Nebraska advertiser. (Brownville, Nemaha County, N.T. [Neb.]) 1856-1882, July 28, 1881, Image 7
THE ADVERTISER. Subscription, $i00 per Year, in Advance. ornriAi, iwit.k ok tiik (oi'.i'tv. DAISIES. She was a llttlo Irish timid, With lltflit brown hair unil oyes of gray, And sho lind loft hor native shore, And Jo unoyed miles mid miles away Aoro-s i he ocu in. to the land Whore waves tho luimior of tho free, And on hor t'aoo u shadow lny. For sli'k ut heart for homo was she. When from tho city's dust and hent, And ceaseless nolso. they took hor where) Tho birds wero sliitf Inj? In tho trees, Ami (lower frnirraiiuo tilled tho air, And there their leal-crowned heads upraised To greet the pio ty gray-eyed I ma, A million blossoms starred tho road, And rew among the waving grass. "Why, hero arc daisies!" glad she crlod. And with hands clasped sank on her knoos. "Now (led bo praised, who oast and wost Scatteis such lovely things as thesol Around my mother's eabln door In dear old Iielaud thoy grow, "With hearts of Bold, ami slender lonvc3 As white as newlyl'allon snow." Then up she sprang with smiling lips, 'I hough on her cheek there lay a tear; "This laud's not half so strange," she said, "Since I have found the dalslos here." Marnarct KiUnue, In lUtricr' WcMy. Till NATUKE OF COMETS. "lVnf. llenjitinln l'lcrco'N Theory Full Itlollll'lK (if l'liliieta mill Meteni'n The Oiicw.L'n of Artalotle mill Mi'itecii Tlir Illec trllloil Ti'iilii-Tiilllfxw 4'nint't-IIiiv They Are Wi-lirheil-Tlielr OrhlU The .NYlnilur lI.Viotliela. Iu tho Lowoll lectures of tho lato Prof. Benjamin 1'iorce, of Harvard Col lege, published in book form under tho title of "Ideality in tho Physical Sciences," is a chapter treating of tho nntttic of comets, from which tho fol lowing extracts tire made as being of special interest at tho present time: Tho final stage of tho nebular history is the congealed star, of which planet, satellite, comet and meteor tiro special forms, and which is destined to become again, at last, a chaotic mass. They nro simultaneous in existence, and not belonging to successive stages of tho history. "Starling from a common ori gin, thoy lnivo passed through a process of diH'orentiution, and aro littedfor dif ferent functions. They may all bo regarded as bolidos; and thoy (ill tho celestial spaces with every cohceivablo variety of magnitude, motion and phy sical aspect. The comet, from tho strangeness of its appearance in tho inaecessiblo lirnia ment, has been tho immemorial wonder and dread of mankind. It has boon tho board or tail of some invisible monster. It has been the sword of somo angry god. It has been the pen of tho furios, writing in the book of fato the death of Kings, the lall of empires, tho speedy ' coming of famines and pestilences and destructive wars. It has been a liglA which has iilled the souls of philosophers with darkness. Even tho great Aristotle, with his clear belief in nature and his contempt for superstition, could propose no theory which was not a tissue of gra tuitous and inconsequent hypotheses. He thought the comet, with its regular motions, to bo a phenomenon like the Hitting and uncertain ignis fatuus, an exhalation from the earth. Nevertheless, oven in cometology, whero modern progress has been so essentially aided by the discovery of gravitation and the invention of the telescopo, the instinct of tho anciont thinkers achieved some memorable re sults. Passing by the researches of tho Pythagorean-, wo need only refer to tho writings of Seneca in the first century , of tho Christian era, "I know," writes Seneca, "no nobler research, nor a more useful stionco, than that which undertakes the study of the stars; but to perfect this scienco is it not expedi ent to examine whether tho nature of comets dill'ers from that of the other celestial bodies? If wo reflect on their motions, on their vicissitudes of rising and setting, on thoir light and bril liancy, wo shall bo struck with tho analogy which wo perceive between thorn and these other bodies. Wo need an oxact history of tho comets which havo hitherto appeared; for it is thoir rarity of appearance which prevents our deciding upon tho regularity of their movement. Wo aro ignorant whether, describing fixed orbits, thoy do not re appear at periodic and determinate intorvals of time." This was tho pro diction of thoughtful genius. Modern astronomy, profiting by tho ancient sug gestion, has demonstrated this, HlTo many other truths. Tho dwarf of to day who stands on tho