
in grass and not break the sod for sev
eral seasons. This cleaning proce-is
should be continued till all tho farm
has been "under treatment." A close
lookout must then be kept for chance
specimens "that may appear. Chicago
Unless a lady does some decorative
art work noir-a-dajs, she-is behind thf
uoiii; rxnx axd cirde5.
.-C'lrc th- f hK:-ns frh Tat-r r
crr dr, nd - Ihnt thr can lrarj
;ev $hl'. vr i.i tfje want Uja.
'Tr &yrr. ad a tcA4 tjfrd nir
aj? it b. a t-o ukaxx pwl tri art
iug. nr Uin t r nt a ImmI pLxo if U W
,ibie to a von I .1.
1 1 n Wrrv Jam. Thrt-fwtrtHj
Mxoi ui rttgar to erwrr poJ t trui
lwt Lhe fruit un U. or wmJi Um & I- ,
diti n oi om plat can wit jnic u t
cry hiir jwiadt nMubrrxr. loU iudf
an hour, luxh sg ud tirr Jkg w,-U ;
add Um tjrw'd . meaty w utr
mont. IttackiMtiT jnia l vrt r!
made in Uut -am . war, 2y iMutuoj
tb eorntot Kct.
- Wen . hvicse etvU Mob di hVM.tr. i
drops his food itittfa I oi !- u( it, ,
wtd .lobbwr. ftvvty. d.Mat-d teth mm
be kiufcei ftr. 1'wrfcivp.i -nnj f tiw
lvlh Miitr hav i.ari edg xm4 fcert
th ibtsrk.. Kx&.miM tS m u't it
any ot tb l:h arv sharp and wuond ,
the ihc6.4 fK" Um ttMgiw. Imr l
etlge-i rasptx! dawn and apij lorai. m .
ponder. t th iaurl p:U of iii?
iiKMith. If an? oj the Ufth are dr
oit ed I her sholii be jmiImo! at.
If .a colt l tMrr allowed to grt an '
xivantne, 11 wt ewr know Mint tt
p ses- a potter thai matt cmrooJ oor- ;
trol. and if nmJe f.imil nr w:h i.r.inge
objects it w.H not ha -kitti 1 an ! arrv- '
wis. If a hor.-e i made accuUota I
Iroiu his uarlv days to have objt.s hit i
him oa his heel, back or h p. h wdl .
pay no attention to the jtv g wnr of a
h.irnvs-.. or n wagon runaing ajpi Ht :
I1.111 al an uiieipected mouieuu
Hor-icriu!tsh Sauce. Two tnbl-
spooii'islt of grated ho -entdu'i. two
t.ibletpoonfulsof cul?r vinegar. on up
of creum. elk of one erg. sail to last, j
ouo ottnee ot butter. Cm or the hor-o- i
r.idi-h with water, and Uul it. stiri dig 1
it oee.is onally for halt aa hour. Strain 1
oil all the water, add the viaegar, but
ter mid silt, stirring tilt mixed. llat I
tho egg and cns.im together, and add
ju.-t before scrvtiig. It is very utcc
with raw o)bier or any cold moat.
-School I'u lding -Swell a teacup
fill of r e in a pint of 111 Ik. h eetenc.l
and t'arorod to taste. When eold. iiuv
with it a weH-beatin egg Have readv
a p nt b.ism wull-l uttered. ttud n
break a-t-cuplul of bie.td-eriimb with
a teaspoontu! of moist uigar well tniiet!
with them. Lay the crumbs all rouiH
the ba-in thick y with a Ltufe and th
rice in the center. Lay more erumo
011 the top and bake h.nlf an hour 111 a
quick oven. Kit with jam.
