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About Nebraska herald. (Plattsmouth, N.T. [Neb.]) 1865-1882 | View Entire Issue (June 28, 1877)
TIIE GUASSHOPPERS OF NEBRASK A
Report of the entomological CommiS'
sion to OoTcrnor Uarber.
Omaha, Ni:i;., June 13.
Hon. Si In Garber, Governor of Nth.
Dear Sru: The wish having been
expressed by yourself ami a number of
citizens of Nebraska that I would make
knows in some public manner the re
suit of my recent examinations in ref
crence to the locusts (grasshoppers) in
your state, I herewith present to you
the following brief and somewhat hasty
report, made join.ly with Prof. Aughey,
who has accompanied me in my visits
to the various parts of the State, and
who has, from the first, been assisting
me in this work in Nebraska. Although
we have not visited every section, we
have gone over a large portion of the
settled area, and have obtained reliable
information from almost every part
We. therefore, feel confident that the
facts herein stated are correct, and may
be relied upon. From these it will be
seen that although the locusts remain
In limited areas in the eastern counties
the prospects in Nebraska are even
more flattering than the most hopef ul
of your citizens anticipated a month
"With thanks for the keep interest
you have taken in our work, I remain
yours, Very respectfully,
rOHTION OF THE REPORT.
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE YOUNG AFTER
Although precisely what might be
expected from a thorough knowledge
of the history and habits of the species
in a season like the present, yet one of
the most remarkable facts observed in
reference to them this season, lias been
the manner in which they have disap
peared soon after hatching. This re
markable disappearance has taken place
not singly in limited areas, and under
exceptional local conditions, but over
the entire locust area of Kansas, Ne
braska and Colorado, showing clearly
that similar causes have operated over
this extended district.
Three principal causes have operat
ed in producing this result.
1. They have been killed directly
by co'd, and by the heavy rains which
have fallen. The number killed direct
ly by cold was comparatively small;
still, it has been of sufficient import
ance to be enumerated in this connec
tion. The heavy rains and unusual
amount of water with which the ground
has been Hooded has destroyed immense
numbers. Many caught "in. low, Hat
area were drowned ; others were wash
ed down into ravines and draws; and
occasionally others have been observed
dead and accumulated in piles of con
siderable thickness after rains, even in
places where they could not have been
washed together by the Hood.
2. They have died because they were
diseased, and this we are satisfied has
been the chief cause oi their strange
disappearance. The nature and char
acter of this disease has not been care
fully studied, and we must confess that
at present it is not well understood.
Two or three facts which are import
ant in this connection may furnish
soma indication of its nature. First,
the natural tendency of the race to de
teriorate and to decrease in vigor and
vitality in this part of the Mississippi
valley ; second, the effect of moisture
on their vitals organs, especially their
respiratory organs, and third, absti
nence caused by the rains and unfavor
able weather and as a result of the oili
er causes. We cannot at present enu
merate the numerous items of evidence
we have gathered bearing upon these
points, but must content ourselves with
the statement that they are sufficient
to satisfy us of the truth of these posi
tions. 3. Another and very potent agency
in this destruction has been the birds.
From every section of the state where
locusts have hatched we have received
testimony of their efficient aid in this
work. Hundreds of instances in illus
tration of tins fact might be mention
ed, where, in a few hours, or. a day or
two at most, they have cleared gardens
and even entire fields of these pests, and
that where they were in immense
numbers. The black birds have been
especially useful in this work, but the
plovers, quails, prairie chickens, larks,
robins and domestic fowls have also
greatly aided in it. These facts clearly
demonstrate the wisdom of the last
legislature of this State in passing a
law for the protection of the native in
sectivorous birds. Now let farmers
plant trees for their preservation and
in every way possible promote their
increase, as many we are glad to say
are uow doing and you will always
have an aid at hand that will save
very largely in both money and labor
and repay a hundred fold for the little
they may destroy of the fruits and
"We may also add in this connection
fhat the farmers in most of the sections
where the locusts jet remain are fight
ing them bravely with the various im
plements and in the modes hereafter
specified, and are destroying large num
bers of them. In quite a number of
places where none are now to be found
their disappearance is, in part at least,
owing to the efforts made by the farm
ers to destroy them. Unfortunately in a
few places there is an apathy in this
matter which is difficult for us to un
derstand. It is true that thus far the
careless have fared about as well as the
active, as both have up to this time es
caped any injury, but such good fortune
is apt to lull into false security.