shoulders of tho giant of yesterday can soo a greater distance than tho giant. Tho perfect comet combines nuelous and train. Tho beauty belongs to tho train, which is unsubstantial and tem porary; while tho mass and density ro sido in tho almost invisible but perma nent nucleus. The solid nucleus moves about tho sun in a nearly parabolic orbit, obedient to tho samo law of at traction which governs tho motions of any one of tho planets: whereas each particle of tho train moves in its own hyperbolic orbit, in consoquonco of a repulsion from tho sun often two or three times as groat as tho ordinary solar attraction. Those particles of the train aro electrified bodies, and have tho samo electricity ns that of tho sun; tho particles which aro most highly electrified advance to tho front odgo of tho tail, while thoo that aro the loast electrified fall back to tho rear? Somo of tho particles aro electrified just enough to balauco tho solar gravitation; so that, after separating from tho nuelous, thoy become neutral to tho nun's action and move uniformly in straight linos, but without ceasing to bo part of tho tail. Tho particles which aro less highly oleotrified remain at tracted by tho sun, but move in hyper bolic orbits -In tho opposite branch of tho h; porbola, however, to that iu which tho repelled particles move. This theory, in an imperfect state, was rudely applied by Bossol to tho tail of Hiilloy s comet, in 18U5. But tho comet discovered by Donati, in 1858, offered ns lino an opportunity as can bo desired for its full verification. How grand was tho beauty of that comet! All tho world stopped in tho street, when it became visible attor twilight, and wondered at it with bated breath. A fow centuries nwi it would havo caused universal dismay, and men would havo paled at tho frightful por tont. Hut tho Christian of to-day bo holds it as tho loveliest messenger of divino wisdom. A multitude of ob servations wero inado upon the train as woll as tho head, in all civilized countries, and tho theory of tho train was sustained in overy detail. Tho olo ganco of tho shape strictly conformed to tho ideal constructions of tho goom otor. If tho nucleus of a comet wore takon away, tho train would continue to move oil' through spaco, undisturbed by tho loss of its head. Singular as this phe nomenon may seem, it has been actu ally observed. At midday on tho J8th of February, 18-RJ, groups of people in many of tho towns of Now England, especially at Portland, collected at the corners of tho streets, gazing up to ward tho sun. Protecting thoir oyes in tho shadows of tho houses, thoy saw a brilliant object a fow dogreos from tho sun. Such a marvelous spec tacle had never boforo been beheld. A fow days later a wonderfully brilliant tail of a comet was seen skirting tho horizon soon after sunset, and reach ing more than ono-third of tho way round tho sky. What wo now saw was tail without head, as wo had boforo seen head almost destitute of tail. But head and tail wero members of the samo comet. 1m about two hours tho oomot of 181!1 went round tho sun, from ono side to the other. What could havo become of tho tail, which was reaching out about a hundred millions of miles from tho sun as far as to tho earth's orbit? Thero havo boon those who have ac tually adopted tho incredible jl may say tho impossible hypothesis that tho tail rotated through this immenso cir cuit, developing a centrifugal force which all the united powers of tho uni verso could not havo sustained. But no! The comet practically left its tail behind it, and bogan to grow a now tail as it receded lrom the sun. There wero thus two tails, nearly side by side stretching from opposite sides of tho sun in nearly the same direction. The now tail began at tho head of the comet; whereas tho old dosortod tail began without any head at somo dis tance from tho nucleus, and extended further from tho sun than the now tail. Tho nucleus of tho comet is surround ed by a mist, which is called the coma, or hair: tho name comet signifying a hairy star. Tho hoight of the coma above tho nucleus depends on tho mass of tho nucleus, and gives tho measure of its weight; or, moro exactly, tho least limit of weight which will suflico to maintain such a hoight of atmos phere. Tho nucleus is usually so close ly surrounded by tho denso mist that its diameter cannot bo measured; but at time3 tho mist rises, uncovors the nucleus, and loaves it with a sharp stellar aspect. Tho loast diameter de termined at such times