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About Nebraska advertiser. (Brownville, Nemaha County, N.T. [Neb.]) 1856-1882 | View Entire Issue (Oct. 25, 1862)
EVERT SATURDAY BT
KATES OF ADVEISTISIXG.".
one wj'iare (ten lues or ieg) one uuarnon,
Kacb adHUoaal lnmioo . s .
Basin Canis, m line or lti, gag year
One column eneytir ' - - .
One half culnnsn t.ne year .
Oa fourth column ctt yr - . .
One eighth column one year
One column li month -
One half column fix month!
One fourth column slxniontbf
One eigiub of a column six months
One column three moDtii . .
One half column three nx.nth . 4
One fo.jrth colnTCP three uocthe - - -One
eighth coinmn threw m.ntba
Anmnncin CanJnSates for OSce. -
cottar's Block. Main Street,
vS & F I SHE U
rT l: i -
..r if piJo i'dvaiwe, - " "
3 00 -
. "LIBERTY AND UNION, OKE AND INSEPEIIABLE,' NOW AND FOB.EVEB."
Transient alve-temenU ruui be r 1J for la adtAnc
will l-e furnicbed at $1 60 jr
Tearly aJTeriisemeiit, quarterly laadrance.
dtl.e caKfc ctx.mpauieMhe onier, not
BKOWNVILL K, NEBRASKA,. SATUR DAY, OCTOBER 25, 186-2.
In TraniH:i-nt Advertienjents. fractiore artt eft
fwjTiare will becharsed forty the lrne, at the riue of tea
(cents m v nrxi veek. and 6 cents each ubseiaent wX.
- J. ., -t ' "
' . 4 . L. T VI .11. IV
ttflTHEYEE & R0BIS0N,
I- jetWEIK riRT AKDSECOKDfTS.,
r-f-.tlv i"irrhod fh SriO Shop formerly
T1""' t" Den we n..w i-fTer enr work at urent-
f'mt w-rk wr,rrantel
W mai.'u'art ure aii tuaiwecner
n. F. STEWART,
UROH XTI LI-E, XE" R AS It A .r
i j Tijoruiein'K Dru Store, "WhitneyV
3 XHE A F F LICTED.
1 i)!t. A. GODFRKY,
I '. . AD
L,tf,i itiTr:ice. havinn twenty-tlre rearn' expe-
-n i'.c M flici ' hrienoc ami one ol ' he corretK.n
rjilie - Uniencn Journal of the ile iical S ien-
L. i,.prVl i-erinai.en lj- in Xrownri-ile, an.l re-
.eiiierf b proiesiniiiil services Ut the cil-
.;7h, . I V a'ld vie lil'.v.
f c',;. t!:ie In- services to roninaon practice.
I f i.i t'if n to chronic ieases tit-enf t
I V-Miiunanl Tiitii r nJ Sji e A ! e m1
l"'Ct. ,reri. mi re lKjeH,evtn purii! B:in1nes,
lr c.Miiii niv atil Kninn Sickirf-. falsy.
lip. lv.M''!r. ConuRHitin in the flr.t anl
i !.;,.?, ii-;i iv in t. me fornir, ami diseases of
t i,J " P.ir:cnUr a,iealiorx paul lo Ague.
fi i il mm P reu-rcju-e to, loose pro-
'n!iirai..h.e the L ui'.ed Statci. and iicrwma
I J.,v'i f 'i!)'t a !' honrs. either at J. IT. jfuua
J ;.,i-(,..t J i." dwei.inc luuee. wLeu Doi eur.iiieii
.t..,iu. t u-ii e-. . . 1.50- ly
P lI. M. ATKINSON,
SCUCSTOR CHAKGEHY. .
(I j e corner or Mniu n l F;r.-t Si?.
3rovvuvillo, 3T-l 1-
I 3''. 72 : ! y .
DR. D. GWIN, v
ITnviua jwruiauentlj LochI1 near
:;0YX VI LLE, NEBRASKA,
i tlieir.K:tice of Medicine and rnrp?ry, ten
lir pr..tes.iTial iT qc to the tl!ic,tJ.-
I o;ie uiilc south -f town, tu the old Xixoti
Augustus sciioexjieit, .
jTORNEY AT LAW,
Corner First and Hain Streets,
' nil fits - -' Xctiraska
j, ! ' - 1 1
:XS, WATCHES, JEWELRY.
j J: SCHUTZ
I woai(i (vonuficfio tlit-jitUeTSU of Brawnville
"iii.l vioiuit- that be Iims localed htinsell in
Iro-wnville. audinteBlsfct?epinR a full assort.
eterrthinein his lineof usiwese. which will
w r..r ca-1i. He will al.-odo all kinds of re
,.f cloiks, watchefandjewelry. All work war.
. . vSiilSlv
(WARD W. THOMAS,
iTTORNEY AT LAW,
l . AND
llCITOR IN CHANCERY.
'iffice corner of Main ainl First Street.
: o w n 'i l l i: , n i: phase a.
istr It GEON",
ME ROCK, XE1WASKA
V,r,-iicc, Dr. l. (win, BroVuville.
