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About Nebraska advertiser. (Brownville, Nemaha County, N.T. [Neb.]) 1856-1882 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 27, 1862)
rRnsinJT EVERT . SATCRDATBT
Block.' Main Street.
J3EU A ' . .
S t FISHER
,. .. .i.i in advance, - - - - $2 00
Wjithfendof; month. 2 JO
. r m-.rf will b furnished at $1 60 per
nM (withe cai-b accompanies me oraer, not
I. NESS- CARDS..
rf F- STEWART,
J J . 1 ill. -
Droit Store, Whitney'
t . 1
rrtJT! A PFLICTED.
1K. A. G Q DFIUiY, .
t ' A " D '
. .n V: ail'"
Uavinz twenty-five years expe-
,in .i' sneine and olio or me correpnii-
'Cl !," I'M inaueiiMy in Br,wnvtMe, ami
' i'r ie'h!e in inreviuui services to the
i "'".. I., rlif.iT.iC Ch.'
t- ii in it
ci lice iii service iu uiiiiuuu ii4i(-t',
,l u-i.-nan Tnniyr and Sre
ii-.eiei oi long
r o"i'"" ''llv ,!'l Kaliihg Sieknesn. Palpy,
'';' D.-jeii-y, C'tii-nauitinn lit ttie flr-t nl
""i-'ce Inin'v i f me f"fw, ami diseases of
t'nd l'lr'umUr a'teuiion iail to Ague.
rSViii ii i-a.'ie!'el pi'e re'ert-nce Ut ui(i-e pro-,-ei
nVo'l"e iu tl'e l''i1e'lbiatCB,ud afterwards
-nlvi'fl .iin-1 at all hi.nrS. cither at J. IT. Matin's
m wf, r t Ii " dweiliug house, when not nsaned
J e.M.iia. '-incss.
r. . . r. hi i .Surf livrii. 'vmi pit ii: iitiiiuiiv.'.
II. M. ATKINSON,
Attorney at law,
SOLICITOR IN CHAMCERY.
03i-e corner or Main and Firct Sts.
Croveuvillo, IC. T-
DR. D. GVIN,
Earini jeruinontly Located rear .
For the pnu tic wf Medicine and Surgery, ten
jrshif profcsMnnal services to the a.Tlictt d.
I ft one mile 6outh cf town, on the ild Xixon
N. ' 1
1TT0RNEY AT LAW,
Ctrncr First and Main Streets,
Vomii illr. - - - Aenrasiia
1CCKS, YATCKES, JEWELRY.
j J. SCIIUTZ
- Would atoitincewo the Jitiiena of Brwnvllle
nd ricinitv that he has located himseU in
KiiBrowiiville, andinten'ls keeping a rull assort.
ui..t eterytUnttin his lineof business, which will
ililewforcah. He will also do all kimis of re-l-.nt
f clocks, watchet. and jewelry . Ail work war-
! 1 '
IDWARD W. THOMAS,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
jLICITOR in chancery.
I Vfflce orner ef Miu and First Streets.
) IRUWN V1LLE. NEBRASKA.
S C A LES
Or ALL KINDS.
Also, WErehoti8e Trucks, Letter
UP.BANK?. GREEHLEAF & CO.,
12 LIKE ST., CHICAGO,
Itltp rareiiM. tn 1 huy only the genuine .
;..ue l'i.u. 1SS3 ni5-3in
I TllO.MAS DAVIS,
JiUE ROCK, NEBRASKA
l:VriMice, Jr. I). ivrin, Hruwnville.
Boise sign axd ouxamextal
el1izeu am) tafeit uaxger.
l;i()VNVILLi:, N. T
A. C O X ST A RLE
I.MPOhTER AND PKALEH I"
S 1 iiiiljlj IN ii.lJLlO. I
, . -y--r '
Ml(;s, PRLr.S, AXLES, FILE-j
, - AND
U CKSMlTirS TOOLS
M Hubs, Spokes, and Bent. Stuff.
I . T'iir-a Street, between Felix and Edmoud,
'AIM - JOSEPH, MO.
i, j "Jh le sells sk St. Louts price for cash. ...
I .JRhest Price Paid lor Scrap Iron.
j j U-rl. lS5j. lv. '
y ! J. WILSON BOLLINGER,
COUNSELLOR AT LAW,
fral and Collecllnsr Aprrnt.
jTiUCE, (iAt.K (U, i ECU ASK A.
