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About Nebraska advertiser. (Brownville, Nemaha County, N.T. [Neb.]) 1856-1882 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 17, 1863)
i sirsn rvEiiV satubday by
f f., R. JBSIIER,
, crr Stickler's Block, Llain Street,
id In advance, - - -
v"". if puidattheem
".,. or more be furnished at $1 60 per
M vided tLe .cash accompanies lb order, not
3 THE AFFLICTED.
DR. A. GODFREY,
t in France, naviinr iwemy-nve years- expe-
r Vh Medical science, and one of the correspon
,flB"".f ; I nil nf lh Ua,tll-.l ISIsn
ftbe Anin .uuik.iv. ...v x-
'v . located permanently in Brown vllle, and re-
American Journal or uie Meaicai ocien-
" i.r. iiix nrofetioul services to the cit-
' , city d vicinity.
ii nrt confine his services to common practice,
tradtem to chronic diseases diaeaecs of Ion
Halignarit Tumors and Sores Abscesses and
Carers' and Spre Eyes, eren partial Blindness,
i conimoftly ealled Falling Sickness, Palsy,
"sia Dvspe;)y, Consumption in the first and
' ue Incanity in s.nie forms, and diseases of
' 'kind ' Particular attention paid to Ague.
if rejiieftM. give refereuoe to-those pro
4 Incurable in the United States, and afterwards
T te found at all bonr, eit-ber
! sTore. or at his dwelling houao, vrl
, Wja I U V I M-m a Av v V
, vrtcn not engaged
EEITUEYER & R0BIS0N,
I MAKrrACTCRERS OF
1B00TS AND SHOES,
j BAIK, BITWEH IftST ABD SECOHD IT!.,
i . BROW A' 4'IJLLE, S. T.
viol recent ly" purchased the Sho Shop formerly
by fm.-I. I't11 now offer wur work: great
f ocodpnce- manufacture all that we offer
t rj"All work warranted.
riae,Sert.27, 1S62. nll-ly
fo". P. "STEWART,.
tt ever n. C.
, Maio. street. ;
Lett'a Drug Store,
!AUGUSTUS SCHOENHEIT, .
UTORNEY AT LAW,
j Corner First and Hain Streets,
oivnvillc. - - - Nebraska
DWARD W. THOMAS,
ATTORNEY AT LAW ,
LICIT0R IN CHANCERY.
I OCce corner of Main and First Streets.
BLE ROCK, NEBRASKA
( Reference, Dr. D. Gwin, BrownTille.
DISEtSTOX AND 0UXA3IEXTAL
LAIZEK AND PAPER IIAXGER-
I BROWNVILLE, X. T
B. LIOODY Sc SON,
! LOCK PORT, N. Y.,
Hiolesoie and JJetail Dealers in Fruit,
dt and Ornamental Trees,
AND SHRUBS AND
TOCK FOR XURSERY3IEX.
For Sale at Bargains.
Ko. 1 Shuttle Empire Sewing Machines,
FrLklin Family Sewing Machine.
o Horace Waters' $75 Melodions.
Freeh's 0nical Washing Machine.
i V. i p. W. Gate bi. Cu.'s Sofiar Cane Mills
v pt t the Advert iter and Farmer Office. Browt
-rdillth 18GJ . o6-tn
A. C O X S T A B
t IMPOhTEB AKD DEALER IM
0N, STEEL, NAILS,
iTLNGS, SPRINGS, AXLES, FILES
Q: Hubs, Spokes, asd Bent Stuff.
third Street, between Felix and Edmond,
AINT JOSEPH, MO.
he sells at St. Louis prices for cash.
I Eighest Price Paid for Scrap Iron.
Uiler 1.IS69. ly.
A 5 1)
ta,-Briticcn Levse and First Streets.
lrtlcular allcntlon plvcn to llic
! Purchase and Sale ofllcal
Estate, MaUIus Col
mcnt of Taxes lor Json-ResJ-
'iXD'W ARBANTS FOR SALE, for cash and on
WARRANTS LOCATED for Eastern Cap
: ,on lands selected from personal examination,
' eomplete Townsbip Map, showing Streams,
- lorwarded witn me Ueruncaie i iw
oville.N.T. Jan. 3, 1851. yl
New Remedies for
f h , ( i
hutitution estabiUhed by rpecial E-
Tir77,Jur ' Rtlitf of the Sict ant Vutretteo.
-tr- If ' w-.rn, hiiu v-f.f vnib tm -m v .