PGAR CANE MILLS
Men anxiin'oil acent for t Eaele Works
I iitii and Kvat..rators. ChlCopo, 111., I am
ti i.( fl!i o..Jei at iho iiiAniifacnirer'a prices.
"fMill. fr .ni $Jto$3vW. fvajHtrators from
3V l,!reM - li VV , FUHiiAS,
k'.t, lb.i nj-t-tf. ' Brownvil;e, A'fcb.
eUW SELL0RD- AT LAW,
ral anil C ollrrliau: Ascnf.
lulCFV GAi.h CO., iEBilAKA:
j-pnifii'-e in the (jve 1 Courts in Gag5 and
jiCc..uiitj.;s, ml will give jr.in)t attention
Mirt-xiutrustid lunita. Collecti(n nomjtt-
arik-ulur atcention piven tt loct
'! tVarnint '.n-" lauds onrefully celectcd
IS' PEAK GOLD!
rtcfive Pike's 1'oak OoM and sdvar.ee
i n itie :t.ie an.t pay over ha.atice of pvKeeU
ni rei'iii us are had. tn all ca-es I
: 'riuted returas ( the Uuit-d States Mit .'
U? N'. "L- CARS () N .
-OX Xl) EXCHANGE RROKER
I BRotn V1LLE, NEORASKA.
I 0 j - . no lv4
J H : : r
I MM &H0WT3 !
1S!t and pst Masters who will addres tl thl
I Mii plie.1 wiih Garrteu. Field aod K lower
t e?l ...... . : . . : . - . T1.A.A
; ..il f uBheie nd s-e true to name
Vemaha Nursery, Syracuse, Ot.-e, Co.
CO X.ST A H LE
iMPOhTta AKD DEALER IH
'S c 1'.
STEEL, ; NAILS,
3 SPRINGS, -AXLES, FILE-
1 Hubs, Spokes, , and Bent Stuff,
rd St Aftt .t: m r
a a- ii .
5 atSt. LoiiiM lrirhfr ritkh
'r,8 Price Paid ior bcrap Iron.
f cJ,U,pU," ,lock r rnrniture ever i-fTere-i in
.,lllt'.tr received ty , T. H1LU
s ili April 6th. .
J0H1T L CARSON
(Sorcessor to Lushbangh & Carson.
LAND AND TAX PAYING
Deafer in Coin, Uncurrent Jloney Land
Warrants. Exchange, and Gold Dust
IIROlYK V I L.L,L NEBRASKA.
t will give efpeoial attention tobnyln? and Felling ex--hariye
on the principal citien of the United States and
Rurnpe. Gold Silver, unenrrent Bank BillH, ad i
Gold Dust. Collection mad .n all accesMble nointf. I
and proceed reiiiitted iu exchautre at current rates. .
D jK.sii received on current account, aud interest al
lowed on special deposit. ' .
OFFICE, : - '
3IAI STRKKT. RCTIVCEY THE
Tclegrapli and the U.S.
Lind & Brother . Philadelphia, Pa.
i. W. Carsoit bi Co., " . . "
Hiser. Dick 4c Co. ' Baltimore, Md.
ronns c Carbon,
Je. Thompson 31 a son, Col'r -f Port,
win. T. Suiit.lis.tn, Esq., Hanker, WashigtOP D. C
J. T. Stevens. KrKj., Att'y at Law, "
Jno. S. Gallaber. are 3d Aud. U. S.T. " . "
Trlor . K.rii;h, Bi;:kerb,
St. Lonis, Jtfo.
Nov 8, lS&O-tf.
McCleltatHl Wets. Co.,
Hon. Thomas O. Pratt, '
Hoti.jA o. 1 ron,
P. U. Smali Km., Pres'tSi Bank,
C"l. Geo. Stilf y, A'y at Law,
Ci. Stin.diiiiUletouAti'y ai.Law,
JuJ'-e Thos. Peirj-,
t'rof. II. Tutwilcr, '
JACOB MARHON ' ,
M E R C H Mil TAILOR,
... BROWN VILLE,
Cll ti e at etif i"n of GeuHemeadenrg new, Deat,
servicahie ;nd fa-hiotuhle
HewStock of Goods
J UST li IXK I V K D,
BRO.VO CLOTiH CASSISIKRS. VKST1KGS &c..Stc.
OFTSIE VERY 1 T E IT STY EES,
Which he will re!l or make up, u orrter, at unprece
donted litw prces.
Tii se ui any thinp in his line will do'weU to
ci! atui I X iiiiM.rt i stok "h-ire tnv-.tiiie. n hi
j;ii'd :e hun-ir in hold .out peciwiany tavorible in
r'wlt4iy.Ulit. Ibb2. r ' - . - '"
.-THORN, COLMAM, CO.,
Annotirrce to the travelina public that their splendid
aud, connu.idious Sieatu Ferry runnine across flora
is one of the best in every respect on' the Upper Mis.
souti river. The Kuat makes repular trips every hour
so that no time will be lost in waiting.
The hankr. on both sides of the river are low and well
graded which renders unUadiug unneceesary as is thi
case at nutst other ferrie.
