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About Nebraska advertiser. (Brownville, Nemaha County, N.T. [Neb.]) 1856-1882 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 13, 1860)
TUB 'ADVERTISER, :
-.-m- ' !
rUCUSlIKD ETF.n.T TIlVnSPAT ET
FURNAS & LI? ANNA,
,con4 StgrySlriciler. Block, Main Street.'
V - "t I2f rnore will Le fnrnied at $1 60 i-rr
y ' v-'
i i i
i 7 !
i VTV if 1
'Tree to Form and; Regulate; ALL their Domestic Institutions la tlielr own nay," saDject oalr to the ConsUtutloa of the' United States.'
n ates or a.xv:e:ivxzsj::mos
-ne Ctiire(10 lineser its 9uei&fert;a, - fit'
K.wb 4(iUi:lunalia!ertiou, 6
One tquare, one month, -------- t b
BasinesaC-irdsof siUiieorles,onf jrer, - ft C
OueColumn one yer, - - - - . . f 0
Oue-hil Column one year, - . . . 54 t
1 Oue tourih Column one year, - r- -'- it9
I Oneeuhth Clniaoone jear, - . ... if i
! Oueculnmnn months, .------.jiCiJ
! itn h k If I .. I i . . V. V ma A.
Oae foarth Caluran six months, ...... 10 00
One eighth Co iumntt tnootbt, M
One Coturua three months, - -,- - - . low
One half Column three ciuntfea, . .1104
t One fourth Column three months, ..... oa
i OueeUhia Columo three months. " . ... $ Sfi
! ..tiKjuoc nccaBdidateforofflee(iB.J uiice,)- -49
Jahiison & Scliocnlieit
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
solicitors ?n chancery,
Corner First and Main Bfereetj.
Attorney at Law,
vnd Afrcat and Notary Public.
. Rulo. Richardson to. , .
J; B"" WESTON,
ATTORHEY AT LAW,
O.r. -con Mn Street, we d.r bovc tue Post
roypTHid, Prcemlicr I, 1S59.
i AY. TIPTON,
Attorney at Law,
BROW X V I L L E , X. T
! Ilarin" permanently located in
fir therr"tice of.Modicino and Surpery, ten
i his wofewionnl Korvices to the afflicted,
tffirt on Main Street. nur3
BEOWNyiLLE, : NEBRASKA, THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 13, i860.
To Ladies of Brownville,
MRS. MARY HEWETT
Announce? tnai sue j" .- .
j East a magnificent ttoek of . . .
Consisting of ' " .
STR-VW FRENCH CHIP,
GIMP - LEGHORN,- "
SILK, & CHAPE
Frwh Flowers, Straw Trimmingf, Ribbon etc,
T.r.hi beheinvitcsthc attention of the Lad.ea of
KHle Vndlicinity. fedinS a,.urcd tbey caEnot
be better suited in stylo, yuawty or price.
April I2,1SC0. ; .
PIKES'S PEAK GOLD !
M eiH receive Pike's Peok Gold, and advance
n,oney w tbe same, and ; over ba.anc o proceed
HfuMiiaa Vint returns are had c"Te"' .yI1
exhibit the printed returns of the Vnited States Mint,
or Assay nfllce. e mnenv
BULLION AND EXCHANGE BROKERS
A S. II0LLADAW M. D.
epec.f nil, Inforn. h,. friend, in B-wtn-il.e and
cdlclnc, SarsriT. & Obstetrics,
. t,v.trtrl attention to his profession, to receive
hopei.hy itrirt a uei extended to him. In
S exped,ent. a prescription
?,"Sm Wdone. me.t city Drue Store.
Feb. 24, '69. 85. ly
M. JOHNSON, M. D.,
1IYSICIAN AND SURGEON,
' omce at C. C.Johnson's Law Office,
First Street, between Main and Water,
" - .
KEWSPA P E 11 B ,
Clocks, Watches & Jewelry.
O? '-would anuonncetothecitiiens of Brawnvllle
and vicinity that be has located tumself in
PRrownviUe. andintends keeping a full assort
wf eemhJnginHHlineof business, which will
pairinR of clocks, watcbes and jewelry. All j'-ranted.
CITY LIVERY STABLE.
BROWNVILLE, N. T. v
Announces to the public that fce I prepar to aocom
. . .. i .ti .,:!, f.irriini and EnCCieS i 10-
rooaateinoFe wifcinus wim - - . -.
petber with Poodsafe horses forcomfor t and ease tr tr.
velllnc. ue wiiiaiso Doaiu uoi.o -
m0Ulh: t3-TZRVS rArORABLE.J&
June 10, '68. 60tf
IS.lXXinAS & ST. J!Lt'U n..