THE PRESENT lUSTRUICTIOX.
Although the locusts hatched out
quite numerously in various localities
as far west as the west line of the egg
deposit, they have almost entirely dis
appeared from all parts west of the
meridian of Lincoln; and even east
of that there are large areas in which
there are none to be found, or at least so
few that the farmers apprehended no
danger whatever from them. Even
in the sections where they are consider
ed most numerous up to the" present
thy have been limited to isolated
spots. An examination made at one of
the most infested spots, showed that
the number of acres over which they
then spread, as compared with the
number of acres in cultivation, was
so limited that it was evident that
with a reasonable effort their destruc
tion might be rendered certain if 'made
in time. It is true that enough might
hatch out on five acres to overrun and
destroy the crop on 100 acres, if the
season should favor them, but at the
same time it is equally true that if all
on the five acres are destroyed before
they spread, the rest f the ltiO acres,
at least, will be saved.
MIGRATING SWARMS FROM THE SOUTH.
That a few swarms from the south
have recently passed over the western
part of the State, going north, is un
doubtedly true. So far but few if anv
have come down to the settled dis
tricts, and have done no injury what
ever. Heretofore the swarms moving
from the south northward toward
their na'ive habitat have not, so far
bs we are aware done any injury in
the state. We do not apprehend any
danger from them; in fact, this is pre
cisely what the commisssion anticipat
ed and predicted, and is one of the
strongest corroborations of the theory
tnai iney can never uecome permanent
residents of this part of the Mississippi
vallpv: ami wn as well reaffirm, in
thi3 connection, our oft repeated con
viction from what we Know or ine nis
tnrv :ml Imhirs of these snecies. that
it is impossible for it ever to become
a permanent resident or these border
K';ites. and hence, that the race must
run out here, and that it can only be
continued by repeated invasions irom
its native habitat in the far distant
Rorltv Mountain reerion. This dis
position to return, also confirms our
repeated assertions that it can never
nroTes- eastward, as did the potato
beetle; that its line o eastward pro-
gress is as tirmiy nxeu oy ciimauc aim
i!ivsie:il causes as though its wav were
bared by an insurmountable wall of
adamant. He therefore maintain
that the people of these states ought
to coufide in these conclusions of
science, which have been so signally
borne out by the facts.
In concluding this brief .and hasty
report, we have only to repeat what
we have aleady said that we consider
the danger from the young hoppers
which have hatched out this' season
in Nebraska, over; and this part of
the problem is solved. Y e also be
lieve that the long series of visitation
has come to a close. There may be
and doubtless will be, at irregular pe
riods, visitations by migrated swarms
but it is not at all likely that the pres
ent generation will witness another
such series as that which has just pass
ed. We append hereto, as a part of this
report, a brief account of the means
of destroying the young and unfledged
locusts, which we have just issued in
the form of a special bulletin for Ne
braska. Very respectfully
(Signed) Cyrus Thomas,
County Commissioner? Proceedings.
Thos. Pollock, st'm't of col. of
taxes by Win. L. Ilobbs late Treas
urer : 8 00
State Journal, blanks 1 00
Fox & Glover, printing Treasur
ers statement 15 00
I). E. B.ibbington, repairs court
House 1 CO
J. C. Cummings sundries 10 00
Levi Golding witness fee state
vs. Brickert, 11 CO
G. B. Grippin's services for
April 100 00
J. A. MacMurphy, printing court
calender and sundries 102 50
Ciaim of the State Journal Co. for
$13 33, for discount on bills heretofore
passed on, was examined and disallow
Geo. E. Pronger for building abridge
over Weeping Water, was allowed on
bridge fund, 8770 IS, less discount.