' pr icti.-e i i the sere al Curts in (Sage and
i ti.ur.tj"?, and will give prompt attention
f !.luiB!i mu-ustc d to him. Colleotinns jo-ompt-?l
e- lif articular attention given to loent-
' aj " srracts on lands carefully selected by
DIKES' PEAK GOLD!
i iii nce,v. Pike's Peak Gold, and advance
,",ir,'lr"" tle me. and pay over balance of proceeds
5- v 'ui returns are had. In all caes. I !'
1 '"Ue lifiDted return, nf itin lTnitJ States JfiD'
JK'fl T r a t o r W
Tit. ' u a n l) w n i
flLU0X AXD EXCilAXGE BROKER
E. LTOOTJV A- SON.
I A fl A T) -T TVT TTT) OTtDTPCI
V olesola and T?pf nil Dpalef a in Fruit.
rt and Ornamental Trees,
CiOCKS FOR XERSLUYSIEX.
, ! t. au-1 post Mster wh will a.ldrei
4 in ...f ":' l;,'ed ii h Garrtrn. Field and
. . . Til i n ... . . .
i ll rrJ "." '"""'niixi.ion at fair rHtis. Thee seeds
1 L uwn here and sre irne to nnie.
Katvi?-r SrrttCU'e O1, Co.-
1 I M
' ro VCU WANT
STEAM EX(i!XKS 01 BOILERS
PATENT SrflAR CANE MILLS,
Patent steam coil evaporators,
patent fikk evaporators,
patent stamp mills,
PIKE'S PEAK OK IjAKE SUPERIOR.
SKNl FOIt CIKCL'LAUS,
M"ith Cut, and Decri:ti'HA. Prce. etc., tic.
SAW MILLS FLOURING MILL. .
AND MACH1KRT OF. ALL DESCRIPTION.
Isi;D FOit riitrri.Mts.jfj
P. W. G ATES, Preiident.
N. B. Agents wanted everywhere. Chlcngo-
it. w. i uu.NAs, Af;i:.N r,
Of whom Circular! &ud detailed inlortnation can te
March 20, 13G2. fn37-lyj
JOHN L C ARSON
(Successor to Lubhbauph it'CarBon.-
LAND AND TAX PAYING
Dealer in Coin, Uncurrent - Money, Land
Warrants, Exchange, and Gold JJust
1 will civ-e eopeclal attention tobnylns and selling ex
change on the principal cities of the United Slates and
Europe, Guld Silver, uncurrent Hank Bills, and
Gold Dust, Collections made on all accessible points,
and proceeds remitted in exchange at current rates.
Deposits received on current account, and interest al
lowed on special deposit.
3IAIX STREET. KETIVEEX THE
Tclei apli and the U. S. ; .
REFER EJ"C E S:
Lind &. Brother Philadelphia, Pa.
J. W. Carson is. Co., "
niser. Dir;k i Co. Baltimore, Md.
Vounz Is. Carson, "
Jeo. Thompson Maoon, Col'r of Port, ". "
wrn. T, Smithson, E1., Hanker, Washington D. C.
J. T. Stevens. Esu., Att'y at Law, "
Jno. S. GaKauer, Late 3d Aud. U. S
Tarlor &. trie'jh, Bankers,
McClelland, Pye co.,
n u. Thomas G. Pratt,
lion. Jas. O. Carson,
P. B. Smali. Esq., Pres't S. Bank,
St . Louis, Mo.
Col. Geo. Shlfy, A'y at Law.
Col. S.i in. lUmbletou Att'y at Law,
Nov 8. lS60-tf .
Judpe Thos. Perry,
i'rof. n. Tutwiler,
Calls the attention of Gentlemen desiring new, neat,
6ervicable and fashionable
HewStock of Goods
BROAD CLOTnS. CASSIMERS, VESTIS6S. &C..&C,
OF THE VERY LATETT STYLES,
Which he will sell or make up, to order, at unprece
dented low price.
Tn 't-e wishnte any thing in his line will do well to
call and examine his stock Jexre investing, as he
pledges binelf to hold" out peculiarly favor ible ln
Fehruary 13th, 1S62.
-fr i v
v m aoi jf j
THORN, COLMA U, CO.
Announce to the travel intr public that th?ir splendid
and commodious dteaiu Ferry running acrons irom
Brownvillc, .SS Nebraska.
isone'of the best rn every Tepect on the fpper Mis
souri river. The Boat makes reenlar trips every hour
uMimL nn time will be lest in wailing.