? Of every description, for sale at
, SCHIITZ & DEUSER'S
South-east corner Main and Second,
- HUOWNVILLE, N. T.
F(rt, 22d, 1859.. , f-ntU
t. M'flARY. o. B. HEWETT. E. W. THOMA
: IcGary, Hcwctt & Thomas,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW
SOLICITORS IX CIL1XCERY.
T"iil practice in the Courts vt Nebraska, and North
. t M isourl.
: esKru.Crow.Mi-Creary &.Co., St. Louis, Mo
on, James M . HukIik,
on. Jubn tt. Bliepiy,
rn. Janifts (raic.
i n . SiIuh Woodson,
,n. .Siiinm'l W. ISiaik,
K. Nuckolls, Ksq.,
heeer Sweet &. Co.,
I. W. Furnas
St. Joseph jfo.
rowiiville, N. T. Oct. 23. 1S5S,
E. S. DUNDY,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
archer, nxrnAVTjsos co. s. t.
" ILL practice in the several Courts of the 4d Judicial
f ru t. and attend to all in;itters connected with the
J esii. Wm. McLexsan. lq.. of Nebraska City,
v asKit rip in the prosecution nf important Suits.
pt. 10, '57-11-tf I
. . A. COXST1I1LK,
IMPORTER AMI DEALER IN
I ION, STEEL, NAILS,
V STINGS, SPRINGS, AXLES, FILES
3 L ACKSMITII'S TOOLS
Iso: Hubs, Spokes, and Bent Staff.
Third Street, between Felix and Edmond,
F AINT JOSEPH, MO.
.Which he Fells at St. Louis prices fur cat-h.
Ilifchest Price Paid for Scrap Iron,
member 1, 181)9. -ly. .
r I..- T..!n tni. IK Rt JllSOllh it - - , 6:00
Kvening Traiu leaves do do - -St.
Joseph is reached by the Western Stai?e Lino.
rassent-'ers savctime and tiresome staging ; by route
D.iiK connections made at Hanmbal with ali;Eastern
and Southern Railroads and Packets.
J T D Haywood, SupY, Hannibal.
D C Sawi, General Agent, St. Joe.
P.B Groat, G. Ticket Agent, Han'bal
1 IIEO. Hill, G. T. Ag't, Brownville.
November 24, 1S59. "
COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA.
. WILLIAM F. KITSR.
May 17, 1S60. ' '
JOHN" Xl'MECUAX' rnoruiETOR,
Corner of Fourth and Com. Street,
ItfoTox-nslx-i City, SNTolo.
TYPE Si STEREOTYPE FOUNDRY
If 0.1C8 Vine St..bet.Fourthand Fifth..
c. F. O'llRISCOIA & co
"l t"onufacturersanddealer?in News, Cooiand Job
lL Type, Printing Presses. Case?, Galliei,&c., &c.
Ink?, an.r 1'rintinfj Material of Every Description,
NTritrOTYriNC of nil kind Book 8,Music.
Tatent Medicine DircctionF.JobBjWoodEngreTings,
Ac., d c.
Brand and Pattern Lett crs, variou sstyles,
ST. JOSE r II, NO.
S. F. KIKKET.
CHAR. F. HOLLY.
KINNFA' Sc HOLLY.
TTORNEYS AT LAW,
: MIRSItA CITY, X T.
i.lpra.-iioein theCurtnt this Territory. Collec
ad rrhniual business attended to throughout X
a, Westcru l..wa and Missouri. Will attend the
i atBrowuvlUe. v2n33-6ra
HVOHE8. JESSE H01.t.rT. ALEXIS MTDD.
iik;ih:s & iioli.ay,
Ko. I, C ty Huildinps,
:aTT LOUI& - . - - wnssoum,
JU DDI & IIOLL1DAT,
Vo. 140, Teaf 1 Street,
A)ducc and- Commission
WE RETER BY PERMISSION TO
owcll, Levy &. Lemon, - - St. Joseph,
Tulles t Farleih, ' - - -
T. & J. Curd - - . - -
N"ave, MrOrd & Co., - -
Donnel fit Saston - - - - "
ora, 'Island- Ahead' of the World! !
LOOK. HERE! LOOK HERE!