S25 13; $743 IS
The following accounts were allow
ed on land Road fund:
W. D. Hill, assessing damages on
road S 2 00
J. Vallery, laying out public road 2 00
J. F. Polk, serveving " ". . 5 00
M. L. Polk, carry chain" "... 130
Mr. Ruby, " " " . . 73
Sam Foe, " " " '. . 73
On wood district, No 22, II. A.
Waterman was allowed for lum
ber 23 OS
Thursday, Juno 7th, 1877.
Board met, officers all present:
The contract for bridge building was
awarded to Messrs Raymond & Camp
bell of Council Bluffs, Iowa, giving
bonds to the amount of S1.G09, and en
tering into contract for the comple
tion of said bridges on or before the
1st day of September 1877, payment to
be made in cash or warrants, on bridge
fund, at the option of the Board.
On motion of Mr. Ramsey, all appli
cations for the refunding of taxe3 on
school lands, were laid over indefinate-
The following accounts were allowed
on bridge fund.
Hugh Mclleynolds store for
Jas. Leuchtweis, rent west J
jail lot 12
C. P. Moore, compiling census.
and sundries 12G
J. E. Barnes, digging grave for
a pauper 2 50
Oil general fund, P. I,. Wise was al
loyed for redemtion of erronerous sale
of land $10 00
Friday, June 8th, 1877.
Board met, officers all present where
upon Mr. Campbell, of the firm of
Reynolds & Campbell appearing before
the board, they formed and entered in
to their contract (which is too long to
Order allowed Mm. Coleman,
Superintendent No 0 $23 00
C. II. Andrus dist No 21 50 00
The following funds were allowed on
Henry wolf, services as Co. Com.
June $13 10
The following accounts were allow
ed on the inquest of tlia body of Chas.
E. Buttery, Corinor SI0 60
A. Cuningham, Juror 1 00
Geo. Edgerton, "
B. Ilemple, "
Con Mahoney, "
W. F. Bennett, "
W. F, Morrisoii, Constable
Win. Purdy, Witness
Thos. O'Connor "
J. W. Shannon, "
Wm. Fleming, "
Fred Frederickson, Juror 1 00
Mike Mulligan, " 1 00
G. W. Holdrerige, " 1 00
Mike O'Conncr, " 1 00
On motion Board aljourned to meet
on Monday the 2nd day of July 1877,
The real gentleman never obtrudes
upon others hii fine sense of politeness ;
indeed his great eluvrm, and test of his
perfect manner i? that he assumes
Vet tile Nebbaska Herald.
rh and Low Water In the Blissouri
BY A. 1. CHILD.
In April of 1873, under the direction
of the Chief Signal Officer of the U. S.
Army, I placed a guage in the Missou
ri river near the foot of Main street.
On the 18th of March 1874, the ice
broke down the pile to which the gauge
was fastened, as well as several others
on which I had made reference marks,
by which to reset the gauge in case of
removal byice, drift, &c.
I replaced it as nearly at the same
level as I could; and subsequent ob
servation satisfies me that the level
was not essentially changed. The zero
poj'nt was placed at tho low water of
1873. Dec. 6.
From the Daily Record made since
April 19th, 1873, 1 extract the follow
ing: 1873. Highest water, July 3d, 16 ft.
5 in. Lowest water, Dec. 6th, 0 (zero),
range 16 feet 5 in.
1874. Highest water, June ICth, 7
ft. 8 in. Lowest water, Nov. 23 and
Dec. 10th 0 ft. 9 in., range 8 ft. 0 in.
1875. Highest water. (April 28, 13
ft. 3 "in.) June 23th, 13 ft. 4 in. Lowest
water, Nov. 22d O ft 7 in., range 13 ft.
1870. Highest water, June 21st and
July 4th, 12 ft. Lowest water, Dec. 2,
0 ft. 3 in., range 11 ft. 9 in.
1877 (up to June 17th). Highest wa
ter, June 13th, 13 ft. 11 in. Lowest
water, March 19th 0 ft. 9 in., range 14
ft. 7 inches.