"oiu ' Jor the Cure f of the Sexual
IC-iL ADVIC72 given gratis, by the Acting
gjn RpPrt on Spermatorrhoea, and other dls
.i ual OrKans,andon the NEW REME
f lw; .rw ,n lh Dispensary, lent In sealed lettei
. i ree of charge. Two or three Stampa accept.
'mM-SK.'LLIN HOUGHTON. Howard As
Hta'b"0-uth Ninth Street, Philadelphia, Fa
L OV7 READY.
-liF. rn . .
toZ n5o-a Volottew Directory, (400
"waftS . "" and Iltidtnc of
"Vm i,?,B Kam ni llfidtnc of erery
. , .l.riTt in the Union Ann, with their
,,nTl n the Union Army, with their
-.wuJtw,. yr..m..tir.ni. Ac. f JSTEvery
' S,nt Pt-jaid.cn receipt of 25eenU
JOHIT L CAROIT.
(Successor to Lushbaugh &. Carson,
LAND AND TAX .PAYING
Dealer in Coin, Uncurrent Jtfoney, Land
Warrants, Jbxchange, and bold Dust
T will gire especial attention to buying and selling ex
change on the principal cities of the United States and
Europe, Gold Silver, uncurrent Hank Bills, and
GpX Dust, Collections made on all accessable points,
and proceeds remitted In exchange at current rates.
Deposits received on current account, and Interest al
lowed on special deposits.
3XAIX STREET. BETITEEX THE
Telegraph and the U. S.
Lind Si Brother Philadelphia, Pa.
J. W. Carson &. Co., .
niter, Dick & Co. Baltimore, Md.
Young &. Carson,
Jeo. Thompson Mason, Col'r of Port, " "
wm. T. Smithson, Enq., Hanker, Washington D. 0.
J. T. Stevens, Esq., Att'y at Law. " "
Jno. S. Gallaher, Ljite 3d And. U. S. T
Tarlor & Kriesb, Bankers,
McClelland, Pye &. co.,
Hon. Thomas G. Pratt,
lion. Jas. O. Carson,
P. B. Smali, Kq., Pres't S. Bank,
Col. Geo. Schley, A'y at Law,
St. Louis, Ifo.
Col. Sam.UambletonAtt'y at Law,
Jud?e Thos. Perry,
Prof. n. Tutwiler,
Havana, A I at ma.
Nov 8, lSGO-tf,
TH03H, COLPilAU, CO.,
Announce to the traveling public that their splendid
aud commodious Steam Ferry running across from.
Brcwnville, jeS Nebraska.
is one of the best la every respect on the Upper Mls
sonri'rlver. The Boat makes regular trips every hour
so that no time will be lostin wailing.
The banks on both sides of the river are low and well
graded which renders unloading uuneceesary as Is the
case at most other ferries.
No fears need be entertained as to difficulties at or near
this crossing, as everybody in this region, on both sides
of the river, is for the Uniou the strongest kind.
Our charges too an item these hard times are lower
than at any other crossing.
Travelers from Kansas to Iowa and to ine east will and
this the iifsrest and best route i every respect.
THORN. COLEMAN & CO.
Brownvllle, Nebraska, Sept. 21st, 1861.
J. WILSON BOLLINGER,
SL "X1 "2? O 3ST ES
COUNSELLOR AT LAW,
General and Collecting Agent.
BEATRICE, GAGE CO., NEBRASKA.
WILL practice in the several Courts ia Gage and
adioininff counties, and will gire prompt attention
to all business entrusted to him. Collections prompt
ly made. t&i 'articular attention prea to locat
ing Land Warraata oa lands arefally reloctrd bj
September 25, '61. nlt-jlj
Calls the attention ot Gentleman desiring new, neat,
servicable and fashionable
. TO HIS
Slew Stock of Goods
BROAD CLOTHS, CASSIMERS, TESTINGS, &c..k.,
OF TIIC VERY LATETT STYLES,
Which be will sell or make up, to order, at unprece
dented low prices.
Those wishing any thing in bis line will do well to
call and examine his stock betore Investing, as he
pledges himself to bold out peculiarly favorkble in
February 13th, 1662.
THE CONFESSIONS AND EXl'ERI
ENCE OF A SUFFERER.
Published as a warning, and for the especial bene
fit of Young Men and those who suffer with Jfervous
Debility, Loss of Memory, Premature Decay, Jtc. Ac,
bv one of those who has cured himself by simple
means, after being put to great expense and incon
venience, through the use of worthless medicines
prescribed by learned Doctors.
... . - . i .1 ii t
Single copies may e nao oi mo hui bit, v. a.
