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About Nebraska advertiser. (Brownville, Nemaha County, N.T. [Neb.]) 1856-1882 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 3, 1859)
THE' - ADVERTISER,
rfBUSHED KVEKT TDURSDAT BT
"s.oond Story Hodlcy. Block, Main Street.
. if ,ld in adrsnce, . - - - Yf
" v",f 11 or nnre'wiU le TuixisLed at $1 60 per
rJ)t Provided tMcam accomrenic. tne order, not
' "' '
v y, Ay Ay Ay
. . , . . . . i i : :
-. " - -
THE ADVERTISER ; J:
IIATE3 OF ADVZTISKJO:
One square (10 Une or less) one Inserliiii, - -
Kdcb -JUiuil iaserlioo,
Out tQacre, one ciciitb, - - "
Business Cards of an line or le, one -
one Coiama ol year, .----
Oa-lii!l Culnmn one yer,
One fourth Column one year, -
One eiRlitn Cloinn oue yeir,
Onecuiaaia it raontlis, - ' --.
One naif Colatna six monts. - - -
One forrth Co!-iiaa sli m"iitJis, - -
One eii CoIsku six raontis, - - -
One Column three tnonshx,
One half Column three months, - - - - -
One fourtii C-cioma three eic"hs, - - - -
Oneeuhih Colorun three moctis, -.
uuvioacini cAcJ.Jites for oCice (In lv&nce.)
2 J f
. 5 c-
BKOWNVIIXE, NEBRASKA, THUESDAY, NOV. 3, 1859.
n a t rv a
1UI S I N 1 O v iv xw o ,
A SOLICITOR IN CHANCERY
Ileal rstato Agent,
BBOWSVILLE, N. T.
jgh, C. Miliar, Chu.so.IJJ-
0 p l.ik, - ?
Vsr 7. I Si".-
Cabinet & Wagon-Haker
mi'lng of "'' 'Pllllr' elc-' ' y
" JOHN McD0,N0UGII
s;rn & Uriwmeniai niuwi,
J!eft stM,e City Pruj; Store. .
' ' CHAS. F. HOLLT.
jonx. r. 'NAV.riv c. tTOT T V
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Coarts t Br.iwiill-
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
MicnrR, 'RIcnARPROIC CO. N. T.
w:LLp,.cuc.in the several Courts ofeid Judicial
-,e in" t.,7 pruuuon of important Salt.
SfW. JO. "67-tl-tf
C. V7. WHEEIit",
Architect and Builder.
MISS MARY TURNER,
MILLINER AMD DRESS MAKER,
CinncfA' cimJ ZV'Hmings always on hand.
JAMES. W. GIBSON,
aecund trept.hftwepn Main and ebratka,
BU0WNV1LLE, X. T.
Clocks, .Watches & Jewelry
vmiM anDotmrftn th citizcnii of BrowtiTlHe
tnd rioinity Ujat fte nsa locaiea ninmcn iu
1 3rownf llle. endluiends rejing a run asuorv.
. . . i I . i . i W 111
..iii ..r ...rv'iiiuff id lui unAof oubineeB. ii-
tevld low for cash, lie will aluo do all kind of re
palrins cf clocks, watctea and jewely. All work war
ranted.- . v3nl31y
DR. I). G WIN,
Having permanently located in
For the practice of Medline and Sarpery, ten
lcrs hi professional service to the aElieted.
Office on Main Streft. no23v3
Atlovncy and Counsellor
TYPE i STEREOTYPE FOUNDRY
Ko. 1G8 Vine St., bet. Fourth ana TifU,
Manufacturer!" nd dea!erin News, Bock ana Job
Ttij, rrinting Presses, Ca?e?,iIlie8, Ac., Ac.
Li k 3, and Printing Materia! of Lvcry DeBcriptun.
STEREOTYPING of all kind Bookf. Muni.-.
Patent Medfcine UirectioBS,Job,Wood Enreringf,
Brand and Pattern Letters, varto styles,
Ilavln rented tfce in'erestof Lake and Emmerson In
the Browavilie Steam Sa and Grist Still, announce te
to the public that be 1 prepared fo aoconDVdate the
clti2ensof BrctraviHe and Nemiha County with a m-
perior quality of lumber of all kind. Also with the
Grist Mill, to nerve all In that line.
Tue market price at all time paid for Lojrs and Oorn.
The old business of Koel. Lake h. Kinmeraon will be
settled by Henry Lake. All Xuture but-ine conducted
by the. underniuued. - - JXafeS fcOivi.r'
BrownTille, Aprinth, 3S59, . l?