No tearstieed heentermined astodifflrultiesatornear
i.ir- rro-.siiip, s everyh-nly in this reyi'n, on both side
of the river, id for the I.tnoii the strone! kind.
Our cliArt:es tH u item thei-e hard times are lower
tlm at any other c:-o:-sii!.'
Travelers fr m K tnsas to Iowa and totheeast will And
this ihu iic:fet slid Ucst rtueir pverv restKct.
THORN, COLEMAN &"C0.
'Brownvilie, N.or..-a, Sept. 21st IRC!.
R K A L ESTATE
. : . a i . .
27. ""77"- Sed-ford,
Main. Between Ijew.e and Viral Streets.
I'artirutar'ntU'SiUon piven lo 12ic
Iui chase nntl Sale ol Itcal
iMato, :ak!n? t'oN
Payment of Taxes lor fton-Rcsi-
I, AND W A KM A NTS FOU rALE, for cash and or.
'lILXD WAr.R NTS LOCATED forEagtemCap
it.i'i-l-s.tni latui s-l'-jfod from personal examination.
nn'l a eoTOi.lete Tiwtiship -'"P. tuowing' Streams;,
.... , i .....v. . i. w... .:....,. ,.f
lllUwf,&C.',llTrUCU HllU IU5 UHlLUUtre ui ryr.
Hrownrille.N.T. Jan. 3. 1S1
tiic imiiaci: vati:i:s pianos ani
And AWnde Di-hiis. Hti.i T. (IILBEUT A Co.'
iteiohrated E dion Fianos, uro the finest ln.strunft'nt
ir pirlor anl churvhes nwwin uso. A wr insort
ment can te tici o, tb new w.-irenn uis. No. 43
ItiiOADWAV. between irand and Hroora streets
4ii..i will U U at cxtreHiolv low prire. J'inno.
rid MeloJcons. iroiu sundry iunkers, now and wjcunJ
hand. Second bund i''idns and Mclod.m at jro-a'
liiirsraina: jxrici-a from to 10(t. Sheet Music
Mu.i-B.'4vi,nfcdll kind of Music M.TcbxndMC
,!-. wtr ju ices. A j.iitnUt in attendance wiil try new
"The ri'.rnce Which I'i.Hios i.th kn-wn aion'
he very bc-"! We are t enbUd to ?p-ak of the
'iistr'umenta with t:i ilirw f conlidnice, from
. r-o'ir.l '4,-nou !edin-'f tb''tr excellent tone onn rtu
r Jile o.ialitvl" - Acto York Emu'ii-liit. , iitl-lt
FAS T HORSES.
CITY LIUESY STi
' i HEXJAMIX ROGERS,
- , . . . . . . . . :
AVXOrKCKS to the ptiblic that he bas perchase-1 the
nii?S?r2 I. IVe Uvergtable and Strrner.y
owne,l by R-er B other.' He i now prepared to
accommodate the public with r.r ; i
: . Sulkies ' -
THE TRAVELING PUBLIC
Can find at his Stable ample accommodations for
horse, iuuim r cattle. : 1
jy, B. The partnet-sMp fcereffftre existing between
Beujamm a-yu J0SHrA fc BS,AfXIir R0GEHS,
May 28tt. 186S. a47-M
Circulation of the Sap.
The last number of the Gardener's
Monthly contains a very interesting ar
ticle from Yardley Taylor on the fCir
culatlon of the Say,V from which we make
the following extract:
"The' theory of a' downward flow of
sap, as supposed, by the first writers on
vegetable physiology, is giving way, and
the writers of the present day assert thai
there is no such flow. (S-e article Bot-
jnny' in the 'New Ameri- an Encyclope-
' V a t,pPA, ' ,! r n .k..-, kn
) neoreutal writers, or. ItlO.-e WDO
copy from former ones.1 ofin advanced
the fame theory while practical men.
who base their theories upon their obser
vations of nature, reject it. Nurserymen
who practice grafiiug, know that success
can be had by inserting the graft so that
the inner bark of the graft of the stock
thall he in contact, so as to admit of the
sap from between the bark and the wood
passing upward into thd graft between its
bark and wood. There can be no' other
way for growth, as the granules of new
wood only form between the bark and
tap-wood, no where else, and this mate
rial for growth must come from below-,
for there are uo leaves above to prepare
the matter for assimilation as the down
ward theory supposes. - Balding, as
practiced by nurserymen, is equally con
clusive; there the bud only rests upon
the sap-wo id beneath the , lark, and in
no contact with the pores of the wood at
all, only with the pores between the bark
and wood ; and ir the top of the taalk is
rut iff. as is uual, it grows at ouce,
though there is no part above from which
a downward flow can come. Many more
facts ni'ght be mentioned, all fading to
the same coiKldsion, but these, so 'well
known to all' who are acquainted, with
grafting or budding, may suffice ; indeed,
the evidence appears to me D be so con
lusive, that I can tee no reason whatever
or a downward flow. It appears to me
o be too much of a .roundabout way to
tttain an object, to be oousu-lenl with whit
we know of ; the simplicity of nature's
aws; they are always direct and to be
adiiird tor their simplicity.