The baiikt. ..n bjth mdes of the river are low and wel".
(traded which renders unloading unneoeetary as is the
c.ise at most other terries.
No fears need be entertained a' to difficulties at or near
ttns crossiiip, as rr j i"-' "
of the river, is for the I'mon the strongest Kino
Our charges too an Item thee hard times are lower
ban at auy other crossing.
Travelers from Kansas to Iowa and to tbe east will and
his the nearest and best route i" every respect.
THORN, COLEMAN. & CO.
Brbwnville, Nebraska, Sept. 2Ut, 1SG1.
A N I)
1J'?0 iN VlLLfc, INDUAOlViV.
Main, Bdween Levze and First Streets.
Particular attention Riven to the
Purchase and Sale ol Ileal
Estate, .llakinpr Col
Payment of Taxes lor KonResi-
LAND W ATiUANTS FUR SALE, for cash and on
11 LA5D WARRANTS LOCATED forEasterhCap
ituliMfijOn lands selected from personal examination,
and complete Township Map. showing Stream,
Timber, Ac, torwaraea wuu tue veruiicans oi iov.
tion. Brownville.N.T. Jan. 3. lSdl. jl
THE HOKACF. UATr.Its PIANOS AND
And Alexandre Organ?, and T.'dlLBERT k Co.
celebrated iEolian Pianog, nre the finest instrument,
for parlors and churches now in use. A large assort
ment can he wen at the new warerooms, No. 431
BKOADWA V, between Grand and Broome treati
which will be aold at extremely low prices. Pian6
and Meloden, from sundry makers, new and second '
hand Second hand Pianos and Melodeons at treat
bargains; prices from f 25 to $100. Sheet Musi.;,
Music-Book, and all Kinds of Muie MerchandiM,
al war prices. A pianist n attendance will try new
OPINIONS OF THE TRESS. '
"TheTIoraee Waters Pianos are known an among
the tery best. We are enabled to ?pak of thene
instruments with eoiue depree of ronfidence, frrim
jrsonal knowledge of their excellent tone and du-rableqMftlity."-Vce
Yort Entnydiit. n41-ly
SUGAR CANE MILLS
IlavMiK been appointed fcee-nt for the Eaele Works
Supsr Cane Mill and Evaporator. Clue jro, 111.. I ;n
cretared to MM ordeit.ai toe manufacturer' prUe.
' p,ies of Wills, irom $4a to $3J. Lvaprau.r frm
ft2t) 10 $35. Addrefs l-.vv 'Ur N w
March t7, lb62. n3Mf. BroTQViiis, Web.
BROWNVILLE, NEBRASIyA, SATURDAY;
The Honey Bee's Song.
WHAT IM BEK Sisca TO THK CHILDREN.
I ro honey bee,
- Over the blosoms
The long summer day ;
Now in the Jily 'a cup
' Drinking my fill,
Now where th roses bloom .
Under the hill.
. Gaily we fly
Jly fellows and I,
Seeking the honey our hive to supply.
Up in the morning
No latnrda are we
Skimming the clover-sops
Uipe fir the bee, .
Waking the flowers
At dawning of day,
Ere the bright sun
Kiss the dew-drops away.
Merrily finding. i
Back to the hive with tbe store we re bringing,
No idla moments
Have we through the day, 1
No viuio to squander
In sloep or in play;
And we must be sure
Food for the winter
At once to seenre.
Bees in a hive
Are op and alive
Lazy folks never. can prosper or thrire.
Awake, liUle mortals,
No harvest for thou
N' ho wato their best hours
In slothful repose;
Com n out to the morning
All bright things belnog
And listen awhMe
To I ho honey bee's song.
Industry ever its own reward bringing.
from the Country Gentleman.
Agriculture or the Ancients.
Though from necessity, agriculture
and pastoral life were the chief occu
pation of man in the early as well as
later history of tbe world, and though
we are assured by contemporaneous
writings that many books were written
by Greek and Roman authors, on the
6ubject of improving the soil and the
products thereof, yet any authentic
history of ancient agriculture has not
come down to us, and with the excep
tion of two or three poems and an
equal number of prose fragments, we
find no information upon the subject
except in the allusions in the Bible
and the thin scatterings through pro
fane literature, and the mysterious
hieroglyphics from disemboweled cities
Sacred history, is of course the
earliest record we have of rural affairs.