CITY TRUIIK STORE.
FASSETT & CROSS&IAIT,
Traveling & Packing
VALISES, CARPET MAGS, SfC.
Smith West comer of Pine and oa
Saint Louis, Mo.
. , we are new prepared t CU all order
L 1 j J. ill In our line wiiU promptne andonihe
K.YTrfT'the most reasonable terms. 0urtock Is
mjJlXJJ large and complete and ail of our own
manufacturing. The in waut of articles ta our um,
(wholesale or retail) will do well to give can oe-
fcre purchasing elsewhere. A share of punuc pairon
Art an unequalled Tonic and Stomachic poit
and paliU able Remedy for general Debility Dyt
peoiia, lott of Appetite and allditeaset of tht
These Bitters are a sure preventive of
FEVER A1ID AGUE !
They are prepared from the purest materials by n?!j
and experienced Drugsist, ana iBcreioiewu wc ...v-
THEY AID DIGESTION I
By gently xcitinp the system into a healthy action; are
pleasant tothe taste, and also pive that viiior to
the system tuatis so essential tohelth.
tJ-A wineglass full maybe taken two or three times
a day before eating. '
Oct. iH. '63 18-1 y " i
G TKAXX OoVLXT. S SOUTHARD, JR
(Late Randall, Gonley, &. Co.,) .
OF VWE A5D COMMEBCIA.L ST8.
Number ' 5i, jYorth ' Levee,
St. L.ouIs, Missouri,
EAbT ST.-LOUIS, ILLS.,
"Patent Metallic Keg" -Agency for
: . BuPontV Gunpowder.
. . . ., ALSO. . - ' . - .
Agents Jot Cropper f Co's Unadulterated
' ' - ' Liquors. J, "
' July 7.h, 1659. ' ; ' .' . ' .'
a. fr. WILCOX. ; " T. W. BSDOB i-
WILCOX & BEDFORD,
. . -
. DEALKK3 IX '
EASTER'S E X C II A JIG E ,
Browrtvlllo, TC. 27-
. Land Warrants Loaned on Time
' From One Month to Ten Years,-'
Land Warrants Loaned U Pre-emptors ; Taxes Paid ;
Coi lections made Real Et!e Boueht and Suid ; Lands
Locate! and aafe Investments made for Lastcru Cap-
itallsts. . . ,
All Land Warrants syld by us are guaranted perfect
n all respects,
Register and Receiver of Land umceat Brownvnio, i
Register and Receiver or una umce at jeorasa unp
Register and Keceivcr ot Lana unice at umitua, s. i t
Samue! W. Black, Governor ot Kebratka. Ruwell.
Majors k. Waddell. Government Transporter, Kansas
nd Nebraska; E. K. Willard & lonng, itaniera, cnica-
?o, r. granger Aoanis. tsunvr, v.uiui", ij ' ,
76 Wall street X. T. City. Thompson Bro's N 2 Wall
treet N T City, Hon - Alfred Gilmore, Pliiiaaeirnia,
Pa ; W. S Grant, President tiaruiner uanx, aiaine, .
M. Conkey President Bank i f Chenango, N. Y.j Crane
ft Hill Brownville, Nebraska.
The Lnd Sales take place in Nebraska in juiy, Au
gust and September, when some of the cboiceKi lands in
the United State will beorwed roraaie.aoa anerwarus
scb:ect to private entry with GtWd or Land Warrants.
Brownvjile . X, T., July 14. leoa. noiora
Forwarding & Commission
No. 78, North Levee, St, Loui3, Mo.
Orders for Groceries and Manufactured Articles accu
rately tilled at lowest possible rates. Consignment for
sale and ro-hipment reepectully aolicitod. Shipments
of all kinds will be faitbtully attended to.
Eeferrence8: . ,
Vessrs. G n Rea &. Co St. Loula
Birtlctt. McCoinb &.Co do
Gilbert, Miles fc. Stannard do
Hon. W II Bufflngton, AuditorState of Missouri
J Q Harmon, Esq. Cairo City. III. ...
llesrf Molony, Bro's 4tCo New Orleans, Louisiana
J D Jackson. Esq., do do .
Messrs ninkle Guild &Co, CincinnatlOi
K namniar&Co do
Brandell St Crawford Louifville, Ky.
Woodruff 4. Huntlnfton, Mobile. Ala.
H.SilliiHts, Esq., Beardstown, 111.
May 12, IS36 45-Sm
'v TX j -rr x rr c t.
QFFICL Alain if, LattoJ Kinney if Holly' ' office,
Nebraska City, W.T.