1INGLESI! SHINGLES !!
he unilcttijrned takes this method of informing
itiiens of'emaha Coonty, and the rest of man
1 that he has, and will keep on hand a superior
f Cottonwood Shingle?, which he willVellcheap
FOR CASH OR PRODUCE,
Shinfele Mvlr.ne is en the Sonora Island, near
'land haw Mill, where he uiny be found when he
t absent on professional business. Give him a
fcnd hewillgiveyoa satisracti.n.
lJ2,tt'i(). .(fim MEiuniTlI I1ELW.
WILLIAM CAMERON, A. Principal,
Comcletelvor?anir.ed as a first classFemale Boardlnff
and liay School. Number limited to 125, including 25
boarders. Scholastic year commencing first Monday In
September. For Catalogues, with full particulars,ad
dress the Principal.
August 4th, ISo9. vln4tf
'Pike's Peak, or Bust."
DRY GOODS HOUSE
TCTo. 11, TkZ.ixxx. stroot, -
BROWHVILLE, H. T.
T. 31. TALB0TT,
evir.g locatcj himself in KrownviUe, T., ten
nist.rofeafnonal services to thecommunitr..
J. B1S1BEY & Co
nave Jnst completed their new business house m
Main Street, near the r.g. L,d ofrice, in Browovilie
where they have opened out and areofferiug on the moot
favorable terms, ) .
Dry Goods, Provisions,
Of all Kind.
GRECX AXD DRIED FRFITS,
Choice Liquors, Cipars,
And a "thousand and one,", other things everj-body
CALL AND EXAMINE OUR STOCK
r.rownvilie, Apri' 26, ly -
: ; JACOB WARHON,
BROWNyiLL E, N. T.
Adopts this method of returning1 thanks to the
gentlemen of this .vicinity, for the liberal patron
age bestowed upon him heretofore, and to announce
thathe has just returned from St. Louis with
Of every article of '
i Consisting of , ,
: OTJIVE 2?CJX t. GOODS,
Cottox, Li5xex. asd Silk Goods,
:; ' FOR MEN'S WEAR. .
- Woolen, Cottdn, and Silk Undershirts, drawers,
Vptin(T. Half Hnse. Susncnders. id: In short, ev-
. n i j 1 j
err thing a gentleman ceuld desire lo array hinwelf
.t. - TT. .til .-II V. . m,.lrn
in lue gujest auuc uu mm ecu lucvuuo, ui iuuo
suits to order in a style equal-to -any other House
uny where, Ho asks but an examination of his goods
Correspond with. the. Present Hard
tV. Times. '.
., April 12,-lRGO.
MORTON HOUSE, ;
- ' H MAIN STREET, . , ;'
XERRASKA. CITY, 1VEBRASEA.
T. I. GODDIN, Proprietor.'
September, 2?, 1859. ; tf.r
; ' - . Published March 17th, . . .-. r
Another New Work by the Distinguished
, , American Authoress,
E3I3IA . E. N. SOUTIIWORTII.
With an autobiography of the author, by Mrs, Emma
D. K. N. South worth, Author of the Lost Heiress,
Deserted Wife, Missing Bride, India, Wife's Victory,
Retribution, Curnw of Clifton, Vivia, The Three Beau
ties. Lady of the Isle, ete.
Completcinone large duodecimo volume, neatly bound
in cloth, fcr one dollar and twenty-five cents, or in two
volumes, paper cover for one dollar. , . -
: . . Save Your, JIorey and Go To ,
: WM. T' DEN,
Mrs. Hendgcn & MissLusk,
MILLINERS AND DRESS SIAKEBS.
First Street, let. Main and Water,
Hli OWN VI I.I, IV NEBUASlvA,
Bonnet. H at-Pi cst'fand Trimmings a!irc'jtn hani
. Wholesale and Re'ail dealer in ;
BOOTS AND SHOES.
Brovynvilh,.X. TJ . ,
fTf cd stock of Boots and Shoes, Lady's and Gent. '8
f'l y Gaiters and Slippers of .every variety; also,
" VMisses and Childrens shoes of every kind that I
will sell cheaper for Cash or Produce than any other
house westof St. Louis. AH work warranted orders
respectful It solicited. ' - - -
The Highest Cash pricepaid for nides, Pelts and Furs,
at the City Boot and Shoe Store. Out Leather kept for
sale -, :. "
Brownville, June 2d, 69; nji-
P T TTENDGEN;
-i- . . - - 7 . , ,
Ilerehy notiflesthe public that he has purchased the
l. TT.,.n !1 Itrnwnri 1 1 A Tf . T . fomiPrl V fcPDt bT
i CUra livuori" - ' -
T. J.Edwards, and has remodeled, renovated and enu-
rely chanseu tne wnoie uouse, num i-cnai niait.,
with an especial view to neatness, comfort and conve
nience. Having had many years experience as a hotel
keeper. he feels safe in warranting theboarrting patron
age of Brownville, and the traveling public, that, while
- . . . - J I, v.... AnnwAA.An.A n.mn.l tain
at tne American, mry win ua c n cu
of the fare In any respect. -.