To l'reserve Cherr.es. -Take the
cherries when they nit) fully ripe, and
stone tlieui; weigh together tho juice
ami lruit; to one pound of them put
h ilf-poutid clear brown -ugar lloii the
cherries in jii'ce for one hour and a-half:
then add the sugar, and Iki! for as
much longer time; stir them occa-on-allv.
to pioveut th--ir burn.ng The,
are excellent tor p.es. and -houid lw
s'ined for a dav or two. to keep thf
sirup lrom settling at tho bottom. It j
is hot to put them in rather small jars,
for the preserve vvill be ome acid, if
poed to the air wnen the jar .s opened,
if not 30011 n-ed.
.Many prettv gootl cultivators and
all the poor oue-t -ee 11 to .aok the nec-e-sar.
courage to thin crops as th
should if they would secure the lei re
sults. Mativaviuetard has been iieurt)
ruined hccaiiM it-i owner could not hour
to nil k oil and destrov the -urpUii ;nut
'i he same is true of pe trs an! other
fruit crip. Mauv vegetable crop iired
the same attention, and if they do ie
ceivo it in tune will Iv greatly improved.
Mangel -i. sugar beet and other root--are
among tho-e th it ovieciallv need at
tetition. torn me'on. oh-1hm and
many other tilings will also need look
ing after in the .-a ne way. Do not neg
led these iui'iortant things if tho be.-t
rcsti.ts are du-trvd. ,
(.'uria'it Cake. -Two jiounds of
llour. one pound butter. 0110 pound
sugar, two ounces candied peel, three- (
iti triers of a jhhiimI eaeh o: curia it,
and sultana-, three egg), two teapHiu- I
fuU ea hof caihoiiiloot -jod t and cream j
of tart tr. sullicietit milk to mix ! a ;
proper consistency. I'ub the but'i r
and f!our well together, add the cur
rant;, suitanas and ugar. nnd the po-I .
finely cut. Well bcatine eggj. add ilu
in 1 Ik. and beat into the mixture. M.i
the carbonate of soda an 1 cream of tat -tar
with a little miik. aud while niter '
vescing pour into the cakr and beat tl.o
who'e for abmi'. live minit!oi. Have
ready a cake tin lined with gioacd pa
per. "pour tho mixture into it. and ba.e '
111 a (puck oveu till done (about three
Noic may be devlened hy a mini- j
her of siniplo coiitr vancn?. iiiiolx-r j
cu-luoiis under tlie legs of a work- I
bench aro an odoeiivo method of dead- i
filing noise, it being found, as stated.
tint in a certain f.fiory tho hammering
of tiftv coppersmiths was 01 reel v audi
ble in tho room below, their bunches
having under each le a rubber cushion, j
Kegs of sand or sawdust, nppl.od in the ,
same wav. a'.l'ord similar immuni v. A
few Inches of sand or .sawdust being '
lirst poured into each keg. tharo u laid
on it a boanl or bloc'-c upon which the (
leg rests, and around the leg and b!o -k f
is poured tine, drv sand or sawdust. Ily
this simple means it is said, not only nil '
noise, but a vibration and shock are so ;
completely prevented that an ordinar
anvil thus mounted may be used even (
in a dwelling hoti-e, without annoying j
its occuDauL-. 1
Weed? in the Hi-'hwaji.
Several of our estern contempora
winter sugges-ed the d.scuson
e"S CluhS ami OtllCrw PO Of the
ouc-tion as to what action. leir lative
or otherwise, ij necessary and practica
hie to keep the publ.c high wavs free
from weeds. To us. who have be u
among the foremost in laboring for '
gomi highways, the most practicable J
plan seems to tie to induce abundant
travel along them. When business J
prospers grass does not grow in the
streets; and when a public highwav i "
well traveled there is no chance for '
anv thing to irrow in it.
r - . ...