may bo larger than tho actual one, but cannot "bo smallor. From tho combination of mass and diameter, tho density of the nu cleus can bo computed. In thoenso of Donati' s comet, the diameter of tho nu cleus was perhaps not moro than a hun dred miles, while tho height of tiie at mosphere extended to eighteen thou sand miles. You may bo surprised to learn that tho corresponding density of tho nucleus was at loast equal to that of iron. What an unexpected contrast is horo presented to tho prev alent notions concerning tho sun and tho comets! Tho solid sun is reduced by science to the state of gas, while the substance of tho ethereal comet is a sol id and heavy metal. Iu its approach to tho sun, tho sur faco of tho nucleus is rapidly heated; it is molted and vaporized and subjectod to frequent explosions; tho vapor rises in its atmosphero with a well deiinod upper surface, which is known to ob servers as an envelope. Various envel opes, including each other, aro often observed. The electrification of tho comotary mist is antilogous to that of our own thundercloud. Any portion of tho coma which has received tho opposite kind of electricity to tho sun and to tho repelled tail will bo attracted. This gives a sitnplo explanation of tho nega tive tails which have been sometimes soon, directed toward tho sun. In casos of violent explosion, tho whole nu cleus might be brokon to pieces, and tho coma dashed around so as to givo varieties of tail, and ovon multiple tails. Tho rotations of tho comets to tho solar system present an interesting and instructive study. With very fow ex ceptions, thoir visible paths aro so near ly parabolic, and tho positions of their nuclei and centers of gravity so uncer tain in tho midst of their com.-c, that it is quito out of tho question to obtain nice enough data to moasuro exactly tho extent of their orbits, and ascertain how groat may bo their deviations from oxact parabolas, and whether tho devi ations aro such as to make them ellipses or hyperbolas. If au orbit is actually parabolic or hyporbolic, and if there is no decrease in the central attractive force as tho comet approaches tho sun, it must havo entered tho solar system from outer space, and cannot bo ono of our permanent partners. It will leave the system again, and wo may. novor expect its return; unless, indeed, hav ing passed through tho circuit of other suns, after lnvriads of years, it reap pears iu an orbit entirely dillorout frm its former ono, so as to atlbrd no ovi ilonco through which it may bo recog nized, But if it moves in an ellipse, and does not leave our system, It will return in a sensibly unchanged orbit, through Which it may bo dotoeted." Tho astronomer is often asked, upon tho announcement of a comot, "Is it a now ono?" and tho tono of tho inquiry usually implies n fooling of satisfaction iu witnessing tho discovery of a now star. But it is just the rovorso with tho astronomor himsolf. Ho ransacks Uio records, hoping against hope that ho may onioy tho good fortune of ascer taining that tho now oomot is an old ono old, at least, iu the souse that it has boon observed onco boforo, but not twice On its first roappoaranoo a comot is certain to bo loaded with tho namo of tho goomotric discoverer of its path. Its theory is computed; its future returns aro rigidly predicted; its social position is definitely established, and it takes its placo among the registered members of our constellation. But a comet may bolong to our system, and ynt go so far from the sun that tho in torvals between its periods of visibility may bo as long as three hundred thou sand centuries. Thoro aro a fow comets of which tho nonparabolic character is evident tit onco. Thoir orbits aro decidedly elliptic al: their periods donotexeeod a baker's do.ouof years; and thoy aro intimately related to the plants iu their positions and direction of motion. I'rof. Newton, of Yale College, has given a distinot and satifactory explanation of tho modo iu which these comets wero probably diverted from thoir original parabolic paths by tho action of tho planet Jupiter. It was a royal sport, and tho final character of tho comotary orbit was tho natural termination of tho game. These comets must bo excluded from our general discussion. Omitting them, wo lind nothing in tho position of tho other orbits which indicates relation to the solar axis of rotation or to tho planetary pianos of revolution. Thoy aro as uniformly dis tributed as if thoy had entered our system indilVereutly