"If, then, there is no downward circu-
ation, as I confideuily believe there is
,ot, the question recurs,'what is the tru
heory of 'the circulation of the sap
rhis, to my irnnd. is very simple and
plain; whether I can make it appear
plain to others, remains to be seen. Ltt
us recur 1 1 facts generally admitted, and
base our theory there. All writers on
vegetable physiology, I believe, admit that
water trom rain and mjow contaiiunir
aiiilters""fu'r growth .is imbited by the
roots, principally by the spongioles or
t-mall rootletts, though I have little doubt
that eren the large root? imbibe tome, as
there bark is spongy. Among these mat
ters, cabomc acid gas is prominent, and
it is generally believed that a portion of
this gas is imbibed by the leaves. This
gas is considered the only source from
which the carbon of the plant can be de
rived. Carl on, we kn w, is deposited in
growth, and chemists tell us that oxygeu
is given oil in the dayume. Other mat
ters, as potash, fee, are believed to be
carried into the plant in the aina way;
of these tacts there is little dis.puie. .
'Can on acid gas, however, must 'be'
decomposed, and we know that it is, but
by what means, there is dih" r irce o
cpinion. Sunlight has been couriered
i he agent of this decomposition, but . of
this there may be doubts. If there is uo
downward circulation, the gas can n t be
decomposed in the Itaves, as is by many
fuppoed. Further, we have no other
evidence, than this supposition, that sun
light can decompose cat bonic gas at all ;
nothing in my reading of chemistry would
encourage the conclusion that sunlight can
r. lease oxygeR from its compound. Some
other agent then must be sought. for, ai.d
we have one in electricity, that we know
can effect this decotnjoition.
"The beautiful art of electro'yping is
evidence of this fact. , Here meial is dis
solved by acid, making a compound of
oxygen and nr-tal dissolved in water, by
the application of galvanism, which is
only another torm ot electricity; the ox
xgen is given off, and the metal is depos
ited in its own form again. If elctriciiy
ran release oxygen fruin this compound,
why may it hot from all its compounds?
Oxygen is negative, while carbon. aid
metals are po-itive. I his presumpiiou
has much stronger grounas tor its foun
dation, than that fur the ttlects chargea
ble to sunlight. ' ;
"Electricity has been proven to greatly
facilitate vegetable growih. If we er-tt
wires, say ten or fifteen ieet hishtn an
open s-pact-, and piss ihVu bme&ih ihe
soil vshtre vegetables are growing,' these
vegetables near aud above, ihes wires
...,il V... Iimiov iKon'iKit.u at a 1 ; vtn .if .
I Hre the lettricity au add nothing ot
itst If to the plants ; it must act by, indu
cing greater activity in Miine prmciple of
growth,, and whai principle can that.be,
other than the decompaction or the car
bonic acid in the soil and vegetal le mat
ter within its reach, .thus giving more
carbonic tras to the plants? This is the
only ratioual explanation thai can . be
civeji. and it is to the. point.
. Now jet us'" apply these principles,
founded upon facts. The carbonic ttas
being carried up in the tap, which is the
water cun'aining matters tor growthjm-
bibed by the roots, and this gas passing
principally between the bark and the
wood, where most of the . sap passes, anJ
where it is needed .most lor growth; is
decomposed by electficiiy ex c;Iy where
needed, and deposited there, a Mnall por
tioh is denosit-d in the pores of the sap
wood, thus making it mof e firm, aod con
verting it into heart-wood. Ihe ap be
ing deprived of its gas brought up from
the roots, principally near the lower part
o the tronk or bod v. is further supplied
bv thai received from the leaves, and ihis
passing 'jdoWa through the ,&ap a tl .
known that this gas has a" great afnnity
for water would supply all parts, and
will mix with it in all directions whenevf r
it comes in contact with" it'.; Trees and
plants are as conductors of el?ctriciiy'fr ra
the earth to the air, and frtim the air to
the earth. Every sjirijr, every point .ot
a leaf, acts as a conductor for the fluid in
passing. Some have doubted whether
there, is 'electrical disturbance sufficient
to cause action enough tj produce such
an effect, but' electricians have proved
thai the electricity, of theL atmosphere is
very variable; that it ts at its maximum
at one time of day. and at hs minimum
at another., Hen :e uhen it is at its max-
. a a
imum in the air., the arth mud he neg
ative to it, and the; anh will receive a
portion; .and when at its minimum in the
air, the earth will be positive, and then
give off a portion to the air, thus keeping
up a current between the air and the
earth. Electricity having an attraction
for water, will pa -ss thruugh the sap' of
plants ia preference, precisely where the
gas is to be decomposed.
