Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923 | View Entire Issue (March 1, 1915)
WWF?"?? WrT'1'' "
A' "f j4
Work of the Sixty-third Congress
The following special dispatch to
tho Cincinnati Enquirer gives a brief
review of the work of the Sixty-third
Washington, March 4. The Sixty
third congress, first under complete
domination of the democratic party
since 1895, ended today at noon.
It had been in aimost continuous
session since President Wilson's in
auguration two years ago today. 'Be
ginning with an extra session called
by the president April 7, 1913, the
congress has worked actually 637
Much legislation was accomplished,
but much contemplated, some of it
hard pressed by the president and
party leaders, was left undone. It
is the present intention of the pres
ident and his advisers to give con
gress a rest. Rather than force an
extra session they would leave the re
mainder of the administration's con
structive aspirations to a new con
gress next winter, which, although
under democratic control, will have a
greatly reduced majority in the
Foremost in the enactments of the
Sixty-third congress were:
The Underwood-Simmons tariff act,
with the income tax, which replaced
the Payne-Aldrich tariff law.
The federal reserve act, reorganiz
ing the currency system.
Antitrust laws to supplement the
Sherman act, including the Clayton
law and federal trade commission act,
the former providing for punishment
of individuals who violate business
regulations, and the latter establish
ing a government institution to aid in
keeping business within tho law.
Repeal of the Panama canal tolls
exemption for American coastwise
Act directing the building, at a cost
of $35,000,000, of a government rail
road to the mineral fields of Alaska.
Act to regulate cotton exchanges
and to penalize dealings in purely
speculative cotton future sales.
A special internal revenue tax,
commonly called tne "war tax."
A government war risk insurance
bureau to insure American ships
against the hazards of war, and an
act providing for tne transfer of for
eign owned or built ships to Amer
Of those measures which failed of
enactment or could not be considered
for lack of time the following are re
garded by democratic leaders as para
mount: Bill for government purchase or
charter of transoceanic ships for the
establishment of an American mer
chant marine, which encountered the
most stubborn filibuster in the his
tory of the senate, created, an insurg
ent movement in the democratic
ranks and held up general legislation
Tho immigration bill, including a
literacy test, for admission of aliens,
which passed both houses, was vetoed
by President Wilson and failed by a
narrow margin to repass the house on
a motion to overturn the veto.
Conservation measures, urged by
the president, to provide a new sys
tem for leasing of water-power sites,
and a leasing system to open the min
eral resources of tho country.
Bill to enlarge the measure of .Phil
ippine self-government, and to extend
promise of ultimate independence
to Filipino people, a measure which
passed the house and was approved
by a senate committee.
Regulation by the interstate com
merce commission of the issue of
railroad securities, originally a Part
of the administration's antitrust pro
gram, ijv o'
Rural credits legislation ontem-
tended for many months, and propo
sal of an inquiry into senatorial cam
plating the establishment of a system
of farm mortgage loan banks, per
sistently urged throughout tho con
gress. In addition to the foregoing, scores
of general legislative bills covering a
wide range of subjects, died with the
end of congress, among them meas
ures for federal road improvement,
general waterway development, re
organization of the civil service, to
prohibit importation of convict made
goods and several measures for re
organization of the army.
The last session of the congress
was notable, too, ror the failure of
two great issues national prohibi
tion and woman suffrage. Proposed
constitutional amendments precipi
tated two of the most exciting legis
lative battles in the history of tho
house of representatives, both meas
ures failing to receive a necessary
Foreign relations of the nation
constantly to the fore almost from
the beginning of the congress.
Throughout the session the president
and the senate foreign relations com
mittee were in frequent conferences
and much was done to restrain un
usual demonstrations which have dis
turbed international tranquility.