LAMliEUT, Esq., Greenpoint, Long Island, by enclos-
in a post-paid addressed envelojo. Address
CUAKLCS A. LAMBERT, Esq., Qreonpoint, Long
sland, N. 1 . .
Jilay 22, 1S62. n46-2m.
PIKES' PEAK GOLD!
I will receive Pike's Peak Gold, and advance
money upon the same, and pay over baiance or proceeds
as soon as Mint returns are had. In all cases, 1 wi
exhibitthe printed returns of the CniUid States Mlu
or Assay office. -
JNO. L. CARSON,
BULLION AND EXCHANGE BK0KER
Hats, Boots and Shoes.
1 barn Inst received a New Supply of nats. Boots and
Slu.es, which I will sell cheaper man mcy were eer
ollcred here before. Call ana see me.
Brewnvlllo, April 10, 18S2 n40-tf.
Seeds Prepaid by LlaiL
C5 Prettiest Annuals In Ccltivatlon, - $100
5 Choice Vegetable Seeds lor the Garden, - 1 00
both to Clubs of Five for $3 1 To Clubs of Ten for $1;
t.. "iiih nf Twpnt y for 25.
.!. ion inrhAa lone. i:5 cents per large psper; Five
r.a KEV JAPAN H1L1M'. wun irauirum ucsuu,
for ft I I received Genuine Seeds of this new and valu
able Millet direct from Japan, bv inexsiaKaru,
and can confidently recommend It as the best Millet in
n3-tf Old Colony a nrseries, njuwum,
To Western Farmers.
i v. .--rni v-.riotlAJi of Tobaccti tliat will ripen
well in this latitude. To any one wno wisnes socu,
and remits me a three-cent Postage stamp, on ia
ssrne, I will send a paper of each variety of seed
iir.n mn.t K snt ?n tlie months of sepiember
and October. I do this to introduce tho culture of
Tobacco in the West.
Address R. O. THOMP.SON,
Syracuse, Otoe County Ivebraat.
in Missouri. Iowa. Kansas and Ne
Kiir, mitiiiahin? the above once; and sending a No.
marked ,will receive twenty four papers choice flow
er aeeds free by nail. tt. w.
t would reepectfnlly inform the cititennof Nemaha
Cotinty, that I shall endeavor to aeep wis mrefc uP
,rA v.ti.nhVool Phinsles. which I will a el
for cash; or take In exchange Cattl, Doirs, Wheat er
) March S7, 1932. nRS-tfl
R. F. EA5RET.
M M M X!
V II II (V t 1
BROWNVILLE, NEBRASKA, SATURDAY,
FROM C. H. SCRIVEN,
GENERAL ADVERTISING AGENCY,
; NO. 63 DEARBORN STREET,
1 CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
16G2. TALL TRADE. 1862
VEBER, WILLIAMS & YALE.
FURS, BUFFALO ROBES,
BUCKSKIN GOODS,. &c,
25, LAKE STREET, CHICAGO, ILL.
We hare now In Store for Fall Trade the Largest and
best Assorted Stock In our line ever exhibited In tUis
Market, especially adapted to the wants of Dealers
from all sections of the Northwest, and unsurpassed In
variety aad cheapness by any to be found WEST or
Merchant who have heretofore purchased in other
Markets are especially Invited to examine our stck
this season, and are assured we are fully prepared and
determined to sell Goodn as cheap, and on as;favorable
terms as the best class of Houses in any Market.
ORDERS WILL RECEIVE PROMPT PERSONAL
CASH PAID FOR RAW FURS,
and Price Lifct furnished by mall.
WEBER, WILLIAMS & TALK.
Oct. 4 '62. n!2-3m
OF ALL KINDS.
Also, Warehouse Trucks, Letter
FAIRBANKS, GREENLEAF & GO.
172 LAKE ST., CHICAGO,
t3"Be careful, and buy only .the genulne.J
June 12th, 1SS3 n49-3m
JUST IN TIME FOR
TOBACCO SEED GRATIS.
Send -a three cent pot office (tamp and get 8i- klnda
TobaccoSeed gratis. THOMPSON tr Hi,'S,
- Nov. 9th, 1B62. - Syracute. Webratka.
Okra or Gumbo Seed.
The betl substitutetor Coffe prepared In the same
manner as Coflee. Package of seed by mall at 10 cts.
each. Each packaje contains 8eed enough to raise a
sppply for an ordinary tamily,
Send orders to H. A. TERRT. '
B38tf Crascent City, Jowa.