Pertnnawho ouiuemplate building eao be furnished
With Designs. Plana. Spetltlcations. kc, fur buildingsol
any class r variety f style, mnrt the erection of the
atite iperintendHl if desired. Prompt attention paid
to butinessf roni a distance. 6'lit
Attorney at Law,
Land A?eat and Xotarj- Public.
'iRulo, Richardson Co., JV. 7.
'Vt'ill practice in the C :urtof "sit dNcbraska.a
j Harjhijand "Jennett. Nebraska Citj.
aTb: holladay, m.d.
Bepectfully informs his friends in Brownville and
lniniellte vicialty that be has resumed the practice of
Itledlclne, SurgrciT & Obstetrics,
an I hopeby strict attention to his profession, to receive
tk.it (e-erous patroiisge l eretotore extended to hiia. In
all c.e where it is )osstli or expedient, a yrancription
tuJnes will be Hone Office at City lrug Store.
ir 54 'ft S5 1r
- -SAINT JOSEPH
ST. JOSEPH, .10.
WILL JAM CAMERON, A. M., Principal.
Cmipletcly organired as .a first elassFeniale Boarding
and UyicJHMi. .Number limited to 125 including 25
boatdera. Scholastic year eotnmencing Brst Mnitday- la
September. , Fwr CaUkogoes, wiih full particwUra, ad
dres the principal. ' : -
Aueust Ith.lKS. ' " ' ''- " V4n4tf "
SAVE YOUR'JTOXEY AXD GOTO
. .TM. T- DEN,- -
v4 . Wblea'e and Rorail dealer In
boots and shoes.
Broirnville, A". T.
Buchanan Life and General
Umce cor .d muU J ult sis.,
ST. JOSEPH, HO.
rmiTmn AT Tlllt l.ST SESSION OF THE JfO. LEO
Authorized Capitol 3,000,000.
J. R.Jenninrs. 1. it. Howard, J. A.Owcn.Milton
Booth, John Colhoun.John H. Likens. W.Il.Poneik,
' J. Li. JENNINGS, Pres.
S now reaJv to receive application for Life. Firo
w , n .
Marineand llivcrr sks. A casfi return 01 -apee
n will K allnwftdo- caro premiums. Lossr
promptly adjusted, and the usualfaeilitief giveu to
the natrons of the office.
Anriilth 1857. 44-3m
J. W. BLISS,
PERU, NEMAHA COUNTY,
Particular attention nail to making collections for
non-residents. Charges reasonable.
R. W. Frame, Postmaster. Peru
. Wm, K.Pardee, Probate'Junge. Neb. City
K E Parker
Lyford c norn,
V. W. ELLIOTT,
Cor. nroacliray and Wasli Street.
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI.
EavlnK purchased the entire nursery stock of John
SipKerson & Bro., 1 am prepared to offer te the punuc
the larpestand best selected stock of Fruit Shade, and
Ornamental taess, shrubs . and plants ever offered for
sale in the West. . We are determined toolTcr such in
ducements to tree planters and the trade as will ensure
the most entire satisfaction. Descriptive catalopues will
furnished, and auy information given ny a tare.-sing,
, A. W. KLLIOTT,
. . Saint Louis, Mo.
Xovember 35, 68-Iy.
3P eriodic als,
Of every description, for sale at
- SCHIITZ & DEUSER'S
South-east corner Main and Second,
. . Brownville, X. T.
Sept, 22d, 1859. - . f-ntU
I II 1MB
JOHN W. MIDDLETON,
BROWXVIXEE, X. T.
IJKRKBT informs be pnh'iic that he has
located himself in this City, and is prepared
to serve those iu want uf anything in bis line.
nehas selected his stock rith care and will manufacture
a No. t article of everything eflered. He deems it un
necessary to enumerates bntwill keeponhAnd evey arti
cle usually obtained in Saddle and Harness "hops.