from every direc tion, and without reference to the pro vailing motion of tho planets or to their mutual organization. Thoy aro simply tho largest of an immonso swarm of meteors which aro lloating all around us a swarm of which by far tho greater portion consists of bodios too small to bo seen by tho light thrown upon them from tno sun; and this invisiole portion greatly surpasses, in number and ovon in combined mass, all the.vissiblo com ponents of our constellation. Returning to tho original round neb ula, from which tho solar system was formed, wo must supposo that it has gone through changes which aro repre sented in many of the nebula. A cen tral spherical portion seems to havo concentrated into tho sun and planets, loaving an outer spherical envelope, which was much slower in tho process of condensation, and finally becanio an envelope of bolides. Tho natural orbits of tho bolides wero nearly circular paths, of which tho sun was at the cen ter. Tho variety of directions of tho pianos of tho orbits was so great that thoy constituted a nearly uniform sys tem, constantly approaching each other, and by their mutual heat producing ox plosions. They wero thus broken up into an increased number of smallor ir regular masses, such as wo aro familiar with in tho meteoric stones. Thus wo find till tho varieties that exist among the bodies of tho solar system harmo niously explained. Would it not bo strnngcrHhnn any fiction -would it not violate all physical analogies if this ideal hypothesis of tho meteoric struc ture of our system, sustained by such a variety of observation, wore not a close representation of its actual history? Mr. II. .J. Barron, Secretary of tho Swimming Association of Great Britain, writes to tho London Times to urgo tho necessity of children being taught to swim "a good, straightforward breast stroke." In case a person falls into a heavy sea, a side stroke should bo adopted, presenting tho back of the hand to tho dash ot the waves. If, he says, a child is taught merely to tread water," no doubt after a fow lessons ho will support himsolf; but ho will not bo likely ever afterward to learn to swim with a good stroke. But if a child is taught tho breast stroko properly, ho will learn to support himself in fewer lessons, probably, and as ho gains strength and confidence in succeeding years will practice and become ofliciont in a great variety of strokes. Crystallizing Gnusos. Dissolve in a quart of soft water all tho alum you can by heating and stirring it may bo a pound, it may bo twenty ounces. Havo tho grasses divided into small bunches tied. When tho solution begins too cool dip iu the grasses, holding them there live minuter, three minntcs, two minutes or ono minute, according to size of crystals you wish. Tho cooler tho solution tho quicker tho crystals form. When too cold reheat. I havo used a glass jar to dissolve tho alum in, heating it in a kettle of water with an old plate at the bottom to prevent tho jar breaking. Ono can see t hrough glass tho crystals forming and so know when to take tho grass out. Do not lot tho grass touch tho sides of tho jar. The Now Orleans Times is respon sible for tho statement that a mule was sun-struck in that city ono day last wood. 'Nothing is imposible to him who will." Nonsense; it is impossible for tho man who wills to got ahead of tho lawyers. A Dutchman repeated tho ndago, Birds mit ono fodder goeo mit dcm. selves." Tho Woes or n Landlady. "Thisfollor bitTum on tho hand," said Bijah, as ho brought out a man thirty years old, who answered to tho namo of hongfollow Smith. ' Woll, 1 don't allow any living man to take mo by tho neck!" retorted tho prisoner. " Your case is bad enough without any biting," observed tho Court. "Tho witness will come forward." It was a woman about fifty years old. Her brow showed lines of euro, and hor voice betrayed dospoudouoy. " I keep a boardlng-houso," she bo gan. Last wintor this man eaino and secured a room and board. Ho told mo that ho exported a legacy of SiJO.OOO In July, ami so I trusted him until ho now owes mo over eighty dollars. Tho oth er day 1 found out that ho had boon de ceiving me, and thai ho was getting ready to light out. Hu won't got no moro logaoy than you or mo." " t thiiik'l know my gait," remarked tho prisoner. "Do you oxpoot a logaoy P" asked tho Court, "Yes, sir." "Who from?" "My aunt." "Who is your auntP" No matter. 