Ilesiod, said by Herodotus to be a
contemporary of Homer, but whom
modern antiquarians have satifactorily
bhown flourished about one hundred
years after, and 750 B. C, in his poem
of works and days, gives a collection
of prospects, many of them economi
cal, and in what we should call 'Poor
Richard" style, and concludes with
a sort of calendar for the agriculturist.
This poem is the first of its class
didactic, and looking upon personal
and practical life, and is the model
upon which Virgil framed his Geor
gics. Zenophon, another Greek, who
lived 450 B. c, and besides his great
merit as a military commander, as
shown in his conducting the celebrated
retreat of the ten thousand mercena
ries in the service of Cyrus the youn-
per. after the disastrous battle of
Cunaxa, recorded by himself, and as a
historian, was also lanions as a phil
osopher, and shared with Plato the
conversation of Socrates. In the
dialogue entitled '"GSconomicus," Soc
rates is represented as one of the
characters or interlocutors, and thus
gives his sanction to the views of Ze
nophoh, who discourses at large on
the science, of good husbandry, the
cultivation of garden and farm, the
regulation of a household, and the
relative duties of wite and husband.
' -' ... .
From this essay we obtain a better
knowledge of Greek agriculture than
from any other source. - Cicero $peak
of it as verv useful and worthy of
Of the agriculture of the early Ro
mans, we know but little, but of its
later history and especially during
the most prosperous period of that
great Empire, we have comparatively
full record in the treatise of Cato, who
lived in the eecond century before
Christ, in the Goergks of Virgil on
the beginning of the Christian era,
and in the subsequent writings of Pliny
Pliny says that some of the most
famous houses among the ancient
Horaans, such as the Pisones, Fabii,
Lentuli, &cM took their names from
their favorite crops and vegetables.
They did not believe in large farms
half cultivated. On the first division
of the lands by Romulus, no ' one had
more than two acres. Atter tne ex
pulsion of the kings seven acre3 were
allowed. Cincinnatus had only four
acres, which he cultivated with his
own hands, and thus was he employed
when chosen. to be Consul ; also after
wards, when summoned to be Dictator
and save his country. During the
civil wars following the deatu of Julius
Crcsar. agriculture hd become much
neglected, and go great was the dis
tress during the reign of Augustus,
h.,t 11 aIsisaps-ber?an to murmur and
rant thn blame uncn the adrainitra- ;
...- in tiiu cr,Tti ni i inn iiiirLriiii!.
.1. . a .rv: . r..,n
ll'JU. . JIW mis ofc-m v o 1
the favorite, or as we should say. the
of the emperor and
patron of Virgil,
Horace and other
UNION, ONE AND INSEPEKABLE, NOW
learned men, happily desired Virgil to
write a treatise upon Jagnculture, for
the purpose of reviving the agricultu
ral interests of the country, and avert
ing thereby the .impending evils.--Seven
years were spent in the work,
and when the Georgics' appeared, it
was almost everywhere well received,
and Itally soon assumed a flourishing
appearance. By this poera, the most
perfect and finished in the Latin lan
guage, Virgil conferred a greater
blessing upon his country, than if in
the field he had obtained splendid vic
tories. Peace ha3 her triumphs as
well as war ! Th a rules , for the im
provement of husbandry, and the ad
vice given to the farmer upon, the
many subjects connected with it,
were not only suited to the climate of
Italy, but in a measure to all places
where agriculture is held in' due esti
mation. In closing an account of the writers
of antiquity who tdied light upon the
pursuits of the farmer, we should not
omit Cicero, who in his treatise on old
age, discourses o charmingly upon
the pleasures of husbandmen, which
are not checked by any old age, and
appear to make the nearest approach
to the life of a wise man. '..'Nothing
can be more profitable, nothing more
beautiful, than a well cultivated farm.
He also says that he wrote a book
respecting rural affairs, in . which he
treated of the advantages of manuring.
concerning which the learned Hesiod
had not said a single word." '
To return to the practice of hus
bandry by ancient nations, upon which
great light has been recently thrown
by paintings and inscriptions upon
the ancient tombs, particularly those
of the Egyptians, many of which, after
the lapse of two or three thousand
years, retaip the distinctness or. out
line and brilliancy of color of recent
productions, we discern that many
things supposed of modern invention,
were known to the earliest peoples.