'Here then we have a theory for the
circulation of the sap, at least for the re
quirements of growth; one that is plain
and simple, yet .meets, all the. require
ments of the cae t one that' is based on
facts that we do knowand but little left
to conjecture. At the fall f the leaf in
autumn the body of the frM has but lit
tle tap ;, the pores of the wood arejnosily
filled with air. Duiin? the fall, aud
winter, vvhuever the earth and air. are
above the, freezing point, the roots are
imbibing'moisiur. Wheth'T this is by
capillary; attraction or Hot, I leave, but
presume .it- is", by that power, as water
will penetrate every 1 body not. positively
impervious, where the is less water. By
ihe , time that wirnu weather returns in
pring. this sap thus lym j in the pores
through . the winter, un-.fergoc-s f some
cemical change, convening pirt into
t-acrhanne ' matter.. .Tliis 'milter thu
furnishes. jhe. nectar of ' flnvers. and is
coipicu us in early flowering trees like
the' maples, for .'iii-lauce, .'that blossom
early'. ' Almost afi trees will :urnish sap
at the first; flow ihat may be made into
sugar, but-s-ome, . as ftie tmaples,. ,more
fre-Jy than o hers. Tiiis ifirst. fl.w of
sap takes piace in'ihe winter often, when
there, cojiies warm days and frosty nights,
and frequently when the ground is fro
zen ; but the ground being; frozen is ho
evideuce that the: tree and its r jots are
frozen, fQr living plants will resist a much
lower' temperature without freezing than
dead matter will. . The. roots of trees are
often far below the frost, ''a-.jd' may be
supposed to be a conductor j of that . tem
perature upward . As Moon- as the, warm
weather induces a full flow of sap. the
saccharine sap is. 'diluted, and carried up'
ward, and no sugar can then be made
from the body of the tree. This full flow
of , sap fills evCtiy pore of the tree j and
as warm weather advances causes the bud
to burst and the leaves to expand, and
thes'e'the'u becoine',the medium of giving
off the-moisture of the sap, leaving the
matters for growth behind. Thus carbon,
gums, rosins, potash, et-., are depo. iied
tach in its plac-. The philosophical d
itorof .the ' Flore s u p.h Scr res. ot iiilgium,
uni..say" that the ofSc s of the leaves ar
chiefly perspiratory, and "that they will
be so acknowledged some day. Many
others are coming to be uf this opinion.
From the great quantity of water
know to .be giv ri off from' the leaves of
vegetables while growing, Wd may rea
sonably conclude that matter enough for
rotvth is can led up by tne sap to ac
count tor all we see. even supposing that
the amount is small iu a gven quanty of
water. The continual, rising of this mat
ter, and being left tor growth, would first
make ltapp-ar as 'milky, as I have ob
served in early spring on taking oif the
bark of oak timber; as it becomes more
dt nse it would "assume a jelly-like ap
pearance, as I have witnessed in taking
o.T the bark of apple tree, about the 20 h
day of the first summer month, to try to
cure such trees of the bitter rot. Tnen.
aain, at the fair of the Itaf, it has be
come firm wood, and at this season there
is little water in growing woo l, less than
at any other season. In late siaiimer
and early fail, we olien have dry weath
er, favorable for well ripening wo id, but
sometimes 'we have wet in the tail o as
itrstan late growth; we ihen knw that
such late wood is n it able .o sta VI iho
wiuter'aiiely, but isolteu inj ired, partic
ularly if cold'-ei$ in early: Lite grow
ing plants are more liable!' to be injured
iu this way, than those, that perfect their
g'owth'arly The oak and similar trees.
that never, start into second gro.vth , the i
same season, do not sutler in this way.
MVe have reason to believe that th
rckits of pareunial plants take in. water as
!.-ap at all seasons, exn-pt wheu i?terripi--d
by dro it h or frost, eith-r uf , which
prevent it..-. Thus hi
Sail ii.j i winter, in
.11 ... ...l.,.- n ...r...'rr . c I ill ill, for 5 IT
. , ' . V i , li J u' c '.,-;- ci,nii
uve use-wheii the war.n.hof spring shall
induce active growih.'
' Miscellanies.. .
. Who is tLD ? A wise man will nev.
er rust out. As long as he can move and
breathe he will do something for himself,
his neighbor, or for posterity. Almost to
the last hour of his lif Washington was
at work. So were Franklin aud Young.
Howard and Newton. The vigor of their
lives-never1 decayed. No rust marred adopted it and brought it to a regular
their.'spiriis.v ."It is a fojlish idea to sup.- Jsyiem on an extensive scale. His for
pose that we must lie dovvn and dm .be- mula for compounding the mucilage is as
cause we are old. Who in old ? Not the
man of -enertry; not'the 'day laborer in
tcience,-art, or benevolence; hut he only
woo suffers' his energies to wate away
ana. the bpnugsot me to.iec.wne moM-m-
lesv, on whose Lands the hours drag'ing water, then put on the fire, pouring
rieavilv." to whom all ihinra wear
of gloom. Is he ou ? is he active f nan
he breathe freely and movj wi?h agility ?
There are. scores of gray .adod in ea werdtioa. After boiling thirty ; ;inuwi
should prefer, in any important enter
prise, to those young gentlemen who fear
and tremble at approaching shadows, and
turn pale, as at a lion iq their, path, at a
harsh word or a frown. -
' A New Volcaito. A Roman journal
states thai something like an incipient
volcano has rnade is appearance near the
Ciyita Vecchi Railway, about two leagues
from Rome. ,A committee of engineers
and geologists have been sent.to examine
the eruptions of smoke and sulphureous
exhalations which have been obsetved.