1 expect a logaoy, and when I got it I shall pay what I owe." "1 found out ho was going to jump my bill," resumed tho woman, "and 1 asked him for tho amount. At that he got mad and kicked over chairs and sworo liko a pirato and throw my big Bible at tho head of the cook. If I hadn't called iu tho polico ho would havo killed some of us." "Bosh!" growled Smith. "Hero's tho whole caso. This wonion wants a husband." "Oh! lands! oh! lands!" shogaapod. I owo hor about twenty dollars, ami shu novor said a word about it until sho hoard I was engaged to tho second girl. Sho raised a row to searo mo." "Oh! heavens! heavons! heavens!" "Sho wanted mo for a husband, and ovon asked mo to marry hor. When I refused sho got mad and pulled my hair, and that's how tho row camo about!" " Oh! Judge, can you believe it, do you buliovo it will you boliovo it? .lust think of mo asking a man to marry me!" " Priionor, this is a sorious caso." " It isn't as sorious us if I had mar ried hor." "You seem to bo a hardened villain, and I shall havo to send you up." "Yes, send him up for life!" sho sobbed. ' For sixty days." "That fits mo," smiled Smith, as ho backed into tho corridor to wait for tho Maria. " WollP" queried His Honor, as tho woman lidgotod boforo tho desk. "Iwas going to ask you, Sir, If it wouldn't bo that is. if it wouldn't bo il" 1 hadn't hotter!" "Pay his fine?" "That's it, sir. Ho seems to bo a good man at heart, and perhaps " " Perhaps vou'd bettor go homo! Ho prefers tho Work House to your society, and you might as woll savo your mon ey." She gave him a look of concentrated red lightning and backed into tho crowd, and as ho hunted for the war rant in the next caso ho whispered to Bijah- "Old man, lot this bo a warning to you. Tho size of your feet has thus far protected you, but that may not always be a defense. A sharp widow can work all around a steel trap and beat the mwn who sot it." Detroit. Free I'ress. Rich PeiiiisylvanlauH. A. reporter said to ox-Governor Cur tin, of Pennsylvania: " Which ostato will net tho most to the heirs that of Colonel Thomas A. Scott or tho estate of Asa Packer?" Ho replied: " I think that the Packer ostato is tho best. It is generally hold to bo worth $7,000,1)00, without exaggeration. Tho estttto of Colonel Scott is largo, but I think tho newspapers rate it too high. I should put it ((own at about 3ft, 000, 000. Considering everything, that is a very great result for such inflictive and venturesome mind as Colonel Scott's. Some of the largest fortunes iu Phila delphia have been accumulated by the manufacturers. Thoro is Mr. Weight man, of iho firm of drug manufactur ers which monopolized tho quinino. Ho is ono of the richest men in Penn sylvania. Tho estate of (iilliglian Foil is very large. Disston, tho saw manu facturer, has mado a largo amount of money. Dobson, tho carpet manufact urer, has done a great business. Tho Baldwin Locomotive Works, as you know, aro the largest in the world. Sellers, the boiler-maker, w another great force with us. In Pittsburgh the largest fortune I presume to bo that of William Thaw, who is at tho head of tho Pennsylvania Railroad lines west of Pennsylvania. Ho is now a Director in tho Pennsylvania railroad. Somo reckon his means at 10,000,000. Ho.s tetter, tho bitters man, is also very rich in Pittsburgh. Ono of tho most successful men in our State is A. J. Cassatt, Vice-President of tho Pennsyl vania Railroad. Ho was a boy of plain, respectable family in Pittsburgh. He entered tho railway service near tho bottom and has worked his way up un til lie is ono of tho great masters of railroad details, and by his tuldroMJ is considerable of a public and social man; and his sagacity has made him a largo fortune." Moan folks in this world? Thoro aro! A South End father asked his son if he felt too tired or lamo to go to Bar num's circus, and wIkjii tho boy said "no," told him to go and bring up a hod of coal. And tlio boy couldn't say ho wasn't able. --Boston I'osl. PERSONAL AND LITERARY. - -Mr. James Russell Lowoll Is said to bo collecting matorial.i for a momoir of Hawthorno. Miss Nollio Hutchinson is chiof editor of tho Now York Sunday Trib une. Miss Nancy Hay assists hor. Messrs. Gilbort and Sullivan havo written another comio opora, whoso title Is reported to bo "Tho Princess." Doro is described as finishing, in doap meditation and with a sad face a great picture callod tho Valo of Tours. It represents sorrow-laden crowds of nioit and women of all races and all creeds and conditions wending thoir way to tho Light of tho World, a figure of sunbeams. - Edwin Booth writos- -referring