Egypt was the granary of the world,
in addition to supplying her own im
mense population ; and manyfold were
the contrivances of harvesting, as well
as preserving her immense yield of
corn and other cereals. The Holy
Annals tell us of the immense quanti
ty produced during the seven plente
ous years in Joseph's time, affording a
sufficiency of corn to supply the whole
population during seven years of
dearth, as well as all countries which
sent to Egypt to buy it.
Their granaries appear to have been
under ground, and travellers in that
country in recent times tell us ot very
large open dry wells found in dry
places on the sides of a sloping hill.
Thompson's "Land andr the Book,"
vol. 2, p. 204. In climates tree trom
rain tnese were nronaoiv me musi,
. . , 1 I 1 - ' .4-
convenient receptacles, particularly
- - - I mJ
when, as in the case of besieged pla
ces, provisions had to be preserved for
many years. Askalon was besieged
29 years. Wilkinson's Egypt instructs
us that there were smaller granaries
adjoining the house, and that in fact
v i ii.i-
an Egyptian villa comprised all the
conveniences of the present day, gar
dens, orchards, fish pond and game
preservers. . And Diodorus says
"Being from their infancy brought up
to agricultural pursuits, they far ex
celled the husbandmen of other coun
tries, and had become acquainted with
the capabilities of the laud, tne mode
of irrigation, the exact season for
sowing and reaping, as well as all the
most useful secrets connected with, the
harvest, which they had derived from
their ancestors, and had improved by
their own experience." : They, the
other eastern nations, took good care
of their cattle Numbers 32; lb'.
IIab. 3;17. 2Chron,32i 28. They
appeared to have cut their provender
Judges 19 ; 21. . 1 Kings 4 ; 28.
They were acquainted with the arts ot
the dairy Prov, ; 31. xne pain
tings" on the tenbs 6how the plowing
by oxen -abreast, (see also Deut. 22 ;
10,) the same scattering tha seed irom
a basket, a horse breaking up the
clods, and a roller drawn by horses
abreast. (See I. Samuel 13; 20, as
to the plowshare and coulter.) Mods
em scholars seem to agree that bar-,
rowing was unknown to them, though
the word is mentioned in our transla
rim. f.Tnh 39: 10 1) and modern trav-
ellers in the east say no harrow is
used, but the ground is plowed a sec
ond time after it is sown to cover the
grain. Mr. Thompson, in his recent
volumes, (Land and tho Book, vol. 1,
p. 20,) speak of seeing the natives
plowing in Lebanon in the winter,
when the ground was soft and satu
rated with wet. Their little plows
made no proper furrow, but merely
root up and threw the soil on either
side, several followed each other on
the same furrow. Seven plows were
thus at wort at one time. See also 1.
Kings 19 ; 9. Diodorus says, "They
traced slight furrows with light plows
on the sarf ice of t!he land'
W mt a wen th 61 n-.eainnff is uHen
Jr. .'a.L I Parlhiii'-st .ivj th
in y i i 1 l . i ,u n i u i . ..i.
..,'. . . .
for plowing in the original i.h derived
irom a llet rew roor, vnen mihups
dent thouglit and aUcntutiif Ucno uug j
Ay Ay Ay AylAy
SEPTEMBER 27, 1862.
that too much care could not be devo
ted to it, and for the same reason
plowmen among the Greeks were
always selected from persons ' over
forty years of age, who having, it was
presumed, sown their own i wild oats,
would give more Care to those of their
employers. Harrowing, according. to
Licero, derives its name, occaiw, from
its confining what is hidden within the
bosom of the earth, covering the seed
having been with the Greek and Ro
mans the only purpose of that instru
ment. ; ' : 1 ' " '
The Egytians used hoes, or rather
picks, looking like a scythe or. letter
A. made of wook, and one: limb shor
ter than the other, with which they
picked the ground to pieces after the
plow had passed. See Isaiah, 7; 25.
The m.onern Egyptians have invented
a substitute for the hoe, to be used
after plowing, called "hedge-hog,"
which is a regular clod crusher, not
unlike those used in England, and
first brought into notice at the great
Exhibition of 1851, consisting of a
cylinder, studded with projecting iron
pins. Wilkinson says they top
dressed with nitrous soil,. which was
spread on the soil, (and the custom is
continued to the present day,) but this
was confined to certain crops, and
these rearad late in the year.