The Hotel is situaiea immeaiBieij mc iwunvi
-r ..... . u..inet,aaf .nH n con 11 on 1 1 V afTfirrlR
lailllilla, Vt ,luawcCK, .
peculiar advantages to the traveling community. The
proprietor asks but to be triad, tnd if not found worthy,
discarded. " " "
January, 19 ISGO. 23-tf
MM 1 A W n r
v tr j s t-
. "--"air mr mm.
MEM AHA LAND AGEHTt
SURVEYOR & NOTARY PtBEIC,
Willselect lands, investigate titles, pay taxes, &c.,
either in Kansas or Nebraka; buy, sell, and enter
landson commission; invest in town property, buy or
..t, .v- .....a will alwavR have on h.ind correct
plats of townships. counties,&c., showing alllandssub
ject to entry, and where desired wjll furnish partiesliv-
ingtn ine siai.es wnn vnt'sauic.
D;n.n.. AMnii miliar in thi county will in all
4J l 1 .1 ft w . v. J - "
cases be ableto give fulland reliable information.
Address A. L. Joate,eitnerai urownviueor nemsun
The Nebraska Farmer.
16 PAGES QUARTO MONTHLY. .
SUBSCRIBE FOR IT.
is the only Journal devoted exclusively
to the Agricultural and Educational inte-
rests of XebrasTia, Kansa3t Xorthcrn
Missouri and Southern Iowa.
Try it- Aid it.
': Four Copies, 3 months for SI
; j . s Twenty Copies, 1. year $15 . ,
One Copy, 1 year ,1
FURNAS & LYANNA,
NEMAHA CITY, NEBRASKA.
The proprietor returns thanks for the generous
patronage thus far extended him, and hopes by re
newed cSorts to merit increased favors.
Farmers and OtIicr
Will do well to have their grain in as soon as possi
bles spring freshets will soon be upon ns, when
more than likely it will be , impossible to ran the
mill for sever?' teeks. . , "
Cwine Along ITow!
Jtital and Flovr of Superior Quality
, . Constantly on Hand.
We will pay 75 cents cash for wheat.
Feb-22.18C0. : J. O. MELVIN.
Peru Chair Factory,
. ' -. and - !, ;
The undersigned, having purchased the Chair and
Cabinet t-hop lately owned by T. H. Marshall, take '.his
method of informing the public that tbey are pow pre
pared to ft u orders for all kinds of furnitate, such as
Chairs, tables, stands, bedstead, bureans, safes, cribs,
cradles, lounges, etc., etc., either at wholesale or re
tail) as cheap as can be bought at any other establish
ment In the west. The best of coSfin lumber and trim
mings constantly on hand, which will enable ns to 11
order fcr coffins at short notice.
We have attached to our shop a good Horse Power and
Turning Lathe, and we are prepared to do any descrip
tion of turning from a Chair leg up to a Sugar Kill.
Chairs and Furniture of all kinds repaired in the best
tyle. ' ' 'f
N. B. Corn, Wheat, Flour, Dry Goods.Groceries, Lum
ber. and produce of all kinds. Money not escepied, ta
ken in exchange for work or goods. We hope by strict
attention to business to merit a share of public patrou
gv BEX F.l'ICr & BUSS.
Peru, Nebraska, Noarcmber 2r 1S59.
notation of Crops?
It has lon been a settled fact in agri
culture, that the greatest return from the
soil is generally secured, not by continu
ously growing one plant, even though it
command the highest market price, but
by an alternation or rotation of crops.
There' is no . difficulty in cultivating any
agricultural" plant successively ' for any
number of years on the same ground, pro
vided enough be expended in putting the
soil into the right" physical and chemical
condition. But such a procedure is usually
more expensive than alternating the crops
The reasons of this are mostly contained
in what has preceded, but a few words of
explanation may still be useful." When
a light virgin soil comes under the :hand
of the farmer, it yields good crops for a
few years, but then subsides to a low
state of productiveness. At first it may
have yielded wheat ; when no longer able
to support that crop, it may still give fair
crops of barley ; the next jear if put to
turnips or potatoes, it may seem to recover
its fertility somewhat, and produce a good
burden of roots ; but now it will not yield
again a good crop of wheat, though pro
bably clover would flourish on "it. .The
causes of such facts lie partly in the soil,
and partly in the plants themselves.