Some of the readers of the Herald
seem to doubt the correctness of the
amount of rain fall, as published in the
monthly Meteorological Summary.
They have had a tub, bucket or other
vessel out, and exposed to the storm,
which has measured sometimes more,
and sometimes less than I have report
ed. There are two sources of misunder
standing in the matter. First, our rain
storms are seldom general, or equally
spread over the country, but travel
mostly in veins,-often very narrow. A
few years since while coming into
Plattsmouth from Glendale, in a dis
tance of twenty rods, I passed from a
drenching storm, where probably near
ly one inch fell; to a dry dusty road
where not a drop fell.
Two equally correct, and properly
exposed gauges, but a short distance
apart, will register very different quan
tities of rain, unless placed in the axial
line of the storm, and even then may
differ. Hence no one gauge can make
any pretence to register for any area,
beyond its own locality. Still there is
a general average of rain over certain
sections of the country, and any one
gauge will report nearly the rain fall
of the district. Tiie Signal Office has
sixteen observers in Nebraska, and av
erage of the sixteen reports is taken
for the State.
The second source of error is in the
location of the vessel, by which the
party judges of the rain fall. It is rare
that we have rain without more or less
wind, and every building, tree, fence,
&c, that obstructs the freecouse of the
wind, causes deflection, eddies, &c, by
which the rain i unevenly distributed.
Two vessels in different positions, as
regards these obstructions, will receive
larger or less amounts of rain. Hence
xt is very difficult except in a large open
field to so place a gauge, as to make it
From Salt Lake.
June 14th, 1877.
Friend MacMurphy. I received a
copy of your valuable paper yesterday
for which please accept thanks. I have
shown your article on Utah to quite a
number of leading men Mormons as
well as Gentiles and they all pro
nounce it the most correct representa
tion of affairs in Utah they have ever
read. Of course there are fanatics on
both sides that would say you were
wrong, but 'tis that class of men that
are trying so hard to ruin Utah. The
very ones that are shouting danger of
war with the Mormons are the ones
that want war, in the hopes thereby to
get some lucrative position, or get away
with the plunder, but they can rest as
sured there will be nothing of the kind,
Brigham Young and his followers think
too much of their scalps to try any
thing of that kind, even if they had the
disposition. Any one that takes Brig
ham for a fool will get left, all he wants
is a severe letting .alone, but under no
circumstances could he be induced to
resort to arms. There are, no doubt,
a few bummers among the Mormons,
as well as in all other classes, that
would like to create a disturbance, but
they are so few that were they ever to
make an attempt at an insurrection
they would be choked down by their
own Church before they could do any
harm. What Utah wants most is an
army of men armed with picks and
spades, with grit and -muscle to use
them, and a few years would not only
wipe out the obnoxious part of Mor
monism. but would develop the richest
mines in the world; and in addition to
this kind of an army, pass a law com
pelling every man to show some visi
ble means of support or leave the Ter
ritory. There would then be no more
talk about war and an uprising of Mor
mons. In a few years Utah would be
famous for her rich mines and not for
Our exchanges come to us now load
ed wi h fearful accounts of that Salt
Lake trip, but as yet we believe Ed.
Howe, in the Falls City Globe-Journal,
is dashing off the liveliest serial we
have encountered. Central City Cour
ier. And the C. C. C. man published pen
photo's of the editors, which are very
The training of children must bo
gin with the very cradle to be perfect.
This saying that man is a bunJ'a of
habits is as true f babies as it is of
IFsirfliier Alley I
Fred, border's Implement Emporium
THIRD STREET, NORTH OF MAIN,
Is the place to buy every kind of Agricultural Implement.
SULKY GANG PLOW, of the Chicago Plow Co.; STANDARD NEW RI
DING CULTIVATOR, of Rockford, III.; NEW MONITOR,
Chech Row) CORN PLANTER; CHAMPION
ami other CELEBRATED HARROWS
'mtrrisan ami FIte Wagons.
SINGLE and COMBINED REAPERS and MOWERS,
(New Manny. Champion, and others.)