Of their other manures we know
but little, but as from the scarcity of
wood, all Eastern nations were in the
habit of using dung for fuel, they de
pended probably principally upon ir.
rigation and following the land, and
the necessity of the latter is , the rea
son it was so strongly enjoined by the
law givers. Lcvit. 18: 23; 25: 3;
Hosea. 10: 12. This seventh years
fallow prevented the exhaustion of the
soil, which was further enriched by
the burning of the weeds, and spon
taneous growth of the sibbatical year.
The corn when ripe was cut with either
sickle or scythe, and was bound into
sheaves, and conveyed with carts at
once to the threshing floor or barn.
It was never stacked. The threshing
floor were as in the East now, level
plots of ground in the open air. 2
Sam., 24 : 18. Wilkinson's Egypt.
The wind there removed the chief part
of the chaff. Thrash, says Hesiod, in
a breezy place and on well rounded
floors. Oxen generally tron over the
grain, and pigs, asses, goats, &c, ac
cording to Herodotus, trod in the sed;
after it was sowed. The ox was un
muzzled, (Deut. 25, 4,) and eat as he
went his rounds. In later times the
Jews appear to have used threshing
instruments. 1 Chron., 21: 21;
Isaiah, 41 : 15, and the modern Egyp
tians have a machine called "woreg"
with iron plates, with which they
bruise the ears of corn and extract the
grain, at the same time the straw is
chopped up. Corn, in all countries
except these United States, meaning
all the small grained cereals except
Indian corn or maize.
Instances of stall-fed oxdn are no
ticeable on the exhumed paintings,
and this custom accord with the scrip
tural account of the preservation of
cattle which had been brought home
from the field, and explains the appa
rent contradiction in Exodus 9 ; 16,
19, &c, all the cattle in the stalls or
houses having been preserved.
'Though, as we learn from the sculp
tures, the Egyptians had houses and
other fit appliances, yet among most
of the eastern nations as among mod
ern farmers, especially the Dutch, the
barns were more important, and until
the land was well cultivated, and the
necessary recetacles for its yield pre
pared, the accommodations for the
owner were not much attended to.
"Prepare the work without, and make
it fit for thyself in the field ; and af
terwards build thy. house" says the
wisest of men. Proy. 24; 27.
llcsiod's advice, on the rontrary,
was ':first of all get a house and a
woman, and a plowing ox, and all fit
ting implements, lest you should ask
of another and he refuse, and "you be
in want of them, so the season shall
pass by and your labor's fruit be less
ened." Is not the latter part of this
advice of the old Greek, delivered over
two thousand years since, fully as ap
plicable to the present ago of mowing
machines horse rakesj and , other in-
dispensables : K. C.
Therais a carious parage Id Iiaiah, 33:12, "The
people shall b3 al the burning of time: as tboiot rut
up shall tbej hi burned in tne fire." Abi Jlr.
Thompson. Li li., vol. ii, page SI. sajs tbat in the
Uoly land be eaw the people cutting up thorns for
tbe limekiln, fid the Irraelitiei use lime for man
are T It was in verj earl j use in tcgland accord
ing to "Talpa. '
In carving a patriige says Sydney
Smith I splashed Mr. Mark ham with
gravy from head to foot ; and - though 1
sav? 'Lree di?tiuct nils of the brorm liquid
trickling down her cheer, she had the
complaiiancy to declare that not a drop
bad reached hr! Such circumstances
are the 'triumphs of civilized life."
General RanVs i? a pointed to the left
mhd of the troops in Wahinton an'H
i iu is ursd vratooil to 'ive tr.to if com-
witrua tha fortifications, around th- Capi
The Beneflt or TrencMns.
So much has already been written on
the advautages resulting from trenching,
deep plowing, and other cognate means
of raising and bringing into action ihe
latent powers of the subsoil, that it would
be superfluous to say . a single word in
commendation of the practice. "We are
aware, however, that there is still con
siderable difference of opinion regarding
the .ultimate benefit derived from the
practice on different kinds of soil. In
this, as in other matters,' the intelligent
agriculturist will be guided more by the
peculiar circumstances of the soil than
by any : general rules. It is -only by
studying carefully the nature of the
ground tecultives, and its peculiar wants,
tbht he will be able to turn its capabili
ties to the bet advantage." When this is
intelligently done, there will be little fear
of a successful result; As illustrative of
the value of deep trenching, we shall
briefly state our experience of trenching
a plot of ground about a quarter of an
acre in extent.
