The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, September 01, 1914, Page 20, Image 20

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The Commoner
VOL. 14, NO. 9
' "".,
The World's Greatest War
Tho readers of Tho Common
er will bo interested to know
how the European war begun.
Aa a matter of historical in
terest, and to enable its road
ors to form a bettor conception
of tho causes and reasons ani
mating tho declarations given
by tho respective countries pre
ceding their entry into tho pres
ent European war, Tho Com
moner reproduces, as far as
possible, tho official notes, doc
uments, declarations and atnte
monta as given from day to day
in tho press dispatches.
On tho 23rd of July the Servian
government received at Belgrade
Sorvia, a noto from tho Austro-Hun-garian
government bearing on the
relations between the two countries
and dealing directly with the' assas
sination at Sarayovo on June 28 of
Archduko Francis Ferdinand, heir
to the Austrian throne, and his wife.
A Berlin cablegram, dated July 23,
stales: "A noto from Austria, couch
ed in the peremptory terms of an ul
timatum and demanding a reply by G
o'clock Saturday evening (July 25)
was delivered to the Servian govern
ment at Belgrade this evening at 6
Concerning tho contents of the
'Austrian note to Servia a cablegram
from Belgrade, Servia dated July
23, says:
"Tho noto reviews the relations
with. Sorvia since 1909 and complains
tnat, tutnougn tne Servian govern
ment promised loyalty to tho Austro
Hungarian government, it has failed
to suppress subversive movements
. .rl i liil 1... ii.
lv ' "" ugiuiuoiia y mo newspapers,
and that this toleranco has incited
tho Servian people to hatred of the
'Austro-I-Iungarian monarchy and con
tempt for its institutions. This, says
tho nolo, culminated in -the Sarayevo
assassinations, which aro proved by
depositions and confessions of the
perpetrators to havo been hatched at
Belgrade, tho arms and explosives
being supplied by the connivance of
1 Servian officers and functionaries.
" 'Tho Austro-Hungarlan govern
ment, continues the note, '1b unable
longer to pursue an attitude of for
bearance, and seed the duty Imposed
upon It to put an end to the intrigues
which form a perpetual menace to
the monarchy's tranquility. It there
fore demands from tho Servian gov
ernment formal assurances that It
condemns tho dangerous; propaganda
"whoso aim Is to detach from the mon
archy a portion of Its territory, and
also that tho Servian government
Bliall no longer permit these machin
ations and this criminal, perverse
"The note then gives the terms of
K long formal declaration which tho
Servian government is required to
publish in its official journal on the
front page, condomning the subver
sive propaganda, deploring the fatal
consequences of this, regretting til
participation or Servian officers In
this propaganda, repudiating any
further Interferences with Austro
Hungarlan interests, and warning all
Servian officers and functionaries and
tho wholo, Servian population that
rigorous proceedings will be taken n
the future against persons guilty of
audi machinations. This declaration
must also be officially proclaimed to
the Servian army, and the Servian
courts must undertake to suppress
subversive publications and dissolve
Immediately tho pan-Servian society
styled 'Narodna' Odbrana,' confiscat
ing all its means of4 carrying on a
propaganda, and suppress all similar
societies having anti-Austrian, tend
encies. "Sorvia is further enjoined to elim
inato from tho educational system
such tendencies, to remove all offi
cers and functionaries guilty of an
anti-Austrian propaganda, whose
names and deeds tho Austrian gov
ernment reserves to itself the right of
communicating to the Servian gov
ernment; to accept the assistance of
representatives of the Austro-Hungarlan
government in this work of
suppression; tr prosecute the acces
sories to the Sarayovo plot; to arrest
Maj. Tankavltch and a Servian state
employe, Ciganovltch, who are com
promised by tho Sarayevo magis
terial inquiry; to stop the illicit traf
fic in arms and explosives across the
frontier; to dismiss and punish the
Servian officials In the frontier ser
vice guilty of assisting the assassins
across the frontier; to furnish the
Austrian government with explana
tions of anti-Servian utterances cred
ited to high Servian officials since the
Sarayevo crime, and, finally, to no
tify the Austrian government prompt
ly of the execution of all the fore
going demands. Appended to the
note is a long memorandum detailing
all the facts of Servian complicity by
the magisterial Inquiry at Sarayevo."