Will tend to aTllcanta who enclase stamna. their
VewCaUlogue of Small Fruits, including 200 Select
varieties or Strawberries. Also Catalogue of Bclbous
Flowers and Pasonies, 'Fruit and Ornamental Trees,
Roses and Flowering Piants, Seeds, i-C. nl0-2w
DO YOU WANT .
STEM ENGINES 0i BOILERS
LATENT SUGAR CANE MILLS,
PATENT STEAM COIL EVAPORATORS,
PATENT FIRE EVAPORATORS,
PATENT STAMP MILLS,
. - FOR
PIKE'S PEAK OR LAKE SUPERIOR.
SEND FOR CIRCULARS,
With Cuts, and Descriptions, Prices, etc., eto.
SAW MILLS, FLOURING MILL,
AND MACHIERY OF ALL DESCRIPTION.
12TSEND FOR CIRCULARS.JEl
P. W. GATES, President.
N. B. Agents wanted everywhere. ' Chicago
R. W. FURNAS, AGENT,
Of whom Circulars aud detailed Information caa
March 20, 1362. rn37-lyi
Warranted Garden Seeds
BLUNDEN, K0ENIQ & CO.,
(Late John Gabnett & Co.,)
No. 66 North Second Street, above Pine,
ST. XiOTJIS, MO.
Offer for sale at very low figures, a larte and wel.
assorted stock of Agricultural and Horticultural Imple
ments, comprising everything necessary to the Farmer,
together with a large and fresh supply of
Landreth's Celebrated Garden Seeds,
CROP OF 1861,
For which they are the sole agents. Their friends can
raiv ufjon celling from them seeds that are not only
nnri bnt true tj name in every Instance. Also field
pp1s at lowest market rates Chinese Sugar Cane seed,
Tobacco seed. Tun Onions. &c, , &x. Dealers in seeds
would do well to end them their orders.
Send for Almanac and Illustrated Catalogue gratis.
. BLUNDJEN, KOENIG fit CO.
March 6, 18G2. n35-ly
MALH OR FEMALE,
LLOYD'S NEW STEEL PLATE COUNTY COLORED
MAP OF TITB UNITED STATES,
CAN ADAS, AND NEW BRUNSWICK.
From recent surveys, completed Aug. 10, 1362; cost
$0,000 to engrave It and one year's time.
Superior to acy $10 map ever made by Colton o?
Mitchell, and sells at tne iow price oi nnycenia,
000 name are engraved on this map.
It is not only a County Map. but it is aleo a
COUNTY AND RAILROAD MAP
of the United St at es and Canada combined In one, giving
EVERY KAILKOAU ol A11U
md distance between.
Guarantee any woman or man $3 to $5 per day, an4
will take back all maps that cannot be sold and refund
the money. . .
Send for $1 worth to try.
Printed Instructions how tocanrasa well be furnished
aSl our agents.
w.ntPd Wholesale Agents f r our Maps in every
State, California, Canada, England, France and Cuba.
A fortune may be maae wun xew nuuarra uoui
noital. No competition. j.t. i.uuiu,
No. 164 Broadway, New York.
The War Department uses our Map of Virginia, M.ry
land, and Pennsylvania, cost $100,000, on which is
marked Mlddletown, Maryland Heights, Willi aitsport
Ferry, Killbrook Mills, Noland's Ford, and all others
on the Potomac, ana ever .un
Virginia, and Pennsylvania, or money refunded.
' PEICB 25 CENTS.
From The Tribune, August 1;
t inrA'm if tn of Virginia. Maryland, and Fennsylva
ula. This Man Is very large 5 Its cost Is but 25 ceuts,
acd i$ the bett which can be pirch&ted. al2-f9-st
Choice varieties, and of very superior 4uality,20 pa
pers of which will be seat (post-paid) by mail, to any
address, for on dollar. ;
H. A.TERRY. Crescat City, tow.
MjltA 13th, WW . '
UNION, ONE AND INSKPESABIxE, NOW
From tlie Sorgho Journal.
Chemical Elements or Sugar.
Although Sugar is estimated a very
great luxury by all classes, and in
fact can not easily he dispensed with,
the elements of which it is composed
aro very common indeed, and may be
seen wherever there is water and char
coal. Yet who would think of sweet
ening their tea and coffee, or pound-
. The term Sugar, however, compre
hends a great -'number, of saccharine
or sweet ' substances, some of which
are presented in the following table.