to his London ongagomout with Irving: "Itssuecoss is very groat in all re spects, and only my domostio misory prevents it from boing tho happiest the atrical oxporionco 1 havo ovor had. I wish I could do as much for Honry Ir ving in America as ho has done noro for mo." Tho nortmilof Tennyson just paint ed by Millais represents tho poot stand ing; ho woars his old cloak, with Its volvot collar and frayed button-holes, and holds " in tho ono brawny hand that is visible," au old blaok folt hat. His long hair and board givos his head a singularly high and romoto look. Tho largo, soft eyes shino cloar of tho cu riously dovolopod uppor lids and aro full of thought. Tho French Acadomy is at logger heads ovor a fund of 10,000 francs be queathed by Mmo. Botta, an Amorl can lady, of which tho interest is to bo awarded at stated times as a prizo for tho host treatise on tho "Condition of Woman." The timo for making tho first award of this prizo has now ar rived, but Alexander Dumas and EmSlo Ollivor got into a hoatod discussion ovor tho question to whom it ought to bo given. Dumas favors Loon Riohor, a woman's rights advocate, for his book, ontitlod "La Fommo Libre," but Olliv or is bittorly opposed to tho woman's rights movement. Tho Acadomy ad journed without coming to any conclu sion. HUMOROUS. Is tho jelly lish mado from ocean currents ? It takes eight hundred full-blown roses to niako a tublospounful of por fumo, while ton cents' worth of coolcod onions will scout nwholo neighborhood. Detroit Free Press. Thoro is a groat deal of religion in this world that is liko a lifo-prosorvor only put on at tho momont of immedi ate danger, and thou put on half tho timo hind sido boforo. Josh Billinqs. A dry-goods clerk, who had a most outlandish way of walking, had to go to a distant part of tho store to lind somo goods which a party of feminine cus tomers desired to soo. "Walk this way, ladies," ho callod, as ho swung himself oir. "But wo can't walk that way," criod a port miss; "wo novor learned that stylo, you know." Tho clerk is now drilling his tibia in tho motions of a now gait. New Haven Journal. Class in arithmetic "What is ex change?" Pupil "No robbery." Toucher "What is a vulgar fraction?" Pupil "A naughty fraction." Touch er "What is subtraction?" Pupil "Hooking cherries." Teacher -"What is addition?" Pupil "Hooking somo moro noxt day." Teacher "What is multiplication?" Pupil "Ropootod additions." Teacher "What is divi sion?" Pupil "Going snacks with the other follors." Boston Transcript. A palo-looking man wont to an Austin dootor for advice. Tho doctor examined all tho man's symptoms, and then asked him if ho slept sound at nights. "No, I novor sleep a wink of nights. 1 novor shut an oyo boforo daylight." "Ah," said tho doctor, "that conies from nervousness caused by using too much tobacco." "No, it's not that. I don't sloop at nights, because I am a night watchman, and don't get out of bod until lato in tho afternoon." Texas SiJ'tinys. Didn't Recognize Him. Tho Boston Sunday Budget tolls tho following story: Many yours ago thoro dwelt in a certain Boston street two families which, although noar neigh bors, had rio neighborly relations nor ovon acquaintance. This grow out of the fact that whilo tho head of ono house lot us call him Jones was of somewhat "low condition," tho other, whom wo will stylo Pedigree, was "upper crust, a regular patrician." It rather troubled tho Jonos family to havo tho Pedigrees treat them as though thoy did not exist; but they managed to worry along, and in duo timo tho Jonos boys grew to bo men and entered upon the sorious business of lifo, ono of thorn to such good purpose that ho ac quired wealth and became the Prosidont of a bank. Ono day ono of the Pedi gree's rocoivod a chock on this samo bunk and stepped iu to have it cashed. Tho Teller was all politeness, said ho had no doubt it was all right, but addod that tho rules of the bank required that tho presenter of a cheek should be iden tified. Mr. Pedigree found no fault, and added that ho had no doubt Mr. ,1 ones, the President of tho bank, could furnish tho needed identification. Just thou tho President happened to pass from his private room, and tho Toller handed him tho check and stated what was wanted. Tho President took tho chock, examined tho signature and thu indorsement carefully, and, looking Mr. Pedigree straight in tho face, handed it back to the Toller and said, " I do not know tho gentleman," turned on hi heel and wont about his busiuess.