Following is a London cablegram
dated July 26:
"An official summary of Servia's
reply to the Austrian ultimatum
shows that Servia expresses willing
ness to submit to all the demands of
Austria except one. Even to that de
mand, which apparently was that
Austrian officers should play a large
part in the Inquiry into the Sarayevo
plot, Servia does not give a formal
refusal, but asks explanations.
"The official summary of the reply
to the ultimatum is as follows:
"First. Servia agrees to the pub
lication in its official journal, on the
front page of the formal declaration
submitted by the Austrian govern
ment, condemning tho 'subversive
propaganda and deploring its fatal
consequences, regretting the partici
pation of Servian officers in this prop
aganda, repudiating any further In
terference with Austro-Hungarlan in
terests and warning all Servians that
rigorous proceedings will be taken in
the future against any persons guilty
of such machinations.
"Second. Servia agrees to com
municate this declaration to tho army
in tne lorm ot an order of the day.
"Third It promises to dissolve
those societies which may be consid
ered capable of conducting intrigues
against Austria.
"Fourth. Revision of tho laws
governing the press.
"Fifth Diamisaal from the army
and navy of officers and the removal
also of civilian officials whose par
ticipation in an anti-Austrian propa
ganda may be proved. Tho Servian
government, however, protests
against Austrian officials taking any
part in the inquiry.
"Sixth Tho Servian Government
asks for an explanation as to just
hvhat part the Austrian officials are
to be called upon to take in the in
quiry into the Sarayevo plot, and it
Is announced that Servia can only ad
mit such participation as would be
in accordance with International law
and good neighborly relations.
"Seventh To sum up, Servia ac
cepts all the conditions and all the
demands of Austria, and makes res
ervations only regarding the partici
pation of Austrian "officials In tho in
quiry. It does not glyo its formal
refusal to this point, but confines
Itself to asking explanations.
"Finally, if the Austrian govern
ment finds thU reply inadequate,
Servia appeals to The Hague Tri
bunal and to the powers which signed
tho declaration of 1909 relative to
Bosnia and Herzegovina."
The noto expresses the hope that
the response will dispel all misunder
standings that threaten neighborly
relations, and says that Servia has
given proofs of her pacific and mod
erate policy throughout the Balkan
" 'The Servian government,' the
note continues, 'cannot be held re
sponsible for manifestations of a pri
vate character, such as are common
in all lands and escape official con
trol. Tho Servian government haa
been painfully surprised by the state
ments connecting persons in the
kingdom with the Sarayevo outrage.
" 'It expected to be invited to co
operate in the investigation of the
crime and was ready to prove by
deeds the earnestness of its action
against all persons concerning wfyom
communications should be made,
without regard to situation or rank.
" 'The government of Servia con
demns all propaganda directed
against Austria-Hungary, namely, all
aspirations to detach from the Aus-tro-Hungariau
monarchy, territories
which form a part thereof, and sin
cerely deplores the lamentable con
sequences of such criminal actions.
" 'It regrets that certain Servian of
ficers and officials, according to the
Austrian communication, have par
ticipated in these, thereby comprom
ising neighborly relations. The gov
ernment disapproves of and repudi
ates any attempt to interfere with
the destinies of the inhabitants of
any part of Austria-Hungary. ' "
the Servian reply to Austria's niti.
matum demanding the cessation of
the Pan-Servian agitation and the
punishment of those concerned in the
the assassination at Sarayevo of Arch
duke Francis Ferdinand and his con
sort. The communication also gives
the reasons for Austria's dissatisfac
tion with Servia's reply. It follows:
"The object of the Servian note is
to create the false impression that
the Servian government is prepared
in great" measure to comply with our
TORY Servia's reply to Austria on the
25th, after the Austrian government
had refused an extension of time,
was considered unsatisfactory. A
Vienna cablegram, dated July 25,
"Diplomatic relations between
Austro-Hungary and the Servian
government were broken off at 6 p.m.