A list of similar, or analogous sub'
stances, is also included, with tbo
constituent elements of each, showing
how richly these luxuries abound all
around us, and require only a little
intelligence and skill to produce them
in great abundance. (
Together, they form a very inter
esting group of elements, termed by
chemists nonazontized bodies, or those
substances that contain, no nitrogen,
but are composed of carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen the two latter in such
proportion as form water.
Cane Sugar, 24-.
Grape y ugar,.-.-i"
Sugar of Manna, 24
Sugar from Rje,..24.
Sugar from Ash,.-24-
. . 22
. . . 28 .
.. . . 2G . .
bugar from 1 ine, -24
Gum Arabic, 24
Linen Fibre, 24
. a . 22
... 22 '
Thus cane Sugar, as above shown,
consists of 24 equivalents of carbon,
or coal, 22 of hydrogei and. 22 of ox-
ygen ; tne last two notnuig more nor
less than the elements of pure water.
The proportion in which these ele
ments exist by ieeig7it,&TC, carbon, 144
parts; hydrogen 22, and oxygen, 17b
parts, so that a mixture of 144 parts
of carbon, with 198part3 of pure wa
ter, contains all the elements, and in
their exact proportions, to form that
Cnoice luxury so extensively sought
for in the juice of sugar-cane.
Who would think, for a moment, of
mating choice delicacies from gum
arable, or old rags, and yet, on a re
ference to the above table, the same
elements are , found to exist, and in
nearly the same proportion. . ?
The experiment of ascertaing the
elements of Sugar, or any of the above,
is a. very simple one, and may be per
formed as follows :
Expose a portion of the sugar or
substance to a mild destructive heat,
on a. plate, and the water, in the form
of steam and gas, with a little of the
carbon, will bo liberated or driven off,
leaving nothing but a mass of coal.
And if tho steam be collected 'and
weighed, and compared with the coal,
their proportion will be nearly as
above stated. . ,
But although sugar is easily reduc
ed to these homely, odd, elements, the
work of uniting them, so as to produce
the bright saccharine crystals of su-
gar, is periormea oniy in ine mysteri
ous crucibles of nature, where these
constituents are reduced to a gaseous
condition, which, inthe vital currents
of the cane, by-the potent influence of
the sunbeam, with a power as wonder
ful as beneficent, the minute combi
nation is'made and presented for the
use ot man. .
From the i?orglio Journal,
Millions of gallons of excellent syr
up have been produced in the western
and northern btutes aunng the past
season. How many millions we can
not at present say : but more than one
thousand mills have been made and
sold in this city alone during the past
year; while Dayton and Columbus,
Piqua and Cleveland, and Richmond,
Indianapolis, and almost every city in
these northwestern States have fur-
ished largely of the Sorgho machine
ryr Probably none owning a mill has
made less than 100 gallons ofthesyr
up, and some have gone as high as
10,000 gallons and one firm in Illinois
has probably reached 50,000 gallons
for this season alone. If it be a hum
bug, it is surely getting to be a very
large one; and if we may judge from
the satisfactory reports ot its cultiva
tors, it is one which will pay well.
This, however, we shall speak of
elsewhere, and now give some items
of the early history of Sorgho, and its
introduction into the country.
The term, Sorgho, is a Japanese,
or. a Chineso word, and by them ap
plied to a large number of gramina, or
trasses, many ot wnicn are noc prop
ably sugar-producing plants. The
Japanese, who, in respect to agricuK
ture, are more eminently advanced
than the Chinese, cultivate the Sorgho
to extractrowi it sugar and alcohol.
We have further evidence of its
cultivation in China, in an article in a
French journal entitled' "L'Utile et
l'Agreable," in which the writer says,
at Shanghae, the plant is cultivated
under the name of the North China
suar cane. The Chinese Tartars
value it exceedingly, and at the great
nV:u:;nn w (Inn sir ' Af ns-
cow, in the year 1852,some of the
stalks were exhibited under the title,
at a ww .nnTiriii'Jin mm mm
JANUARY 17, 1863.
The first appearance of the Sorgho,
in ; Europe, .we believe, dates no fur
ther -back . than 151, at which time
Count de Montigny, the then consul
of France at Shanghae, in China, sent
a collection of plants arid seeds to the
Geographical Society of Paris, among
them the usufrar-caneof the north of
China." About the same time Mr.
Leonard Wray sent to the same insti
tution . some seeds . of a plant having
much the appearance and properties
of r the Sorgho, from the east coast of
Africa, the country of the Zula Kaffirs.