As for the soil,, as already stated, its
composition and, texture are perpetually
changing. The quantity of organic mat
ter especially, rapidly diminishes when
the soil is under cultivation, and the solu
ble mineral matters are in most cases re
moved by, cropping, faster than supplied
by weathering or disintegration. As for
cultivated plants, practical 'men have
classedthem according to their demands
on the soil, rs follows: Enriching crops,
clover, lucern and esparsette. Non-exhausting
crops, peas and beans, also ce
reals when cut green. ; Exhausting crops,
cereals, beets", turnips, carrots and pota
toes. Very exhausting crops, tobacco,
flax, hemp, and hops. Among the causes
of the different exhaustive effect of vari
ous plants, are the following : 1. Differ
ent extent or structure of rcots and
leaves. The enriching, crops expose to
the air an enormous surface of foliage,
and throw out very large, long and nu
merous roots. - The cereals ; have much
less leaf and root -surface. 2. Different
rapidity of growth. Govtr and root crops
continue in foliage during the whole
season ; while the cereals riprn in' July
or . August. '3. ; Periods or J crises of
growth ; seed production. Plants which
ripen seed, require a better soU than those
which only produce foliage, because the
rapidity of assimilation seems to increase
when the reproductive function comes in
to activity. Plants which ripen seed, may
require a richer soil, not because they
remove more from it, but because they
need more in a given time. 4. Some
crops are entirely removed from the soil,
as flax ; while others vleave the ground
filled wilh an enormous mass of roots, as
clover; or strewn with stalks and foliage,
as the potato and beet. 5. The quantity
of ash ingredients removed from the soif
by different plants, is widely unlike. In
the light of the above statements, it is
easy to see that when a soil refuses to
yield remunerative crops of shallow
rooted and quick-growing wheat, it may
still produce a luxuriant growth of deep
rooted, large-leaved, and slow-growing
clover. It is evident, too, that when a
clover-ley is broken up and sown to wheat,
this grain may yield well, because the
decaying turf and roots are a ready source
of every kind of plant-food This pre
paration of the soil for an exhausting
crop, by the intervention of one of easy
growth, is shown in the practice of geen
manuring, which is, in fact, a rotation of
crops ; but is also a fertilizing process,
becauss the first crop is entngnysacrificed
for the sake of succeeding ones. Green
manuring consists in plowing uuder clover
buckwheat, spurry other crops, when in
in blossom, so that the soil shall be en
riched by their decay. As these plants,
(the last named especially) will grow on
poor soils, it is possible by their help to
reelaim the lightest, and bring them up
to a fair degree of productiveness in the
course of a few years.
Tlie Cereals of the United States.
In an address recently delivered before
the American Geological and Statistical
Society, of New York, by Mr. John Jay,
allusion was made to the progress of Am
erican Agriculture. His estimates were
predicated mainly upon the last census of
1S50, as compared with. that of 1840,
which, if strictly correc!, afford a subject
for the serious consideration of every
farmer. In wheat and some other staple ;
products, it appears that there is a marked
decrease. The same facts have frequent
ly been alluded to before, and until the
census of 1860, which is near at hand it
cannot be determined with any degree of
accuracy what the result of the last ten
years will prove in that respect, but many
interesting and instructing facts would be
developed. In the estimates of Mr. Jay,
the wheat crop of New England has
rapidly declined, while in New York
there has been a falling off from 12,000,- i
000 bushels to 9,000,000; a decrease of,
25 per cent; the inreased demand being
supplied from the North-Westem States;
the product in the. Middle State's being
nearly stationary, notwithstanding the
undeniable fact tha.t an increase! breadth
of land is annually sown. ' ' .
This fact should lead every intelligent
farmer to pause, and inquire into the cause
of this decline and endeavor to .apply a
remedy in the better management of his
land in manuring and improved methods
of culture. ' While the average produc
tion of wheat in America is les3 than fif
teen bushels per acre, in the old and' long
cultivated districts of; England the aver
age i3 nearly three times what it is in
this country. An inquiry into the differ
ent modes and practices of culture in the
two countries would readily - throw light
upon this important question. . ;
The statement is further made in regard
ty rye, oats, Irish and sweet potatoes, hay
and tobacco;, taking. the entire. country at
large there is a steady decline in the pro
duct. Hops have increased at the rate of
500 per cent., owing to. the enormous con
sumption of beer ; rice has increased at
the rate of nearly 300 per cent. Cotton
has increased from 800,000,000 lbs. in
1S40 to 1,OS8,000,000 lbs. in 1S55. But
the product of the great American staple
-Indian corn is far surpassin in amount
our wheat, cotton and tobacco combined.