The Servian government waited until
the last moment before replying to
the ultimatum that had been deliv
ered by Austria. Only ten minutes
before 0 o'clock when the time limit
set by Austria expired, the Servian
premier appeared at the legation and
presented his government's reply to
the Austrian minister. No details of
the document were then made public,
but the terse statement was made
that it was unsatisfactory."
On July 2G the Austrian- foreign
office sent the Servian minister, M.
Jovanavitch, his passports, and war
was declared against Servia on July
28 by a manifesto which was one of
the briefest of momentous documents
am07, The text is as follows:
The royal government of Servia
not having replied in a satisfactory
manner to the note remitted to it by
the Austro-Hungarian minister in
ompuae on Jiuy 23, 1914, the im
perial and royal government finds
luaoit compelled to proceed itself to
safeguard its rights and interests
and to have recourse for this pur
pose to force of arms. Austria-Hungary
considers itself, therefore, from
this moment in a. state of war with
Servia. Count Berchthold minister
of foreign affairs of AustrlaHm
Concerning Servia's reply n vin
na, Austria, cablegram, date'd jfuy"
A communication Issued by thn
Austro-Hungarlan foreign ofnCQ J,
day sots forth the Austrian "toy,
As a matter of fact, however. Ser
via's note is filled with the spirit of
dishonesty, which clearly lets it bo
seen that the Servian government is
not seriously determined to put an
end to the culpable tolerance it hith
erto has extended to intrigues against
the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
"The Servian note contains such
far reaching reservations and limita
tions, not only regarding the general
principles of our action but also in
regard to the individual claims we
have put forth, that the concessions
actually made by Servia become in
significant. "In particular our demand for
the participation of the Austro-Hungarian
authorities in investigations
to detect accomplices in the conspir
acy on Servian territory has heen re
jected, while our requests that meas
ures be taken against that section of
the Servian press hostile to Austria
Hungary has been declined and our
wish that the Servian government
take the necessary measures to pre
vent the dissolved Austrophobe asso
ciations continuing their activity un
der another name and under another
form, has not even been considered.
"Since the claims in the Austro
Hungarian note of July 23, regard
being had to the attitude hitherto
adopted by Servia, represent the min
imum of what is necessary for the
establishment of permanent peace
with the southeastern monarchy, the
Servian answer must be regarded as
"That the Servian government
itself is conscious tha its note is not
acceptable to us is proved by the cir
cumstances that it proposes at the end
of the note to submit the dispute to
arbitration an invitation which is
thrown into its proper light by the
fact that three hours before handing
in the note, a few minutes before the
expiration of the time limit, the mob
ilization of the Servians took place."
A cablegram states that a mani
festo issued at Vienna by the emperor
after stating that it had been his fer
vent wish to dedicate his declining
years to preserving the empire from
the burdens and sacrifices of war,
says: "Providence has decreed other
wise. The intrigues of a malevolent
opponent compel me in defense of
the honor of my monarchy and for
the protection of its dignity and the
security of its possessions to grasp
the sword after Jong years of peace."
The manifesto rafm to tho inerat-
itude of Servia for the support the
emperor's ancestors afforded to Ser
vian independence; how Servia' for
years has pursue! path of open hos
tility to Austria-Hungary; how Aus
trian annexation of Bosnia and Her
zegovina, which injured no Servian
rights, called forth in Servia out
breaks of the bitterest hatred. "My
government," continues the emperor,
"then employed the handsome privil
eges of the stronger, and with ex
treme consideration and leniency only
requested Servia to reduce her army
to a peace footing, and promise to
tread the paths of poace and friend
ship.'.' Then recalling that was Austrian
forbearance two years ago that en
abled Servia to rea.i the fruits of the
struggle against Turkey, the emper-