Through the interest which he im
parted to the subject, considerable at
tention was given' to its culture and
manufacture, and probably to none is
more credit ;due ; than the celebrated
seedsmen of Paris, Messrs. Yilmorin,
Andreux & Co. -
The senior partner, M, Lotus Vil.
morin, planted some of the seed with
great care, and made tuvmy experi
ments ' during the . season of their
growth, the results of which fully sat
isfied him of its great value, and led
him to publish, in 1854, the results of
his experiments under the title of "Re
searches upon the Sorgho Sucre."
Pa that year,.the agent of the TJ. S.
Patent Office, who had visited Europe
for the purpose of procuring seeds for
the Agricultural, department, return
ed, bringing with him a quantity of
the seed of the feorgho, which he had
obtained from M.Vilmorin ; and thus
we have its first introduction into this
country. ' '
The seeds were uistnbited from the
Patent oifice, to various parties. North
and South, and daring the following
year, looo, were extensively experi
mented upon by several enterprising
planters aud farmers, and reports with
specimens of syrup and sugar, were
exhibited before several-agricultural
associations, all of which demonstrat
ed its utility and importance.
The Coltifatlon of Clover; ,
.Now is. the timt to think over and
alk over the plans for next spring's
operations. What ; shall . I, sow. or
plant? what lands plow ? what lay
down to grass ? , how much ? and many
other things that should be decided
upon long before the swallows come.
These plans agree with the mer
chants, manufacturers, builders, art
ists, and most of the occupations of
life. Why should not the farmer be
equally far-sighted and systematic?
We have often aayocated the cul
ture1 of clover to 'a much greater extent
than is now common among bur farm
ers, and we feel like pressing it with
unwearied : earnestness every time we
have a conversation with intelligent
farmers,; or read the opinion of those
who have given the subject attention.
-ve find an account of the condition
of farming in Germany in the 17th
and beginning of the 18th century.
lhe only winter food the farmer had
for his cattle, besides bad and sour
meadow herbage, consisted of white
turnips, carrots, cabbage and potatoes;
and even of these, there' were ' no
great store, because the fields had
ceased to produce when unmanured.
This scanty food was, throughout the
whole winter, whilst it lasted, made
still scantier by steeping and boiling
to eke it out, and when at last it came
to an end, the cattle had to starve on
barley, oat and pea straw. The
coming of spring was anxiously await
ed to get a few cuttings of the young
wheat shoots, and the cattle were sent
to the commons, whence the poor
beast3 returned at night nearlv fam
ished." Thi3,is the description, Lie-
big says, given of the then state of
agriculture in Germany, . by John
Christian Schubert, when the .hmper
or, Joseph II., Created Knight of the
Holy Roman Empire, bestoying upon
him the style and title ofRitter Von
Kleefeld, (Knight of Clover Field,)
as a mark of imperial appreciation of
the eminent services rendered by him
in the introduction of the cultivation of
clover into ' Germany. This new cul
ture was held with acclamation all
over the Empire. The peasants who
grew clover received silver "clover
dollars," to wear round the neck, and
the good Schubert said "If you will
grow clover, and will strictly follow1
my directions, you will have ample
cause for rejoicing, and for praising
the Lord out of the fullness of your
heart for IIi3 rich blessings." We
believe the assertion of Schubert will
hold good with our Prairie -farmers,
and hope they will make the trial and
Question in Regard to Cows:
A friend asks -'"How long should
cows go dry ?" The question involves
many points. . If it is considered wholly
in reference to the preservation of the
life and strength of the cow, and the pro
duction of effspring of vigorous constitu
tions, we might say as a general answer,
she should go dry from two lo three
months before calving. But even in this
view, much depends upon keeping. A
cow if well kept can be milked for a
longer period without injury to herself or
calf, than if she were keDt poorly. A
full supply of nutritious food furnishes the
titmt-i! C: silk without much draught
on the tissues of the cow's body.. ". Qn the
other hand, cows which in farmers' par
lance "run to milk ," may be made poor,
eren their bones weakened, and if preg-
nani, their calves rendered small and
weak by protracting the milking period,
and keeping them on scanty and innutri-
tious fare, in connection lo ill treatment
, It has been said thathe milking habit
in cow3 is to a great degree induced by
cultivation, as when left to themselves for
several generations,, they , cease to yield
more than is barely necessary to sustain
their, calves for a short time from their
birth, or until" they can live on other food,
rso doubt this is true to a certain extent;
but wc see that there is a great differ
ence in cows; naturally, both in regard
16 their daily . yield of milk under the
same treatment : and circumstances, as
well as to the length of time they con
tinue in milk. Those which give the least
milk might cf course be milked a longer
time without injury to themselves or their
calves ; but generally speaking such cows
will go dry for some time in spite of all
efforts to the contrary, while great milk
ers under fair feeding are often dried
with difficulty, even for the period requir
ed for the support of their own system
and that of their offspring.