e vveif verj much struck by the 1
answer given to a Western farmer on
the Centennial grounds iu 1876 by au
Eastern one who hail grown qu te I
wealthy. The question was how to
hurry his Western larm qu.ckh into a
profitable market He was to d to "in '
crea-e his taxes." This seemed no
doubt absurd to the li-teaer. a? it wll
to most who read itj for if there is anv-
thing which more
than another wo all
try to avoid, it is an
mere ie of taa-
tion. But there i
the expression. I
a deep meaning in
. means that if a
property is to increase in va cc. one
must do something himself to make ;t
more valuable, even at the risk of
higher taxation. We may carry this
idea into all our worriment. and es
pecially this one of weeds in the publ.c
highways. Tne more wc beaatif v ocr
itvitv.irtiAe fha rri - va -t?r tfitrot
by it; for people will go in preference
where there i something nee 'otte
seen. Improyeaients coil something, j
They are taxes. A man may Deautiir !
at a'great cost "jrhen there is no one to j
appreciate hi labors. Of course such i
Aorkisthrjwn avay. But no work is (
thrown away that attract? travel along
Our advice to oar Western friend is
to let "Iezislation against weeds alone,
and rather endeavor to encourage ia
evcrv propertv-owner a
love for im-
provement- Lei them do all tney can
to encourage everybody xo improve and
beautifr the line; aad then by, having
uju ruaus caoiui3''t: ucuuic vj traait
over mem, ana xacy cay lasroiir oni
for it that the question of wecus in the
b'gh ways will soon settlt? itself. t7tr
rUn5rfs oO fTl
rcrl!ip4t tat ' I t rs
' ftftoa VJV'Si t f--f rrr itr.
1 ltKi rttrti pitu. hat tr tiV4 -
( m .Vl rr ',,
w a a4 GSTmi iskli U J-.. tw.
I CWnJ MHf to ty - J' I '
tme jfiiW Wf &. ' Vi, wMHi t
titv utl, a4 Sa4 t&i t ta tttifl'S tSX
la tiaM-. It rt sm al Vili
L.Srt lrf . j.rw m
, ttvm (-"t x mxttt iwp4m al I X
T jtttmtut la in 1 ww ia H t !
tb t.t nCr-taf Willi !. it
litaXUr Mfti4u. ta ai ! :a4
ui W kMt- Niar 4 ap ia'ra
(Mai, xmd it V; tlj tat !.
' aa Mtn tt.
j. l. Atexixt. rfw-y"
TMt NorrUUwni nW te tttj Wr
rutlfa Tm ifw. . Sr .
.Ml lt Ut.r.. la
mat rti) -f - rv
a r-i4 r
OtM i llw MHU U'
m tirw- aw
Wfo ih NaiT'tat"
ou ie t rta-r
rvoi 'Ct't. liaua.
. V II r B ur
!-, m it w.ta
ua II tx
n kiuM te tar U - ar H Ur
a K, . m( vhitT tnai. tt i . ..!
li old iX'k ol tM IM tat l
a nutW -t fy4. It J ! I f! m1
rtjal, Ujr Hop lUir. -. .t-.
A M'Mt nai (' aar tx-plait-!
'kal a J d a-t mii !! i"-.4t
taw la' la cVUdfva avail k fr
brraLUtl, tail a xu altikl .o tuaLe lacm
KlIr.V-U lHT rraaslt wfcKarTja"t
fowl kimo fr.-m ta t -4. aa4 ''
jM-a.lhT ai : nrrr jir Tir'-t "
ny and lirr .ai 'a tri. 4. !!, rsn
tiji oa, lie at rat.ailt K t
V vrl l lU ul aa ll :mtlj Ut ua.
A.Lj J.' ! .r.
tlrl'liu(,. It .
Itata. ct. talre, at. !, lotofta, lari
oet br " itoa.a oa Kati" li 4ru;s ata.
WOUI.O ttot l wltaXMit Hlftatr Kuia
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MBS. LYDIA L PIHXHAM, OF LYNN, MASS,
LYDIA E. PINKHAM'8
Th I'o't!T Cim
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Ti 13 eir aotlrrlf C wt tnmet rranalCtiv
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NOW READY! "V?S-J
THERIVISEO HEW TESTAMENT
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NICHOLS.CHKPAKO A ;
Uatu Croa, MiaH'aiafv
ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS
5. W. Cor. State asd afoar St.
School of Dravring and Paintbg.
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