Its cultivation and product has increased
in. every. State: the crop of 1S5G was
estimated at 800,000,000 bushels,' which
is double that of 1S10.
The experience of every year teaches
us that Indian corn; is to be the chief de
pendence as the staff of life in years to
come, not only of the inhabitants of our
own country, but of other; portions of the
world, and particularly of the manufac
turing districts of Europe. Val. Farmer
From the Valley Farmer.'
Selecting Seed Wheat.
Farmers sustain great loss in not be
stowing proper care and attention in the
selection of the most productive varieties
of wheat for seed, and in not cleaning it
thoroughly from rye, cheat and other foul
seedV . :' , :
,ln the first place, the most productive
should ', be . chosen ; that which is least
liable to disease and the depredations ' of
insects: and next in importance to select
ing the best variety, that which is matur
ed well, exhibiting a plump, full grain,
and free from the seeds of noxious plants,
not depending alone upon the selection of
such as contains the least amount of such
seedis, but care should be taken to thoro'
ly riddle and winnow the grain so that
every foreign seed is removed. .If prop
er precaution be used in thoroughly clean
ing seed wheat of the seeds of chess, the
false idea of transmutation would be for
ever exploded.' A good wheat fan with
suitable screens and riddles, when prop
erly used, will generally remove all foul
seed by running the wheat through it one
two or "three times. ., In former numbers
of our paper we have published the meth
od. of removing cKess from seed wheat,
as practiced by John Johnson, of Geneva
New York. If we remember correctly,
Mr. Johnson simply runs the wheat slow
ly through the . fan .with the riddles fe"
moved, turning at a brisk rate, and thus
blowing out all light seed, chess, &c -Where
a proper, fan is not at hand the
work may be done : most affectually by
turning the seed into a-large trough, or
hogshead, of water, and then skimming
off all the light grains of wheat, chess
and other light seed.. When this method
is employed it would be well to use a so
lution of blue vitriol in the water, -: which
at the same time would . destroy all the
sporules'of smut, and also prevent the
tendency to rust. - With the same vessel
and the same water a large quantity of
seed wheet may be submitted to this pro
cess in a single day. The wheat need
not remain long in the wash, but may be
taken out and spread on the barn floor,
and after remaining a short time, air
slacked lime, or plaster, may be mixed
with it, thoroughly stirring it up with a
shovel or grain scoop until it is well mix
ed, when it may be sown. The increase
of the crop and its freedom from other
grain and seed will many times com
pensate for this trouble.
Recent experiments have definitely
settled the question that earlier ripening
of wheat may be secured by procuring
the seed of early ripening kinds trom the
South. Wheat, unlike Indian Corn, is
a grain of Northern origin and will grow
and mature in climates of much lower
tempere than Indian Corn will. The lat
ter grain when grown at the South
adapts itself to the climate and requires
a longer period to mature than when for
ced to accomplish its work in a season of
In traveliug over a wide extent of
country just before harvest the pas: sea
son, we noticed an unusual quantity of
rye growing "amid 'he wheat in vaaious
sections 'of the country; Whether tbe
proportion of rye was increased the pres
ent season in consequence of the wheat
being more tender, and was partially
killed out by the winter and thus admit
ting the rye to spread and incsease, or
whether it is to be attributed to other
causes, we will not pretend to say. It is
an easy matter to grow wheat free from
rye; as the latter are so much taller than
the wheat," the heads are easily cut off
with a knife or sickle before the grain ma
tures, and this should always be done in
the fields from which it is designed to se
lect for peed. , . ' .
Breeding Sows and Their loan?.
Mr. J. II. Willard," who seems to un
derstand the subiect pretty thoroughly.
gave sometime since, m the Maine Farm
er, his views n the above subject; from
which we select and condense the hints
below: ... ,
His rule in selecting the nisr to raise
for a breeder, is to "count the teats."
One with "twelve fully developed teats
will infallibly be prolific and a good nurse
good for and careful of her young.