For a number of years, potatoes had
b?en grown successively upjn ihe plot,
and, as it had got little or no manure,
the ground was much worn out. Last
year we endeavored to take , another
crop of potatoes off it, but with very in
different success. Owing to particular
circumstances, the crop was somevthtt
late in bting put into the ground, and
when it came away the stems fad from
the first that exhausted "spirly" appear
ance which betokened a weakly plant,
and a miserable return. The result was
us had been anticipated. The crop was
little better than a failure, two and three,
and . not unfrequeutly only one being
found at a shaw ' The potatoes them-s-elves
were watery and waxy, and quite
unfit for human food. We mentioned
the circumstances to a high agricultural
authority, and he immediately suggested
drep trenching. Acting upon the advice
the plot was tienched in the end of the
season to a depth of about two feet. It
was then allovved to lie in a rougb state
throughout the winter untd the- usual
season for cropping, when it was manured
with dung from the pig-stye, mixed with
the refuse of the dust-bin, and again
planted with potatoes. The result of the
experiment has been such as to be scarce
ly cntdible. As soon as the potatoes
began to appear above ground this year,
it was evident that the labor had not leen
in ain. They come away with a
stredgth of stem and a breadth of leaf
Notwithstanding the somewhat back
ward season, they grew apace, and have
continued growing until some of. them
are at the present lime three feet in
hi-isht, and the average about two feet
at.d a half. The stems, or rather some
of the principal branches as they have
more the appearance of a bush than a
po'ato shaw are two inches and a half
in diameter. Of course, it is impossible
to say what the yield may be, but when
we see a good shaw we expect some
thing good at the root.
.. It may be supposed that a greater
stresss has been laid upon the trenching
than is its due, and that the manure had
as much to do in the production cf the
extraordinary crop as the. turning up of
the subsoil. This, however, is not the
case, and he proof is to be found in the
ground itself. The borders were not
trenched, and they got the same quantity
of manure as the plot, buMhe size of the
shavvs are not more than onethird of
those of the middle plot. Another pecu
liarity may be mentioned as tending still
further to show the benefit of; deep
trenching. One side of the ground was
noi so deeply trenched as the other, and
towards thnt side the size and exhuber
ance of the shaws gradually decrease.
As one fact is worth a whole cartloau of
theories, however specious, we leave the
above simple statement to ?peak for
itself, without adding a single word of
comment, feeling that it will commend
commend i'self to all whom it may con
cern. Scotish Farmer.
Extracts Tor Young Men.
Give a young man a taste for read
ing, and in that single disposition you
have furnished him with a great safe
guard. He has found at home that
which others have to seek abroad,
namely, pleasure and excitement. He
na& learned to tninK evea wticn his
book is no longer in his hand, and it
is for want of thinging that youth go
- Some of those who have been most
eminent in learning and science made
their first attainment in snatches of
time stolen from manual employment.
Hans bachs, the poet of the Ileforma
tion, and the Burns of Germany, be
gan life as did Burns, a poor boy ; he
was a tailor s son and served an ap
prenticeship, first to a eboenjaker and
afterwards to a weaver, and continued
to work at the loom as long as he
lived. The great dramatist, Ben.
Johnson, was a working bricklayer,
and afterwards a soldier. Linnaeus,
the father of modern botanyr was once
on the shoemaker s bench. Our im
mortal Franklin, it need scarcely be
said, was a printer. Herschel, whose
name is inscribed on the heavens,.wa3
the son of a poor musician, and at tfie
age of fourteen years was placed in a
band attached to the Hanoverian
guards. After going to 'England he
undertook to teacn music, and then
y. 2. 7 hi
tea-rrJn'g 'ltalian,rLntiri;. and oeri
- '; (.'re'c..- Fi-.rn ir.u-ic he -ahs' ntnl-r
itu to iutLetiiuaici, aud theucc
RATES OF -AUTKUTISIJfn. 'r
One square (ten line or 1cm) uie laaaru , $ "
Each additloaal insertion -
Business Cards, six liuea or It is, one year
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One fourth coir.ria three morths. -
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Announcing Candidates for Otace. - .
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Transient advertisements must be em it i
Yearly advartiemfuta. quarterly in adrkstc.
in zranscient Aavertiseaenu, fraction over m
wiuare will be charged for by the line, at the rate of tea
vents th first week, and 6 cants each subsequent wex
optics and astronomy. JohnDolland,,
the inventor of the achromatic teles''
cope, spent his early years at the silk
loom; and continued in hii originab
business even for some years after his
eldest son came to an age to join in it.