WOODS' REAPER, MOWER, AND HARVESTER,
(with Self-Binding attachment.)
TIIE VIBRATOR THRESHING MACHINE, Nkholls, Sheppard & Co.
Satisfaction Guaranteed or no Sale.
Oflice In J. V. TVeckbaeirs Store, come
This Machine is Offered to the Public Upon
its Merits Alone.
ts Liyht and Still Running Qualities, and its Self -Threading Needle and
Self-Regulating Tension, make it the Most Desirable Machine in the d .
FRANK CARRUTII, JE WELER,
AGENT, PLATTSMOUTH, NEBRASKA.
fwcncral Western Office
D. A. KEN YON,
rrj ST Vi- m V' I'? A y
EE & f3tn h k, a x 4
M A M SJF A T II T.
GOI'Y YClIt LETTKBS
Excelsior Copying Boo. J
Hailr of :heinieal Paper.
)nlt-k1y popW's :i!iv writing WIIHOt'T Water,
l'UESV or r.Kl'isfl. used at home, libra I y or of
fice. For Ladii-s ui-iliinjj; to retain copies of let
ters, every i.tistnes man. elerjryiuen. eorrevpoii
lea!s, travelers it is in vuluali'n st-lis at silit.
Send .'S OJ and we will send a :;tni i:isr book,
letter size. 18V .MA 1 1, paid to any addn-ss. We
refer to anv Ouunierrial Atreney. Send st-imp
for Agents' rireular. I.X.: 1 O K IF'.
(O. Iltl lnrlni ft., 1 hieao. 111.
5(U( AUKXTM wanted. 4mti
For Throat, Lungs. Asthma, and EldHeys.
rest Tar Solution,
or Inhahinon for Catarrh. Consumption,
liroLiClntis, snd Asibma.
Forest Tar Troches,
or Sore Throat, Hoarseness, Tickling Cougi and
Purify .ug the BreatU.
Forest Tar Salve,
or Ilealinc Indolent Sores, Ulcers, Cuts, Burns,
ftiid lor Files.
Forest Tar Soap,
or Chapped Hands. Salt IUienm, Skin Diseases,
the Toilet and Kath.
Forest Tar Inhalers,
or Inhaling for Catarrh, Consumption, Asthma,
For Sale by !! Druggist,
All kinds of
Neatly cD Prompili;
Horse, 31nlc& OxShoc-ins:,
In short, we'll shoe anv thing that lias
four fet-t, from iv Zebra to a Giiitile.
C'oino and see us.
-ii Fi.'tli Sr.. lt;tween Main and Vine Street".
5u;!t i'.cris :':!? totter fcor.i tlie yET IIEUA (.!"
Oi t'ICY.. lit J I
aiu and Third Streets.
2 Ilouglsis Sirect, Oniahu, Xob.
GO TO TIIE
THE PARKER GUN.
SEND STAMP FOR CIRCULAR
"The Family Favorite"
New Model Machine.
PJo Gears, No Cams, Wo Springs
KEW A3D ELEGiXT BTTLES OF ffOODWOEt
By the expiration of Tatanta nndpr hich we hae
been paying royalUea, wo are enabled to soil our Ma
Qrsatly Reduced Prices,
and w low ua tbuse of any firat-clasa machine.
SKiD FOR CIRCULARS AKD PRICE LISTS.
WEED S3WI2T3 !ACIII2TS CO.,
203 Wabash Ave., Chicago, III.
F0S SALE BY
And he has brought
bo'ot'anl Iies till yti asa54fet
Ifiats aial cap till yow
Spring and Summer Goods eyer and ever so cheap
Now is your thanco bound to sell and undersell anybody. H urry vi. I leant to go East ayaia next month.
f to 8 or 8 to 7, Ju&t a you like, and
Si caIa Is always coMBBteflB nt thr tlicac
is'iao Sntiiiiiilatisa at tBae
As it is generally our custom to give rou our prices for goods so that you can calculate at home what you can
buy for your money, we will give you prices below which will be lower than ever and 10 per cent, cheaper than you
can anywhere in this City or State. We have the advantage of any merchant in this city buying direct from the
manufacturers. We have opened a Wholestale Store in St. Joseph Mo., wliieh will be attended by Mr. Solomon.