Fourteen teats should be preferred ; but
never," he says, "try to raise pigs from a
sow with less than ten coeds teats. Avoid
! breeding in-and-in.1"
Another important -point is that the
sow "should be so petted as to become
fond of the person who has the care of
her, and thus lo?e the natural ferocity of
her kind, and not be disturbed ty hia
presence when she brings forth her
As to care and keeping he remarks:
"At all events, fhe should have suffi
cient space and exercise to insure good
health and the. use of her limbs. If she
can occasionally have nn out-door run,
and a chance to root the ground, it will be
beneficial. Give a suffiiciency of food to
keep in good flesh and growing, a suf
ficiency but not an excess of salt, and an
abundance of drink. Keep warm in the
winter and cool in the summer. A pail
ful of cold water, occasionally dashed on
to the animal on a hot day, is very re
viving and conducive to good health."
; "The hog goes with young sixteen
weeks. They seldom vary 24 hours from
that time. The feed should be gradual
ly increased as much as eight weeks be
fore they bring forth. For two days after,
she should have no food except a little
warm gruel, not to exceed half a pint a
day of meal. She should have all the
warm water she will take, which will
sometimes be two paiifuls in a day. This
is very essential, as it helps the flow of
milk and prevents fever. Yon may now
gradually increase the feed till the pigs
are two weeks old, when she should be
full fed. If you have no better feed,
good indian meal mixed with milk will
answer very well, if you give enough and
feed regularly. The pigs should be taught
to eat with their mother as young as two
weeks, which may be done by having a
broad shallow trough, and gently putting
them into it -when the mother is eating.
By pursuing the foregoing course," I have
not failed once for the last thirty years,
when I have tried, in raising a healthy
litter of pigs." ' ;
Does Ail Sound Moic At The Same
We extract the following from the
London Photographic Xews:
At this season of violent thunderstorms,
our readers will be interested to know of
some observations which have recently
been made respecting the phenomenon of
thunder. It has generally been consider
ed that sound moves at a uniform velocity
of 1,142 feet per second ; and in every
cook on tne subject 'rules are given by
which the distance of any source of sound,
such as a firearm or a flash of lightning,
may be ascertained by estimating the
number of seconds and fractions of a
second which elapse between the occular-ly-observed
time of the occurrencD of the
phenomenon and the hearing of the sound
which accompanies it. Doubtless many
persons have in this manner amused them
selves by estimating the distance off which
one of the recent violent lightning flashes
has been, and have taken comfort from
the idea , that, if a certain number of
seconds have elapsed after the flash has
taken place before the thunder is heard,
they are safe from its effects; falling into
the veiy common error of mistaking the
cause for the effect. The Rev. S. Earn-
shaw has, however, been engaged in some
extremely interesting mathematical in
vestigations respecting the phenomenon
of sound, and has arrived at the theoret
ical conclusion that violent sounds are
propagated far more rapidly than gentle
sounds, and that therefore all reasoning
upon the distance of the flash, based upon
the lapse of time between it and the
thunder, h fallacious. Many instances
of this fact are adduced in corroboration
of the theory, in which the clap of thun
der followed immediately after the light
ning, when, judging from the distance
which the latter was from the observer.
there should have been an interval of.
many seconds duration. These and simi
lar instances have induced the above
named gentleman to enter upon a mathe
matical investigation of the theory of
sound, and he arrives at the conclusion,
contrary to the hitherto universally re
ceived opinion, that there is no limit to
the velocity with which a violent sound is
transmissible through the atmosphere,
provided the phenomenon which produces
the sound be sufficiently violent. Hence,
it is probable that there is no sound which
is propagated faster than a clap of thun
der, its genesis being especially violent.
This theory seems , also capable of ex
plaining the rumbling, rolling noise of
thunder. It is only necessary to imagine
that the sound at its origin is broken up,
either by partial interruption or reflection,
into several sounds of different degrees
of violence. They would thus be propa
gated with different degrees of rapidity,
and would therefore not fall upon the ear,
if it were at any distance off, with a sud
den crash, but in a series of minor claps,
or as a rattle. If this theory be true, the
report of a cannon should travel faster
than the human voice, and that of thun
der faster than either;" This, we think,
cculd easily - be put to -a crucial test.
The Year of Great Meteors.
Four great meteors have been seen in
the United States within less than a year.
At half-past nine in the forenoon of the
15th of November, one passed over a
portion of Connecticut, New York City
and the southern part of New Jersey, in
a S S W direction. On the 21st cf last
April, one passed over Ohio, expJoding
with a loud report, and sendicg num?rccs
lanre fragments to the crcunti.-' On the
20th of July the most famous cf all rush
ed over tnis section in a b S JL direction.
It was seen from Minnesota to the east
end of Long Island, and far out at sen.