In their report they state that the seat of
the fire is on the right-hand side of the
railway, at a place called iMontedelle
Piche. For the space of 200 square
metres the ground is so hot that no one
can stand 'on it long without feeling in
convenienced, . There are numerous large
fissures through which jets .of hot bitu
minous vapor issue. The'soil around is
covered with light crystals of sulphur, and
on digging to the depth of fire feet the
rock is found . to be incandescent. This
rock i- a clayey schist,. full of lignite and
vegetable fossils transformed into bitu
men. It is supposed to have been set. on
fire by sparks from a locomotive. It is
not attended with' the least danger, but
the neighboring population is nevertheless
much alarmed. :. , ;
More Big Guns. The Pittsburgh
Chronical states that the Fort Pitt 'Works
in Pittsburgh, are turning out the im
mfnse fifteen inch guns rnow at the rate
of., three a week. These, guns weigh
eai.-h.in the , rough about 70,000 pounds,
and apart from the difficulty of casting,
the labor of handling! turning' and finish
ing such a mass of metal' 'must be'ini
mense. There are four of these guns
nyw in the lathes, and by .he time these
are out. others will be ready to take their
place. It is the intention to .turn out
three a week, we believe! for the balance
of the yftp. These; guns 'are intended
for the ntw.-Monitors, and are the most
formidable of their character in the. world,
Arrangements are now in progress for
casting a' twenty imth gun." The latter
gun will throw a ball of one thousand
pounds, and is expecteJ to have a range
of four miles. -t;: - I
A Vice, that Pays. -The following -is
attributed to an eminent personage,
perhaps the most emin"ut of the French
empire: A lady was declaiming in his
presence against the use of tobacco, and
prayed that he would arrest the encroach
ments of a habft which had grown to be
a vice." 'A vice it may be, madam," was
the reply, "but find me a 'vittue" which
yields" the Treasury- one "hundred 'aud
twenty; millions of francs a year," .
. Illinois Cotton. We , have seen a.
sample of cotton grown in Illinois, about
fifteen miles north of the Terre Haute
and Alton Railroad, from seed procured
in Tennessee, and planted last May. It
is of fine quality, equal, to the best Ten
nessee, aud we are told that the yield of
a patch of five acres will amount to fifteen
hundred pounds. At the present price
this will be a very profitable crop, much
more so than wheat or corn. There are
in Illinois more than two million acres of
superior cotton lands, situated south of
the place where'tee sample was grown,
and from the experiments in its culture
made this. year in almost every instance
satisfactory, we are led to believe that
eo.tton is to become a staple article of the
produce of Illino s. Oueplauter alone is
preparing his ground with the view to
planting twelve hundred acres, and many
others will engage in the business m ore
or less extensively. Ev. Ppsl.
Rearing CalVcs. on 3111k anil Lin-
No doubt but the best and mo?t proper
food for the calf is its own dam's milk ;
for it is a true food, in which the compo
nents of nutrition are o nicely balanced
by the all-wise and beneficent t reator'as
to set at naught ail human compositions ;
but it is of so much value for human con
sumption, that it becomes necessary to
economise it, and make imitations of it,
though at a. very; humble, distance; and
thus it is that science comes to our aid.
Professor Johnston says, in his Lecturt s
on Agricultural Chemistry," that "while
the calf is young, during the first two or
three weeks, its bones and muscles chiefly
grow.r It requires the material:, of these,
therefore.' more than fat, and hence half
the milk it gets at first may be skimmed,
and a little bean meal maybe mixed with
it to add more of the casein or curd, out f
of .which; the muscles are formed ;The
costive effect's of the bean meal are to be
guarded again-t by occasional medicine
if required, in the next stage more fat
is necessary; and in the third week, at
least, full. milk should be given, anil more
milk thau the mother supplies if . the calf
requires u; or, instead of the cream, a
i less costly kind of fat maybe used. Oil
cae finely crushed, or linseed meal, or
even liuseed oil. may supply at a cheap
. , . . . ,
rate the fat, which, in. form of crenm
sells for much money ; and instead of ad
ditional milk, bean meal in large quan
tities msy le tried, and if cautiously and trees, while that on the bluffs only prunes
skillfully -used, the hest effects on theV them, as there is not sufficient for des
t ize of the calf and firmness of tha veal ! truction.
may, be anticipated.! . .
. The scientific note from Professor
Johnston has engaged1 the attention of
pi my stock-masters in Ireland, and among
the rest, Mr. C Beamish,, of Cork, who
follows: thirty quarts of boiling water are
.poured on three quarts of linseed meal
j and four quarts of' bean meal. .It is th-n.