BrowDTllle Mvl2. no46-6m
The uadersiined hiving bought the Hills for
morlv owned tv Dr. Horverof Nemaha City, is now
i.renarod to irrind Co: n. Wheat, and saw Lumber on
the miPt rea.nalt tena. Possessing the best w
ter nriviloee in Nemahn county, he can at all times
accommodate hi customers on short notice witli the
best quality of gnet. Flour, Corn ileal and lumber
constantly on nana. ,
,Tulyl9rh nltf J. G. MEL-YIN.
wl aiter ar
n5 NOW ON H AND a large aDd el 1 select-
. of Boot and Shoes, Lady': andGent.'a
and Suppers of every variety : alao.
nd Chi d reus sbnes of every kind that I
will seil cheaper for Cash or Produce than any other
house wester St. Louis. All work warrautedj orders
xe.nectru:lyswttrt,J. "-v- . -,
The rriisbt Cah price pasd for nides. Pelts and Furs,"
at the City Boot and Shoe Store. Cut Leather kept fur
ale - . , v
First St., tct. Main and -Atlantic,
' . EROWirVILLE,
COMFORT & TICE,
vA.k 0lKlcs ,0 te cltis en of Brownville and vjeintty
1 1 ?eT t"r rnt1 tb bskPry formerly o-ned by E.
lKorthinr ana are now pr.red to furnish Bread. Cakes,
es, Couftctwner,, Ice Cream, Lemonade, Ac.. 4e.
' . W. C. COMFORT,
irownviile, April M,". "C ' '
. JAMES HOG AN.
23 O 023L- Sl2-.C2.02T,
BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER,
Southeast cr. 2nd and Lccusl St's.
- ST. LOUIS, MO.
All kinds of Blank Books, made of the beet paper, rtvied
to any pattern, and sewed in the new improved patent
IilTEARIES PERIODICALS, MUSIC.&c,
bound In any style, and at the shortest notice.
Earine been awarded ti e Premium at the last Me
chanic' Fair, he feels ondident in insuring satisfaction
to all who miY rtve fclui a eall.
July S2d, 166S. ' ; ; lyvJn
TIIE nnderstiraed having lcad the Stenin Flour
and Corn MiUs lately erected oa tno Missouri IliTer
at Neuiaha City, are now prepared to grind
WHEAT OR CORN
WITH DISPATCH. -
Having one tf .'
Clark's Celebrated Flouring Mills,
XIanufactured at Pbi!adelil.i, we esn mannfae
ture 1C3 ascka of Su pur fine Piour and gtind COi
bushels of 0rn dail)'.
Our building forstorlu; and ahipping jrain or
produce is unsurpassed on the River.
We will provide the puWio with a Free Ferry at
., EG0WNLXE 4 TU5WELU
August 11th, '5?. . ' 5-Sa
Life Insurance Company,
Incorporated by the State of Connecticut.
Capital Stock $200,000.
With larse and increasing surplus receipts.secure
ly invested under the sanction and approval of the
Comptroller of Public Accounts.
OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS:
JAMES C. WALK LEY, President.
JOHN L. BUNCE, Vice President. .
ELI AS GILU Secretary..
12. D. DIUKKRILAN, General Agent. -
Alfred Gill, Daniel Phillips, John L.I? u nee.
U. Hlodget. J. A.Hutler, E. I). Di-kerm.in
Pilieaton, &am. Cit. - Kelson Uollister,
' . James Ualkley.
S. B. Beresford, M I), Consulting Physician.
A. S. HollndHy.M D, Medical Examiner.
Applications received by R. W. FURNAS. A?'t,
n8-tl Brownville. N.T
First Street opposite Recorder's OJJice
BROWNVILLE, N. T.
TITS subacrlber would respectfully inform the citizens
nf Brownville and vicinity, that he has located herefo
:he purpose of manufacturing Boot and Shoes to order.
All persons In want of a superior article will do well to
call and leave their measure , , r
Rej airing promptly and neatly done.
' . GREE.V
Brownville, iuly 7. 1S59. vlnl-tl
' Wnnf od At tlils OClPft
Wood.; potatoes, xorci, turnips, pumplilris
From the Wisconsin Farmer.
Sclectica and Preparation of Seed.
The first prerequisite to proper seeding
is the selection of good seed. This invol
ves fcereral important ' considerations :
among whicn variety, pertect develop
ment and full maturity, perfect oundnes
and health'of the rermf and freedom
roin the seeds of ail other plants than
the one in: question, are prominent. '
THE QUESTION OF .VARIETY
Can only ba determined after a full in
vestigation into the character "of the clim
ate and nature of the soil: and these
investigations must be experiment il, not
merely speculative. -Thus, of the differ
ent varieties of wheat and Indian corn,
there is a great diversity of opinion even
in the sama neighborhood, when there is
but little difference iri the quality of the
and none in the character of the
climate a diversity more : dependant,
probably, upon the style of preparation
and mode of cultivation than any other
circumstance, and not, therefore legitim
ate as avidence of their relative merits.
n cases of this sort, we can give no bet
ter advice than" that each eultivater test
the matter for himself by actual and re
peated experiments experiments which
shall determine the adaptedness of the
several, varieties to the length of . the
growing season, to the,' severity of the
winter, if intended to be sown or planted
n the fall, to the drouths of summer, the
probability of their escaping the ravages
of insects, and the various, disease3 to
which plants of their class are, liable, &c.