On the 2d of. August a very bright cne
passed over Tennessee. Of this latest
of" these startling visitors we have re
ceived the following description frora a
spectator; and- we hal written a long
article to accompany the communication
.for our last number, but both the article
end the letter were "crowded or.t" It
is probable that most of our readers have
seen an account of the great Tennessee
meteor before this time, but we publish
our corespondent's graphic description in
order that our paper may contain a full
record of these phenomena in this extra
ordinary year: - .
Messrs. Editors : Our citizens were
thrown into great excitement last right
by a very large light that started in the
aerial regions from, the direction of the
moon (southeast), and passed rapidly to
the northwest, making a whizzing noise.
The brightness of the light was no less
than that of the noonday sun. .Thi3 oc
curred about 10.30 P. M. Not a cloud
was to be seen. The moon shone forth
in all her brightness ; but while this great
light was passing, which was followed by
a long trail of sparks, the moon was not
to be seen any more than we can see it
at mid-day. About five minutes after the
ngnt was gone out of sight, a loud report
was heard like the report of a cannon,
which was soon followed by another loud
report. The reports echoed and reverber
ated for six or eight minutes, when the
sound gradually died away like the rum
bling of distant thunder- This was seen
and heard at all the neighboring villages.
vv ill some astronomer explain this crand
and singular phenomenon ? :
b. D. bTOUT.
Charleston, Tenn., Aug. 3, 1SG0. .
The Science or Bread-Making.
When Science is applied to render so
ciety healthier and happier, by' lessening
the ills of life, she becomes the handmaid:
of Virtue. When she acts in that capa
city I rejoice in her progress ; - tut when
j she is forced by interested men to assume
! an attitude not in accordance with the true
i intent and design of the creation, it i3 the
happy privilege of scientific journals and
their correspondents to cut asunder the
restraining band and leave fair Science
free to resume her acred mission.
A correspondent of the Scientific Ame
rican is "inclined to think that saleratua
and soda in our bread have mere to do
with the thin bones, rotten teeth and
flabby looks of our children lare and
small than many would imagine." All
he has stated on that point can be sus
tained by the testimony of the first ciem.
ist of our day, Liebig, and also by that
or medical men or tne first standing, such
as Schwepcke, Pitcairne and Orfila.-
They testify that "the carbonate of pot
ash, soda and ammonia have a pirticular
effect creaking up the coagulating power
of the blood, and inducing a diminished
vital cohesion of the various textures of
the body formed from it."
Wnen interested parties spread forth
to the public the virtues of medicinal
saleratus, dyspeptic saleratus, &c. bread
raised without yeast and nothing left in
the bread but pure salt heed. them not!
nd if medical men can be found so far
behind the times as to testify in favor of
the use of alkaline matter in food, leave
them to le benefited by their own pre
scriptions! Good yeast is the best agent
at present known to raise bread with ;
and when the sponge is set, it should ia a
temperature of about 60 deg., and when
it begins to work, it should be freely ex
posed to the air so as to allow the carbonic
acid gas to escape wilh facility. When
fermentation is carried on in a closed
space and the dough covered up, the
quality of the bread is liable to be injur
ed, for the more freely the ras is ner-
mitted to escape into the atmosphere the
better will be the bread. As soon as the
fermentation has reached a certain point
(which bakers call "light"), knead and
bake it; the heat of the oven stops fer
mentation, and over-fermentation makes
sour bread. A certain degree of heat in
the process of baking changes the starch
of grains into dextrine, and gives that
peculiar and agreeable flavor which lively
well-baked bread has. Dead, doughy
bread is wanting m flavor, the heat of the
oven being tooJow to develop the dextrine.
Dextrine is soluble in water; starch 'is
not. Thoroughly-baked bread .is easier
of digestion than when it b cot well
It would be an advantage to bakers t3
have a little closet attached to the oven,
which should be ventilated into iti'chirn
ney, and hare a draft hole at. the bottcn
of the door to, regulate the heat ard.fea
tilate the interior space. This closet
should be used.' for the reception lcf the
spoDge during the process cf ferrnentav
tiori. Its advantages would - be that the
escaped gas would be carried off, and in
cold weather, the fermenting degree-cf
hnat would be uniformly maintained.
The ship Philadelphia, recently arriv
ed at Philadelphia after a passage cf for
ty days from Liverpool, brought cut cine
yearling mares for Messrs. Dudley and
Bruce of Kentucky. It is faid that these
animals cost from $2,500 to 83,500 each.
One of them was sired by the celebrated
horse "West Australia," now owned by
the Emperor of the French. .
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