.covered up clo.-e ; and in twenty-four
i nuurs auaua 10 tmny-one quarsd tu ii -
it in slowly, aud stirring it coostamiy to
prevent lumps, with a perforated wooden
' paddle, so a. to proMdce perfect inrpo.
the prepared mucilage or gruel is fit for
use, kand should be given blood or luke
warm to the calves, mixing it in small
quantities at first with- milk, say one
fourth mucilage with three-fourths milk,
progressively increasing it, ao that by
the end of .a fortnight it will he in tq ia!
parts: by, the end of the third week, one
and a-half mucilage to one part milk ;
by the end of the Fourth week the muci
lage may be given in double the quantity
of -milk, and. skim milk substituted for
new milk; and by the end of the sixth
week, the mucilage will be gradually in
creased in the proporti n of two and a
half to one of milk; and frorn that on till
the tenth week the milk may be gradu
ally reduced, so that by that time they
may be fed wholly on mucilage, till they
are fifteen or sixteen week'3 old, when
they may be weaned.
During all this time, if too early in the
season to put out the calves, they should
be comfortably . housed, well ventilated,
and kept perfectly sweet and clean ; a
little sweet hay tied in bandies and sus
pended, so that they may play wi h it and
learn to nibble and eat it; and a litth
pounded chalk, mixed with fait, given in
troughs to ,lick at pleasure, , which pre
vents acidity in the stomach, and the due
formation of cud. Small lumps of linseed
cake should be given in other troughs.
which they will soon learn to sut k, i: a
lutle pains are taken to put a bit in 'heir
mouths after they have taken their meals
ot milk and mucilage. When housed it
will be advisable to have a separate pen
for 'each calf of sufficient" size to walk
abouu.so thai they do not get into the
habil of .sucking each other and swallow
ing the hair, which, united with the curd
by the regurgitating process going on in
the stomach', form round balls which are
indigestible, an I is the r fertile caue of
the death of many promising animals.
The following scaje of quantity of milk
or milk and mucilage combined for each
calf may be useful, but should be altered
according to circumstances': For the first
week the calf may get from three to four
quarts daily; for -the second week, four
to five quarts; fifth, and sixth weeks.,
eight to ten quarts: six to eight weeks,
ten to twelve quans per day, and so on,
increasing the quantity about one' quart
per Week per calf till weaning time. '
i Some parties do not give so much
liquid food per day, but make it up by
giving them finely cut roois, dry oat meal
&c.j but the animals are much too' young
for such food,' though they may get the
minced roots so as to train them into their
use.iHay tea is an' admirable thing als
to mix, with the mucilage and milk, as it
contains a large amount of nutriment in
a soluble form.
In the summer time the calves may be
left out on the grass, both day .and night,
in a fortnight after they are. calved (and
fed as already described they should be
in the house); but a warm sheltered pad
dock should be provided for them, and' in
wet weather they should have access to
a covered shed. Irish Farmer'' s Gazitfe.
Western Prairies, ;
Why are they not forests?' I have not
seen as much 'of the prairies, as appears
to have been the case with the correspon
dent in your August number.' But I have
drawn certain conclusions from my lim
ited knowledge that may be worth print
ing. . There is a remarkable stratum of sand
.underlying th-; limestone rock, and ex
tending over a large district on the Upper
Mississippi. In this sand is the remark
able, cave near St. Paul, Min. .The lar
gest chamber I estimated , to be 70 x 40,
and IS feet high, oval in plan, and arched
like a tortoise shell. It has so little
tenacity that sand swallows build their
nests in it. It is readily detached by the
fiugtr nail, when it resembles sea-sand.
But it approaches so nearly tosadd stone
rock,' that it supports itself in the fcrm .f
an arched roof in this cave. The sarn i
stratum is found at Fort Snelling. ;At
the falls of Minnehaha it is worn away
under the projecting rock, so as to form
a gallery under the falls from side to
side. It is found under the rocky cap at
the conical hill t ailed "The Lone Mound"
in Wabashaw County. Minn., and thence
(dug out for making rnonar. It is said to
be found under the rock when digging
wells at Janesville, Wis." I suppose it
cah be found anywhere in this district
along the bluffs. '
' The. geological position of the prairie
about Fort. Snelling, and the Falls of St.
Anthony, ect. is above the upper lime
stone rock. Th'j prairie in the valley of
the Zumbaro. in' Wabashaw Co., Min., is
below the1 upper limestone rock.' This
valley is several miles in width. The
soil when wet resembles black city mud.
The earth is composed with much lime
mixed with other drift. It is based on
magnesian' limestone. The few trees
have large roots and small stems. The
bluffs have full size trees in abundance.
I infer,, that the rank vegetation on
these prairies, when fired, destroys the
r Thus tne early German settlers in the
Lebanon valley, Pa., chose, the gravel
Irnd on account of the timber, because in
their fatherland, timber waVvery valua
ble. The limestone. -land adjoining and
running parallel, was a treeles prairie
The reUtiv- fertility may be judged by
subsequent j rices. The gravel land snie
j years smce sold' for about S3.5, while the
! limestone land sold for $100 to &120 per
acre. . ;i .
; . Thus. also, about forty years since, an
extensive wnueccaar vooi ou ihe iNnv
, ark irca.lows was destroyed by fire, and
, now there remains L0ihubut a treeless
' prairie. ,'.'..