LOOK AT OUR PRICE LTST.
29 yards prints for one dollar. Summer Shawls, 75c up.
" " JJrown and bleach muslin, one dollar, Handkerchiefs, o for 2-ic.
Rlue and brown denims, one
Red ticking, one dollar.
Cheviot, one dollar.
Grass Cloth, one dollar. .
Malt Shades, one dollar. .
Table Linen, one dollar.
Crash Toweling, one dollar.
As it is impossible to give the
we will only state that it is the largest and finest stock ever brought to this city and consisting of the followin new
Poplins, Double Silk Pongees Japanese Silks, Matelassc
Zephyr Suitings, Lawns, Grenadines, and Percales,
at prices ranging from 12 cts. up; also a fine line of HAMBURG EMBROIDERIES from 5 cents up.
LIXEX EMBROIDERIES to match our LIXEX DRESS GOODS. A full assortment of BUXDLE RR1XTS
and everything belonging to
-A. FIRST CLASS
"We also keep a full line of
from 64.30 up for whole suits. Jeans Rants from $1.00 up. An unexcelled line GEXTS' FURXISIIIXG GOODS,
line White Shirts. 51 up; Calico Shirts, 40 els. up; Cheviot Shirts, 50 cts. up; Overalls, CO etn. up; Taper Collars 10c.
MEN AKD. BOYS' HATS AND CAPS.
Hats, 75c up; Caps, 10c up; Boots, .?2 per pair up; Shoes. SI per pair up: TRUNKS and VALISI2S, a good as
sortment. We do not keep a little of everything, from an Axe Handle to a barrel of salt, but what we do carry we
have in full and complete stock. JEWELRY, RLATED WARE, CLOCKS, TABLE aad POCKET CUTLERY, etc.
ll HH a n
Ye would inform the ladies of Plattsmouth and vicinity that we are in receipt of the the finest
Pattern Heads and Bonnets Direct from Paris.
We have an Accomplished, Fashionble Lady Trimmer who understands the business thoroughly ami can svit all your
tastes; also a full line of SILK T11IMMIXGS, Ribbons, Flowers and Ornaments. Sash Ribbons from 50c up; Iridic
Trimmed Hats, . SI and up. We have a large and complete stock Canvass, Perforated Card Board, Zephyrs. Zephyr
Needles, Mottoes, and Silk Floss of all shades.
An immense stock of Carpets, Oil Cloths, Rugs and Mats. Hemp Carpets 25c per yard ; Ingrain Carpets, 30c
per yard. Standard Carpet Chain, 51t bundles only $1.25.
We have also, for the accommodation of our friends, added to our already extensive assortment a large stock of
Oil Window Shades in all colors. Lace Window Curtains 25 cts per yard.
We present our annual price list satisfied that our customers will see that we can do belter for them than ever
beforeand thankful for past patronage we most respectfully ask a continuance of the same.
Plattsmouth, Nebraska, March 23d, 1ST?. SOLOMON iZ- NATHAN.
including the greatest variety of uctiutiful
children ever brouarht to this market. To he closed out at
$m mmi mwM mm mm mm mmi
I shall continue to keep the best of workmen in my man
has corao home,
the finest line of
Goods and Notions
WITHOUT ARBITRATION !
dollar. Ladies Silk llandkerchier, 33c each.
Ladies Hose, 3 pair for 23c.
Jlen's Socks 5c up.
Cuffs and Collars, 23c a set, and up.
Red Spreads, one dollar up.
Corsets, good, 50c up.
prices of our enormous
ncy Dry Goods
JMeaa aaad BBy CJIotliiaa
T3 RIS H W
.... II i ii hi I i hi i i i n irTi l l III -M MmmJmm jj jiu. mi ii.i.ii .milt-i u - -j
TIIE LARGEST AND BEST SELECTED
S&m Ml H M Lb
Dress Goods, Staple
you ever saw.
colored shoes for
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