Few casc3 jire more celebrated thaa:
that of Gifford, the founder and editor
of the Quarterly Revieie. He was ao
orphan, and barely" escaped the "poor'
house. He became a ship boyof thV
most menjal sort on board of a coasS-"
ing vessel. . He. was .afterwards far
six years apprenticed to a shoemaker.
In this last employment he stole time
from the last for arithmetic and algS-""
bra,"and for the lack, of other convent
iences, used to work out his probleai
on leather with a -blunted awl. Pew'
names are moro noted irv. modern lit-'
Moral Effects or a Taste ror Floirers.
A correspondent sends the Farmer and
Gardener the following extract from in
address delivered before theErittish As
sociation, on some practical reports de
rivable' from the study of botany:"
"Wr. Ward proceeded to urge the im-,
portance of cultivating a ta3te for legiti
mate horticulturar pursuits among the
members of the labouring population, as
it was a well established fact that, wher-.
ever a pink or a carn ttion or a ro3e was
seen outside a cottage, there was a pota
to or a cabbage for the pot within ; that
if there was net happiness, there was
the nearest approach to it in this world,
'Tea, In a poor mattfs garden (tretr
Far more than herbs or flower
Kind thoughts, contentment, peace of mind,
A Joy t it Ciry hoars.'"
And a recent communication from the
bishop of Ripon was to this effect: "The
parish of Arncliffe, near Skipton, in
Yorkshire, situated in a very wild part of
the country, and inhabited by a wild and
lawless tenantry, had been for many
years without a resident clergyman, the -living
being a very pjor one not above
30 a year. The present incumbent,
the Rev. Mr. Boyd, determined, however
to ?et himself down amonjst them, and
to use his utmost exertions in bettering:
their wretched condition. To this end
he surrounded his house with a fine gar-,
den well stocked with lovely fiowers, and
induced his peasantry but with great
relucanie to come in one .by one to see
and admire his flowers, and to take thera
home and cultivate them. Now, for the
first time, they had light in their dwell
ings; ultimately; through the kind and
constant personal care which was be
stowed upon them, they have become the
most contented and tappy set of villagers
in all Yorkshire."
Influence or Sensible Women.
It is a wondrous advantage to a
man, in every pursuit or avocation to "
secure an adviser in a sensible woman.'
In woman there is at once a subtle
dclccacy of tact, and a plain sound
ness of judgment, which ij rarely com .
bined to an equal degree in man. A
woman, if she be really your friend,
will have a sensitive' regard for your
character, honor, repute. She will
seldom counsel you to do a shabby
thing1, Tor a woman friend always de
sires to be proud of you. At the
same time, her constitutional timidity
makes her more cautious than your;
male friend. She, therefore, seldom
counsels you to do an imprudent thing
By female friendships 1 mean, pure
friendships those in which there 13
no admixture of the" passion of love,
except in the married state.
A man's best' female friend is a wife
of good sense and good heart, whom
he loves and who loves him. If he
have that, he need not seek elsewhere.
But supposing the man to be without
such a helpmate, female friendship be
must still have, or hisirtellect will be
without a garden, and there will be
many an unheeded gap even in tho '
strongest fence. Better and safer of
coorse; such friendships were dispari
ties 01 years or circumstances put tha
idea 0.1 love out of the question. Mid- '
die life. has rarely th'13 advantage;
youth and. old age have. We may
have, female friendships with tho39
much older, and those much younger
than ourselves. Molicre's old house
keeper was a great help to his genius ;
and Montaigne's philosophy takes 1
both a gentler and loftier character of
wisdom from the date in which he
finds, in Marie de Gournay, an ad
opted daughter, "certainly beloved by
me," says the Horace of essayists,
"with more than paternal love, and
involved by my solitude and retire
ment, as' one of the best parts of rny
being." Female friendship, indeed,
is to man "proc3idicm ec dulce decus"
bulwark, sweetner, ornament of his
existence. To bis mental culture it ;
is invaluable ; withont it all his knowl
edge of books ' will never give hixa
knowledge of the world. Buliczr. ,
Superior Dcmpliso. To one pint of
snar milk with rtur-onnte of soda, add one
quat of mal ani a larjre spoenful of
nVur; roll out with flour and ox, in one
' apple,' s.'-d cpk a 110 al.
The 'i-cnrv. shI which set cn fire
vh;i3 an in-
h - has
io;; jjst teiu cOiimUiwU a Cur.mocire.-'
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