; Hence I infer th it theabsn'e of trees
, in iqc&e cuavs lud.caits txwjijo fertile
ity. :But we must not thence infer that
prairie," although French for meadow,
is synonymous with fertility; for as used .
at the west, it simply signifies tre dess,"
afd this at tiraos 'arises from want of 'fer-'"
tility. Thus oh the railroad route from
Madison to Prairie du Chien, there is a
sand prairie, of small extent, where the
superincumbent limestone a ppea;s to have
been washed away, leaving the substra
tum of sand exposed, in places, without
mixture with fertilizi g ingredients; and '
the vegetation is not greater than near:
the sea-shore. So, also, in the fertile
rolling prairies, small hillocks are found
with scauty vegetation.
It is also stated that there are large
districts in the neighborhood of the Ricky
Mountains, that are without trees, and
almost without vegetation, in consequence
of the excess of. alkaline salts.
BjI in some of th level prairies, suih
as thosa surrounding Chicago, the absence
of trees is probably due to fire, since there
are soue trees that will grow almost ia
the water, and I judge that these prai-,
ries'are less wet than the cedar swamps
on th Newark meadows, and other cases
of beech wood. ' ' '
Resistance to the Draft in Indians.
On -Monday, Sept. 29th, the Draft
Commissioner for Blackford county pro
ceeded ;to the Court House at Hartford;
City with, his ballot-box, prepared ballots
and enrollment lists, .for the purpose of
making "ihe draft.' While in the dischare "
of this duty, the Court House was enter
ed by 'an armed mobwho took possession
of . the- ballot-box and ballots, and de
stroyed them. They also got possession
of the 'enrollment lists o: a township '
which they supposed to be the c'ne from
which the heaviest draft was i& te made,
and destroyed it. It turned out, however,.
tj.be that of another township, waere a
slight draft only was required. The mob
numbered oyer fifty, mostly residents of
one -iowhsbip' where a secret society of
buiternoti is known to exist. They we ro "
armed with pistols, knives, cjubs and oiher -missiles,
and every one of them is an 8th
of January Democrat. Besides those
present and participating in the . mob,
about 150- others are' inipHcateti. The '
names.: of ; nearly all ihese offenders
against the law will be obtained in due
time. Oa receipt cf the information at
CommissioneGeneral Siddal's office on
yesterday, copies of the' enrollment list
destroyed and new ballots were made cut
and .sent to -Blackford county by a roes-
senger, who probably reached thers last ,
night. He was accompanied by five com,
panies of the 53d Indiana, in command .
of Col. John1 S. Williams. ' The orders
of the military are to pro'.ect the 'Com-
rniissioner in making the draft-which .
will be done to-day,) and to arrest and
return to the" military camps here for
duty during the war, every man implicat
ed in this open resistance to the enforce
ment of the drafting of militia. .Marshal '
Rose is determined to do his duty in this
matter and to test th3 question whether
rebellion to the laws is to be tolerated in
Indiana Col. Williams's instructions ait
to remain in the county until every one
of the traitors is arrested, and we have
confidence, that Col. W'. is the very man
to carry out his instructions to the letter.
IndianapUs Journal. '
l ' 4 ' 1 u
The Rev. Canon James on Best
Rooms. The Rev lectcrar much
depecated the custom that prevails
not only among the poorer classes,
but even a little higher in the social
?cale, of retaining the best room in '
the house as the one to be least used
ane least enjoyed. lie thought there
was nothing more dismal thau to be
shown into a fine tut what he might
term stagnant and unwholesome draw
nig -room; and .he recommended that
the largest and best rooms should bb'
used for ordinary purposes. Ilia,
object was that there should be no
"company" rooms in the modern la
borers' hemes ; for where they were
found they were sure to involve an un
tidy and .comfortless every day exists
ence'in the washhouse or the scullery.
The really tidy housewife and good
mother, who took a pride in h?r home,
would prefer guch an arrangeroent,
although it might employ a lititle more
labor thau the other ! system; and it
was only the slattern who, for the sako
of Sunday finery, was content to livo
all the week , in discomfort, and dirt.
An earnest countryman lately
stopped the lightning train over tho
Lake Shore railroad, rear Mentor,
with wild gesticulation a3 he stood near
the track. When the . conductor and
some excited passengrs demanded to
know what's the matter?" the coun
tryman drawled out: "I was tkiking of
going to Erie some iime this yere sum
mer, and I tho't I'd lam the price
you'd ax a feller for going."
"How is this?" said an old friend of
Col. Blunk, of the regular army, as he
met hi-n on Broadway, New York, the
other day ; "I thought you declared I yen
would resign if the President- issued aa
anti-slavery proclamation, -and yet you
".! vv.' ji jhviiu;i3uu9 .-.nil. v.
lvy 1 "V" ,4T '
! r5m3" ' nd 1 hav done so
Every ay:l ihle article see.ns bojnl
to grt to lint ju-i't now. The oddest in
stance of thi th-t we have, ye heard
of however, was furnished Yesterday-
I bv our Milesian reporter, 'who oa le
' ing a.-ked for a loan of hi.-? umlrf ila,:
j said tht it list already
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