JIany intelligent farmers are. of. the
opinion that an occasional change of vari
eties is essential to the continued health
and productiveness of the crop, and are
therefore accustomed to import their seed
from neighboring districts, or remote sec
tions of the country, lest the land become
weary with growing the same old sort for
years in succession, mat sucn cnanges
nay result advantageously sometimes, is
highly probable; indeed, we are all fam-
liar with cases in which the benefit has
been marked. But the reason is proba-
ly quite different from the unphilosophi-
cal one assigned by the farmer, who by
his fancy tndow3 the soil with all the
ikes and caprices of the human heart.
It can hardly be ascribed tothe difference
in the chemical composition or physiologi
cal characteristics of the different varie
ties, on the principle of the rotation cf
crops, since the composition does not ma
terially vary in the several cases, lo
what, then, is the improvement due?
Evidently to the circumstance that the
first was all the while faulty in its adapt
ation to the soil or climate of the region,
or to the'factof its degeneracy-by defec
tive cultivation until the seed preserved is
no longer able to produce a perfectly
healthy plant.: :
The last circumstance tnat ot degen
eracy, through inadequate cultivation is
probably the chief cause. and may justly
be charged with four-fifths oi the abor
tions which characterize the agriculture
of this country. This leads us to speak,
in the next place, of . (
THE PEBFECT DEVELOPMENT AJfO FULL
MATURITY OF SEEDS.
No sane farmer could ever expect to
raise fine stock of any kind from inferior,
unsound, or diseased parents; the idea is
preposterous, and contrary to' all physio
logical law. The history of the . human
race is equally refutive of such a theory,
and has made oft-repeated and fearful
demonstrations that the hereditary law is
as inexorable as fate. But this law quite
as truly and completely contruls the veg
etable world as it "does the animal, a.
healthy and vigorous , plant, capable of
perfect development and maturity, was
never bom of a diseased or otherwise im
perfect germ. This principle cannot be
too strongly enforced, for none other
within the whole range of agricultural
science is more frequently ignored in
If the farmer would plant potatoes, he
first selects out such as are fit to eat, or
will bring the highest, price in market,
and the remainder, the smallest and half
rotten ones, he heaps up by themselves;
as seed. The result is just what should he
expected a meagre crop of diseased tu
bers, hardly worth the cost of planting.
And the world folds its hands, repentant
in view of some national violation of mo
ral law, and impiously talks of the dispen
sations of a mysterious and. divine Provi
dence ! If he would grow-wheat he Is
not content with utterly" "neglecting the
due preparation'of the soil, but is equally
reckless in the selection bf his seed, sa
tisfying himself with such as he may hare
left over from a preceding inferior crop,
or with such as he can purchase at the
lowest price of somechs-growing. smut
producing, weevil-feeding neighbor. And
so of all the crops ordinarily grown by
We repeat it, good crops can only come
of good seed. In making choice, it were
better that the selection be made directly
from the field, where it is always easver
to determine, the relative value of differ
ent portions of the crop, and that of such
selected portion ocly the most perfect
seed be saved, even though a considerable
amount of care be requisite. No labor
could be more economically bestowed,
and no well-founded expectations of a
good harvest can be rationally eatenained
without such care. ' -.
..w'. "it "
In the oiaen time, wnen tne seed-grai.n
was gathered with the sickle, carried by
itself to the barn, threshed .by the hand
so as to beat of! uone but the most perfect
.kernels, 'and, after careful winnowing,
was thrown across the floor with a shovel,
against the wind, and then again assorted
only that which was heaviest, and there
fore fell the farthest, being-pneserved for,
that purpose ; when, if. the. farmer was
unfortunate and without such grain as he
would be pleased to sow for a future crop,
he .scoured the. whole country until he
found someone who could supply him
in those times -there was less talk about
chess, smut, the. rust, the weevil, the
chinch bug, the midge, and "tlessian fly,
than in these days, with all our boasted
progress in thi? art of agriculture. -Of
course we have no desire to fall back into
the "good old times" when the crooked
stick for a plow, the sickle, the flail, and
the - hand-winnower, jounced upon the
thigh, were the instruments of husbandry;
but we do insist that the old carefulness
be restored, and that the progress of the
mechanic arts shall not deceive the farm
er with the vain hope that "the time has
come when the physiological laws of the
pliant and the. slow, noiseless forces of na
ture may be entirely set aside for patent
methods and new-fangled machines. The
last are good helps, and we glory in the
age which has produced them; let us
thank God for then but not stultify our
selves by condemning .the - methods of
But it is not enough that the seed
should have hud a perfect development
and full maturity; it must also have a .