Early in the session general arbitra
tion treaties with several great for
eign powers were renewed for five
year periods, and 26 peace commis
sion treaties, pfbvlding for Investiga
tion of international disputes before
resort to arms, were negotiated and
ratified. A treaty to enforce tho reg
ulations adopted by the London safe
ty at sea conference was ratified iast
December, but with an amendment
making reservations which came too
late for other powers to consider,
thus preventing enforcement of the
convention. A treaty with Nicaragua
providing for acquirement of the Nic
araguan canal route and naval sta
tions for $3,000,000 was left unrat
ified by tho senate and the pending
treaty with Colombia directing pay
ment of $25,000,000 for the Panama
canal strip was held up by the foreign
The closing session of the congress
was almost wholly devoted to appro
priation bills, the ship purchase bill
fight and a few general measures.
Aside from appropriations about the
only important legislative enactments
Included the creation of the coast
guard by consolidation of the life
saving and revenue cutter services,
reclassification of grades In tho dip
lomatic and consular service, require
ment of registration and imposing
special taxes upon all dealers, manu
facturers or importers of opium, or
its derivatives, and the creation of
the Rocky mountain national park in
Much debate on the condition of
national defenses enlivened the clos
ing session. Proposals for special
investigation of the preparedness of
the nation for war all failed. House
naval and military committees, how
ever, conducted public hearings on
the subject in connection with the
military supply bills.
The congress also was marked oy
differences between President Wilson
and democratic senators over patron
age; a spirited contest over confirma
tion of nominees for the federal re
serve board, two successful filibusters
one in the summer session against
the rivers and hamors appropriation
bill and the other the fight of repub
lican and democratic allies against
the ship purchase Din au uru
ful effort in the senate to establish
cloture rule to limit prolonged de
bate, institution of a special inquiry
Into outside influences exerted
against the ship purchase bill, a gen
eral lobby investigation which ex-
Tho president on March 4 nomin
ated Colonel Georgo W. Goethals of
tho Panama Canal commission as a
major general; Surgeon General Wil
liam C. Gorgas a major general of
tho medical department, Colonel H.
F. Hodges and Lieutenant Colonel
William L. Sibert to bo brigadier
generals and Commander H.H. Roub
seau of tho navy to bo rear admiral.
All were immediately confirmed.
Two important discoveries were
announced on February 28 by Secre
tary of tho Interior Franklin K.
Lane. They are two Inventions by
Dr. Walter F. Rittman, chomlcal en
gineer of tho bureau of mines.
One will enable oil refiners to In
crease their output of gasolino u
200 per cent. The other makes pos
sible tho production from crude
petroleum of totulo and benzol, bases
for dyes and high explosives, which
have hitherto been produced in uer
March 2, the senate confirmed four
of the appointees for the new federal
trade commission, and no action was
taken on the fifth appointee, Georgo
Rubleo, and ho romained unconfirm
ed at the adjournment of congress,
but on March 6 tho president gavo
him a recess appointment. The trado
commission, as appointed by tho pres
ident, February 22, is as follows:
Joseph E. Davies, Madison, Wis.
Edward N". Hurloy, Chicago.
William J. Harris, Cedartovn, Ga.
William H. Parry, Seattle.
George Rubleo, Cornish, N. II.
Tho scaraan'B bill was signod by
tho president on March 4, making It
a law. Tho measuro raises tho stand
ards of labor for seamen and provides
for increased safety equipment on
laleo and ocean steamers.
For tho first timo since July, gov
ernment rovenuea for a month of tho
prcsont fiscal year havo beatcu tho
pace set during tho fiscal year 1914.
During February tho treasury depart
ment received in revenues from all
sources $43,036,272, compared with
receipts in February, 1914, of $43,-G33.857.
ViiiOiMA P.WWSi Rmall and largo,
$ir an aero and up. Kfisy paymr-nts.
mild rl'ttinto. fertile will. Men! or fhi t. H'wjc or
jtnitornl (nrin'nr. On rnllrr.fi vl'ti ll,,!n.rVri
nwirbv. U'rMp vr Uxt. mm", ptc. ' A L,,,'!,,,'
SPUIB ONE BUY PARTICIPATING (FsimM Ct OR
N0N-PflRT!GIPfiTING (Guaranteed Cnst) INSURANCE?