Again, the object for which cows are
kept are somewhat various. The man
who has but one cow, generally keeps
that one for her milk. He wants milk
every day in the year, and he wants to
get it if possible from his own cow. He
cares nothing for her calf, as he never
rears one, and the longevity of the cow
is of less consequence than a constant
supply of milk. Everything is subordin
ate to this, and when the cow is worn out
another takes her place. Where cows
are kept wholly for the sale of milk, a
course similar to the above is sometimes
But where cows are kept for the man
ufacture of butter and cheese, the system
of management is different. It is not
desired to have much milk in cold weath
er, as neither butter nor cheese can gen
erally be made to advantage on a large
scale except under a mild temperature.-
Hence the object is to have all the cows
'come in ner the commencement of
he butter or cheese .making season, and
they: are usually dried up at its close, or
at the recurrence of cold weather. ' By
this course the cows do not require so
high feeding as they would if milked
longer. Good hay, in connection with
proper shelter and care would be suffi
cient to sustain them in fair condition.
Their constitutions will not be impaired,
their calves will be born strong and
healthy, and .all the essential requisites
of a thrifty and profitable stock secured.
We- might say, then, that where it is
intended to rear stock, and the keeping
of the cows is Pot superior to good hay
in winter and grass in summer, both the
cows and their progeny will do better to
go dry not less than two months. Bos
ton . Cultivator.
For the Farmer.
Of Cider, of Its Analysis, of Its
Preparation, orlts Preservation,
and its Adulteration.
Product of the ferm entationof apples,
cider varies in its quality according to
the specie and the maturity of the fruits
as well as according to the epoch of the
In general,"4sweet apples'give, in small
quantity, a clear cider, agreeable as long
as it is sweet, but little alcoholic and but
little bitter when fermentation i3 over.
Bitter ' apples give a juice very dense,
colored, which ferments a long time and
produces a generous cider, of an agree
able, vinous, flavor, and of a long pres
ervation. Acid or sour apples, used
alone, give a juice but little dense, little
colored, little alcoholic, and susceptible
of becoming black by the contact of air
and of light.
As to the influence of blossom, the
tardy apples, gathered in November, af
ford the best products, viz : a cider rich
in alcohol, of a good color and of a long
If it is important to sort certain varie-
netie3, it is not less important to use
these which come, at the same, to a point
of maturity, and of not putting together
green fruits with mature or rotten fruits.
It is also essential that the apples
should benot put in the press immediately
after being gathered, as they do not yet
contain all the sweet principle they may
acquire ; and, on the other hand, you
must avoid going beyond the point of
maturity, a3 then the decomposition of
useful principles begins under the infiu
ence of the ferment contained in the pulp.
If in the fabrication, instead of ex
pressing immediately the juice of the
crushed apples, it is left to work in the
pulp for at least twenty-four hours, we
always shall obtain thus a product, having
a beautiful color and a more marked fla
vor ; the tannic principle, being found in
greater proportion, the cider is better
clarified. In mean time, the ferment is
more abundant, and thereby the ferment
ation more complete.
The duration of fermentation of the
hcideris in proportion with it3 richness in
sugar, and consequently with the alco
holic richness it shall have.
mm, m, w m
, Alter .lermentation, ciaer or. good
quality ought to be limped, of an amber
color and of en agreeale thvor.
. RATL3 OF ADVERTISING.'-:
One square (ten lines or less) insertion, $1 -Each
additional lnsortion - . - V
Bu.iae Crtia, six Uses or lest, one reir 00
One csioma ene year - ...
One half column woe year - -Oae
fourth column cm year - .
One eighth column one year
One column six mouths , -
Oue balf column six months '
One fourth column alx mouths
One eighth of a column six nj(tis '
One column three moatUs - . .,
One half column three mouth ' - '
One fourth column i&rte moa-e m , m
One eibth col omn three ctruUs
Announcing Candidates for QSlce.' - ' '
0 Wl '
I S 90
13 CO ,
rs 6 . .
12 rj i
Transient advertisemeaU must be paid for In adv jC4u
jTeariy adTertisemema, a'ia'terly ia advance.
In Transcient Advertisements, fractions over one
square will be charged for by the line, at the rate ot teia
jcentsth. first week, and 6 cents each subsequent week.