PERFECT SOUNDNESS AND HEALTH, OF
THE : GERM, ' '-
At the time of planting. In other words,
it must have been perfectly preserved..
This point likewise requires emphasis
and reiteration; for many of the failures
are solely attributable' to neglect. of this
inionant matter. .-
-Wheat: and other grains hot. unfre
quently spoil in the granary, though per
fect when harvested, in consequence of
being stored in large heaps when partial
ly green,' or damp ; and sometimes the
germ is killed by the- froM. Corn suffers
from the cold, and on that account should
be thoroughly dried before being put up
to keep. The. old-fashioned way of sel
ecting from the field, the best and earli
est ears, braiding the husks together and
hanging them up in the garret to dry un
til spring, is about as safe as any, and
such seed rarely fails to germinate and
bring forth fruit in due season. If the
quantity required be too great to allow of
this method, then it should be thrown
upon some scaffold floor where there is
constant and tree access of air so as to
thoroughly dry before .the coming of
wheather sufficiently cold to freeze the
But heat and cold are not the only
sources of injury to the germ of seeds;
the machinery employed in threshing is
not unfrequently destructive to them, as
no one can fail to appreciate who will
note the proportion of seeds which, after
machine-threshing, are partially crushed
or broken. It is on this account that, in
another connection,, we have urged the
propriety of. threshing out the seed by
hand; whereby it will be possible not
only to avoid this danger, but also to
leave such grains in the head as are not
fit to be sown.
In the fourth and last place,
THE SEED SHOULD BE PEBFECTLY CLEAN,
That is. there should be no ndmixture of
the seeds of other plants. The import
ance of this consideration will be fully
appreciated by such farmers as have had
those noxious and almost ineradicable
pests, the daisy, the Canada thistle, &c,
introduced upon their lands, through for
eign importations; while - comparatively
few have entirely escaped the annoyance
of some kind of .weeds..
When perfectly pure seed cannot be
obtained, there are three means of clean
in?, some one of which, or ' all together,
sholild be employed without stint of care
or laW. These are, first, screening
thro' well arranged fanning-mill seives;
secondly, throwing the seed with
Iiht shovel, or, at least in small quanti
ties, across the barn floor, saving only such
as shall fall farthest from the operator, as
sufrested under another head;ind. third
ly. washins with water. This last is most
effectual, and may be easily done by put
tint1 the best cleaned seed into a vat of
water, and continuing to stir and skim off
until the noxious seed, which almost with
out exception will be .lighter than the
grain to be cleaned, have risen to the
surface. It is hardly necessary to add
that after washing, the grain must be
rpread out' in an exposed place and as
quickly dried as possible. '
PBEPAB AT103T OF REED.
The soaking of seeds in simple warm
water, with a view to facilitate the sprout
ing, has, to some extent been practiced
from time immemorial sometimes ra
tionally, but often with injury to the seed,
and of course to the future plant If the
soil be exactly in the right condition as to
temperature and moisture, and the season
be too far advanced, there can be no
question of the advantageousnessof such
a process; hut if the soil be warm and
dry in,--hirh condition the process is
more commonly used the quickly sprout
ed germ will be in danger , of perishing
before sufficient moisture is furnished to
the surrounding earth to sustain it. Usu
ally it is safer to omit- the soaking alto
gether; nnd the only cases in which it is
admissible are, first, that in which the
season is late and the moisture in the soil
sufficient to sustain the young and tender
plant; and, secondly, .where, thoush the
rain, be dry, a fall of rain Is confidently
expected immediately after sowing cr
planting. But inasmuch as rain can never
be anticipated with absolute certainty,
this second case will hardly constitute an
exception to the general rule of inadmis
In addition tothe mere soaking for the
purpose of hastening germination, it is
also common to use a variety cf chemical
substances, with a view either to stimulate
the growth of the young plant, or to pre
vent .the lavages of depredating insects
and animals, or of some jpf the diseases
to. which the. plant in question may He ii-
Of the class of chemical gen?s used fo
stimulate the growth of the plant, common
sail, nitrate of soda,' lime, wood gashes,
saltpetre, nitric and ' sulphuric ' acids,
were formerly in comrian use. And
while we do, not . question the effect, we
nevertheless doubt the philosophy cf this
practice; for the reason that forctd
growths ofpfants which ordinarily qeed a
whole season for their development, and
are required to perfect their seed for the
perpetuation of the species, are necessa
rily weak and unhealthy. -. If the soil con
tains the needed elements, and is proper
ly prepared, there cau be no need of using
means of stimulation ; and, if those Con
ditions of the soil are -not present,' then
such means will avail nothing and may
even do harm, if, indeed, they produce
any result at all which we are disposed
to question in view of the fact3 that the
germ is fed in the first stages of growth
by the sture of fooJ contained within the
seed itself, and, that the amount of sti
mulating substance adhering to the out
side of the seed is but triflinar at best.