Broadly speaking, participating insuranco is a form wherein the insured
pays a higher premium than tho real cost of tho Insuranco warrants and
the company agrees to refund to the policyholder at the end of each year or
at the end of five, ton, fifteen or twenty years whatever the excess is found
to be. The overcharge returned is called a refund or dividend. It would bo
more accurate if this form of insuranco were described as estimated cost
insurance, because tho exact cost can not bo stated in advance. It is Just
..., x-.-i t o.MMrmHnir tnRurftnnfi. on the other hand, tho company
charges a much lower premium; ono practically conforming to the present
experience of tho companies, and makes no return to the policyholder of a
refund, or dividend, as it is more commonly called, because no excess pre
mium was charged in tho first instance. This form of Insurance would bo
more accurately described as "guaranteed cost" insurance, as that Is pre
cisely what it is. One thing should stand out prominently in the discussion
of these two forms of insurance. In order to receive a refund, or dividend,
the policyholder must literally buy it. Ho must pay a larger premium
than is required, and ho ought to know, and tho company does know, that
ho is doing so. ' , , , , .
The policyholder himself is tho ono primarily concerned ,in buying insur
ance. It Is absolutely immaterial to the beneficiary whether a claim is paid
by an "estimated cost" insuranco company or a "guaranteed cost" insur
ance company. All will concede that in tho earlier years of every policy and
at every age that the premiums on a "guaranteed cost" policy are less than
on an "estimated cost" policy. There comes a time, of course, after an es
timated cost" policy has run for a number of years, varying in different
companies and In tho same company according to tho ago of entry of tho
policyholder and tho kind of a policy taken, when tho net cost of an esti
mated cost" policy is less than on tho same kind of a "guaranteed cost" pol
icy. Were this not true, if at all times and to the end in every instance, tho
premium on a "guaranteed cost" policy was below tho -premium on an "es
timated cost" policy after deducting tho dividend, there simply would bo no
excuse or justification for this latter form of insurance. It would cease to
be issued. Life Insurance policies remain in force on an average of some
thing like fourteen years. There are few "estimated cost" companies, if
any, that will show a lower rate for insuranco In the first fourteen years
than Tho Midwest Life. Especially is this true when interest on the excess
premium paid in the earlier years Is considered. Assuming, then, that in
tho long run It will cost the average policyholder practically the sarao
amount whether he takes his Insurance in an "estimated cost" company or
in a "guaranteed cost" company, what are some of the reasons for his taking
a policy in a "guaranteed cost" company?
m Becauso tho premium Is lower, and, therefore, moro Insurance can bo
bought for tho samo money. Men buy Insurance on account of the uncertainty
of life If ono had a guarantee that he would live until ho were seventy, ho
would never buy life Insuranco of any kind or In any company. On the other
hand If the company knew a person would die In a year or two, It would decline
the risk or charge a prohibitive premium. Why, then, should one speculate on
ilvlncr long enough to reduce his premium In an "estimated cost" company to a
noint eaual to or less than tho premium charged by "guaranteed cost" company?
(2. Becauso tho policyholder knows Just how much he Is to pay each year
and how much his policy will cost him at any given time.
m Because all uncertainty as to the amount of the refund or dividend and
whero it comes from is entirely eliminated. No excess premium Is charged so
I thpro Is no reiunu to uu muuu.
r m Because every payment In tho policy Is absolutely guaranteed. Nothing
fn Because tho policy Is $ plain business contract, easy of explanation and,
easy to understand. An actuary Is not required to interpret It.
The Midwest Life
N. Z. SNEIX, President
A NEBRASKA STOCK COMPANY
SELLING NOM-PARTICIPATIKG LIFE INSURANCE ONLY
FIRST NATIONAL BANE BUILDING. LINCOLN.
4Mit . . jJ.
Powered by Open ONI