' 'A assential mean cf preservation
must be specified : -:
1. The reiterated racking, in oxiit
completely to take away the dreggy ?
2. The separation of the cj bio
small casks for consumatioa, ar if need
be straining as for wines, i,f you will,
preserve for a good whila & liquid rich
in nutritive principles and especially if
you wish to transport it to a distance.
1 To protect the liquid, whitat you emp
ty for use, from the action of the oxigen
of the air, during conservation, you may
pour into the barrel a sufficient quantity
of good oil, which forms upon the cider
a movable preserving layer.i This pre?
caution .would answer without separating
jt into small casks, . V . r ' :
Cider may be adulterated: 1, By a,
great addition , of water ; 2Iy, By the ad
dition of alcohol (to et off' bad cider;)
By coloring matters (such as red popples,
cochineal, etc.) designed to give the celt
or of a good product. By lime, ashes,
soda to saturate the aceti c acid in ciders
badly preserved: 3, By litharge, or lead
salts., Ou this account supervenes some
times saturnine colio after the use of ci
der. ' .
How Linseed and Cotton Seed Oil;,
and Oil Cake is iiaae.
The cultivation of flax belongs-to?
the age of homespun, and has gone by
as a general crop in thi3 country
Fifty years ago it was common on al
most every farm, and the brake, the
hatchel, the swinning board, ani
knife, were a3 much farming tools, aa
he dang fork and the plow. In-dtcr3,
were the spinning wheel for flax, and
he loom, where the linen and tow
cloth were made for summer wear. 4
Flax seed was then, abundant, and oil
mills for pressing the seed were to.be.
found .at convenient , centers. , liut
many of the present generation . have
never seen such an cstablidhment,.an
have no idea of the proces3 of making
inseed oil. Though flax is still raised
in this country in particular localities,
the crop does not meet our oemanda.
arge quantities of seed are lrnporteu
mainly from Russia, England, and the'
British East Indies. , In the year 1855
over a million bushels were brought;
to this country from the British East
Indies alone. r
In making the cil, quita a variety
of machinery is tJ3ed-m6re or lesa
expensive, according to the enterprise
and capital of the manufacturer. The
seed is first passed through IronroN
era to be crushed ox ground. . One of
these rollers is made to revolve more,
rapidly than the other, which subjects
each seed to a pulling, as well as &
crushing process. The meal is taken.
rom the mill to the " chasers, where
it is subjected to another crushing
process, more severe than tho tirst.
The chasers are two larrje stones,
about five feet in diameter and eights
een inches thick, rolling npon a third'
stone, in the manner of an old fashv
ionedbark or cider mill. . The3e heavy ;
stones start the oil from the meal, arid-
o keep it from adhering to thp chasv
ers' it is moistened with water, . ,
The meal is next' put into an iron,'
cylinder which is kept revolving over
a lire until the water is evaporated.,
Much of the skill in the:art of mak
ing oil, depend3 upon this heating;
process. It must not -be scorched;1
and yet it wants to be brought up to a'
high temperature, so thit it will read-1
ily give out its oil. The presses are
of various structure, somo of them '
patented, and others not open to pub
lic inspection. In the one that we.
saw, the yats or hoops, holding about
two bushels each, were placed oppo
site each other against two Immense
beams, or uprights, made ast'ia the ,
f . a am, m, mm ww mm'
taundations ot the building, lhe fol
lowers were forced . down upon the
meal by two large lever3 worked by'
hydraulic power. The meal is kept'
under pressure about ah hour, and the"
two presses work up about ninety-six
busheh of meal every twenty-four:
hours. The mill - is - kept running
night and day for six days in the
wees, ine product is noc iar troia
Uo gallons of oil to the bushel .jof
seed, a little more of less, according
to the quality of the seed and tho ?
skill in pressing. , The cakes as
taken from the press, are sometimes
sold by the ton without grinding.
- They are generaly exported in this
form. Where there i3 a market in tha
vicinity of the mill, the cakes, are put
under the chasers and srouud into
meal, bagged and sent to. tha feed
stores. The price of the cake, h from
thirty to forty dolhra. per ton, ground
into meal, it retail at about two dol
lars a hundred pounds. Thi3 ia ths
favorite feed. for fattening stock with
the. British, farmer, and onght tq 16?
ceive more attention among us.
The process.of making Cotton-ssed
oil and cake is nearly the sane- It
is a new discovery that Cotton seeds
contain valuable oil.-rSeveral patent!
for machinery to make it have recent
ly been taken. The oil has nc;t yet a
steady market valrq. ; "cake U
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