and moreover iri a 'situation not to be
available for the little rootlets, ' which
feed beyond the particles which immedi
ately surround the seed. :
As preventive of disease, particularly
of smut and caries, lime, common salt.
alum, copperas, blue vitriol and arsenic
are recommended ; though the accounts
are so conflicting that they can hardly be
relied on with great confidence. Nor iu
those, cases in which, beneficial effects
have plainly appeared to follow is the ra
Among the best preventives 'of which
we have personal; knowledge, we feel
warranted in recommending the follow
ing wishing ' it distinctly understood,
however, that in nine cases out of ten we
are able to trace the disease to some fault
of the seed, or the method of cultivation :
I. Lime. -Into a vessel of , tepid water
some prefer urine throw as much seed
as, when stirred, will allow the lighter
grain to rise to the surface that they may
be skimmed away ;-dip out, spread upon
the floor and sprinkle thereon freshly
slaked lime, in the proportion of about
one bushel to twelve; stir with a shovel
until a thin coating of the finely pulveriz
ed lime adheres to every seed, and leave
for about ten hours; stir again, andfinalfy
spread in thin layers to dry.
Ashes, gypsum, &c, may be used in
like manner, ...
2. Blue vitriol. One or two ounces, to
the bushel, of this salt of copper, dissolved
in as much water as may hi necessary to
thoroughly wet the grain, has been so
often declared a preventive of smut by
careful and reliable experimenters, that
of confidence in its value. The wheat,
we acknowledge to a considerable degree
when once wet with the solution milk
warm, should be allowed to steep for about
one hour, and then spread out in an airy
place to dry. ;' -.
To prevent the depradatiens of animals,
such as gophers, squirrels, mice, and va
rious worms, it has been proposed to steep
the seed iu solutions of arsenic, copperas,
Sic; and some have claimed that 'the
smoking of seeds would prove sulficient.
There is little doubt that the arsenic, if
used liberally, will disturb the digestion
and consequently impair the appetite of
the depredating animal! but to make it
sure will involve a considerable expense
and the risk of more valuable life.
Saltpetre is also recommended ; and
some are in the habit of soaking in tau
ner's oil. . Turnip seed particularly, is
often treated in this way, and it is main
tained that the plant escapes the fly as a
consequence. - -
But we have already devoted more
space than we intended to a branch of the
subject, upon which we are able to fur
nish but little '.information. It is really
important as a field for investigation, and
we trust that some simple and harmless
compound may yet be discovered or manu
factured which shall exactly and economi
cally meet the necessities of the case.
We have no doubt of the practicability of
the thing, and would urge the farmer to
keep trying until it is done.
study their profession, and improve their
systems of farming economy, to an ex
tent limited only by the ir power to do so. .
If they were to pursue the course tl.a:
the planters of the South are new' pursn
ing, in less than twenty years they would :,
either 'starve to death, or Le forced to-'
leave 'nheir own, their native land."
But ths question arises, whit isa "gocd : 1
farmer?" .'There, is much 'diversity oi -1
opinion on this question. S erne times :ho
men who "run over the most land, per,
hand, and drag out'ef the soil the most ,
money regardless cf -the wear aiid tear :
of .land,-and; team ar.J ferefv are called
good farmers, yea, the test, farmer;.
is that true? . I admit it nor.. To do so (
would, be equivalent to admitting that the, r
doctor who made the most money,' regard
less cf the lives he destroyed, na5 th? "
best doctor. ;The one would be about aj
true as the other both are utterly fals. ,
A. "good farmer," accor J ing to-the bcil
and most ictelligent ogriculturists'of th3 .
South, is the man who improves Lis land,. '
and the appearance of his place, improve '
his stock and tales' care cf his. force.? .':
And I think this definition of the term is
correct. ' ' , ,
' , No man, however intelligent cn other
subjects, no matter how much money ha
may be making for Ac time Icing, fhoul I '
be cpnsidered;a "good fanner," in .ths:.'
strictest sense of thnt term, who grossly ,
neglects' the 'improvement of his soil and ,
force and stock. No man'who cultivates
the hills and permits his fields to wash in-
to yawning gullies, and turns them out
for his children to reclaim, 'at the coat cf !
much labor and expense, or leave their
old homes, or starve, is to any extent, .'
whatever, a good farmer. No man who
denounces agricultural improvements and 1
agricultural journals, totes . corn in .one i
end of his sack, and a rock in ths other . 4
end to balance it because his "daddy" did
it, can possibly be a "good farmer."
Sialic Farm Labor F.isL!cnabIe. ,
At the base of the prosperity of any
people' lies this great principle rriake
farm labor-fashionable at home. 'Edit
cate, instruct, er.courage; and ciTcr ill''
the - incentives ycu car offer, to ghc ,
interest and dignity to labor at homer
Enlist the heart and the intellect. of the
family in the support of a domestic sys- -tem.
that will make labor attractive at the !
homestead. By means of the powerful
influences of early heme education, en- .
deavor. to invest practical labor with an
interest that will cheer the heart of each
member of the family, and thereby ycu
will give to' your household the grace; :
pface, refinement and attraction which
God designed a home should possess.
; The truth is, we must talk more, think
more, work more, and act more, in refer
ence to questions relating to heme.
; The training and improvement cf tha
physical, intellectual, Fonal and moral
powers and'sentiments of the youth of our
country, require something more than th'3
school-house, academy, college and uni-
l versity. ine young mmu $noi.iu reLev
judicious training in the held, in tne gar. ?
den, in the barn, in the workshop, in iha
parlor, in the kitchen in a word arcui.d ,
the hearthstone at home.
Whatever intellectual attainments youf
son may have acquired, he is uafit to go
forth into society if he hainot had thrown i
around him the genial and purifying in-
fluences of parents, sisters, brothers, and ,
th- man-saving influence cf the family
government. The nation must look for
virtue, wisdom and strength, to the edu
cation that controls and shapes the home
policy of the family circle. There canle
no love of country where there is no lore
of home. Patriotism, true and gpnuin-?,
the only kind worthy of the name, d-rin-s
its mighty strength frcm . fountains that
gnh. out around the hearthstone; owl
those who forget tochtri.-h the Kousfholdl
interests, will soon learn to look with in
difference upon the interests of their
We must eultirate root nctth tnp.
We tnu?t make the family government,
the school, the farm,lhp church, theshep
the agricultural fairs, the laboratories cf
our future greatness.' We must educate
our sons to be farmer?, artizans archi
tects,, engineers, geologists, Kttanis":,
rhemists in a- word, practical men.
Their eyes must be turned frrm Wash
ington to their states, counties, townships,
districts, homes. . Thi3is true patriotism;
and the only patriotism that will perpe
tually preserve the nation. Gov. VrigM.
What Constltates a Good Farmer?
G. D. Harmon thus asks and answers
this important question, in a late number
of the Cotton Planter:
If the Disposer of human events should
permit this world to stand a thousand
years longer, the time will surely come
when every man who tills the earth will
be compelled to be a good farmer or
starve to death. This is a strong expres
sion, but as true as it is strong. Old fo
gytsm may continue to denounce "those
who labor to improve the agriculture of
the South; but the time will come when
The fanners of Ohio are beginning to
realize the advantage to them cf giving
more attention to raising heep for wool
and mutton. , It is estimated by gooJj.id
ges that Ohio will sell this year, not less .
than 10,000,COO pounds of wool, at -an
average of about 45 cents, making Sl,
500.000 received by farmers of this St;ite
within two and a half -months. The
yearly consumption cf the United States
is "66,000,000 pounds, and marly ,10,
000,000 is imported. Why not raise our
own wool?. Manufacturers much prtfor
Ohio wool to almost any other ; it is
light, clean and good staple. Some 000,
OOO.oounds was sold at auction in Ciese-.
Iaril.last week, from ZS to 73 cent?,, the
latter price or - premium clip, .at . tv,4.
Wool-grower Fair.' Mr. yesucn.- ofrhis
city, has bought'about 400.CCO pounds of
meir posterity wm see tneir stupid toiiy.iimj Binonsr the farciers SISO.CCO.
and be forced to improve the soil which Cclumlus Journal. ' '
their f-.ncestors butchered., .The day has - ... , "
already comu with England, France, Systematic labor ' accomplishes fir
Germany and Ireland, where agricultur-i more than that without crder. ri x:vh
Jist3 are compelled from true necessity to mere ease
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