The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, March 01, 1914, Page 10, Image 10

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    VOL. 14, .NO. 3
The Commoner
bo of accumulated surplus through a more ex
tended, a raoro satisfactory and a cheaper
Tho annual report of tlio commissioner of cor
porations just issued affords an interesting in
sight into tho work now heing conducted by tho
bureau of corporations.
In addition to tho investigations of several
Industries continued through tho year, tho
buroau is initiating, with tho approval of tho
president and tho secretary of commerce, a gen
eral, construct ivo program of investigation,
which it is hoped will bo of constructive bene
fit to tho business world and to tho general
With a view to providing useful material in
connection with proposed legislation regarding
trusts and corporations, tho bureau is making
ft' study of existing legislation, judicial decisions,
pending bills, foreign laws, and all other data
Which may bo helpful in a consideration of this
An investigation has also been commenced to
detormino the relatlvo efficiency of tho monopo
listic form of industry and tho independent, com
petitive unit. One of tho alleged advantages
claimed by monopoly, by which it is claimed
that monopoly is justified as an ultimate fact in
industrial evolution, is tho alleged cheapness of
its production. The question is whether tho
trust form of organization is really efficient. If
it bo found that smaller competitive units in in
dustry can produce commodities more cheaply
or as choaply as monopolistic units, and that
thoy have other and equal advantages claimed for
the monopolistic or trust system, then tho prob
lem is finally sottled in favor of tho competitive
system, and tho chief argument for tho regula
tion of monopoly is destroyed. This is a scien
tific question of fact, which tho bureau will in
vestigate both from the standpoint of the cost of
production and distribution and tho ultimate
offoct upon tho price to the consumer.
Tho quostlon of a fixed price for the resalo of
commodities, that is, tho fixing by the manu
facturer or jobber, with regard to the commodi
ties in which ho deals, of tho prices at which re
tailers must sell such articles is another subject
of present Inquiry by tho bureau, with the view
of determining tho economic advantages or dis
advantages of permitting such a practice.
For the purpose of aiding in the attainment
of more uniform legislation, tho bureau is also
conducting an extensive inquiry into the laws of
tho various states regarding tho admission and
regulation of corporations organized in other
states and countries.
Tho commissioner, in his report, urges strong
ly that the bureau of corporations or some fed
eral governmental aUenoy bo provided with tho
power to obtain and keep as a public record
annual returns from corporations doing an inter
state business, regarding such items as the kinds
and amounts of capital stock, names of directors,
holdings In other corporations, and allied mat
For a number of years the bureau of fisheries
has been Investigating tho food qualities of sev
eral unutilized sea products and certain of them
havo been recommended to tho public as of
edible value. The practical results of this work
however, were negligible until very recently,'
when an opportunity occurred for making an
actual demonstration of the merits of the sea
mussel at tho Hotel Brunswick, In Boston, Mass
This experiment, which has been repeated at tho
sanio hotel, met with immediate approbation
from the patrons and arrangements are being
made to provide other hotels in Boston aiid
vicinity with mussels for similar demonstrations,
and to spread an acquaintance with this cheap
and excellent food.
The bureau is now preparing a list of sea foods
used in various foreign countries but wasted in
the United States, which will bo placed in the
hands of an agent to locate ceutors of population
already familiar with tho products and to de
termine the means and ' commercial avenues
through which they can be introduced most
In furtherance of tho plan of tho buroau of
foreign and domestic commerce for the promo
tion of tho foreign trade of the .United States by
bringing American manufacturers and exporters
into personal touch with consular officers and
with its commercial agents, certain consular
officers have visited branch offices of tho bureau
and some of tho bureau's agents, in addition to
visiting its branch offices, have attended con
ventions and addressed commercial organiza
tions in various cities.
Tho superintendent of documents has con
sented to receive subscriptions to the Daily Con
sular and Trado Reports at a price of $2.50 a
year. This publication, which is issued each day
by tho bureau of foreign and domestic com
merce, contains current reports from United
States consuls throughout the world and a list
of foreign trado opportunities for manufactur
ers and exporters. It has never before been sold
to tho public but has been distributed gratis,
and the demand has been such that the le,al
limit of 20,000 copies was long sinco reached,
thero being at tho present over 1,000 requests
on tho waiting list. Under the new arrangement
whereby it is sold at a nominal subscription
price, it becomes available to all firms and in
dividuals who may bo interested.
The department of labor the youngest of the
executive departments of the federal govern
ment, celebrated its first anniversary on March
4th. During tho first year of its existence much
has been accomplished. For the first few
months after tho creation of tho department,
due to insufficient appropriations, the depart
ment was handicapped in the work of mediation
and conciliation, but even without the neces
sary funds to carry on this work, men were
detailed from other branches of tho service, and
were successful in adjusting many trade dis
putes. With increased appropriations provided
by congress, tho department will be enabled to
extend its activities along this line, and can ac
complish effective work in the settlement of in
dustrial disputes, and in bringing employers and
employes into closer relations.
The bureau of naturalization of the depart
ment of labor celebrates this week the anni
versary of its creation as a buroau having for its
sole object tho federal supervision of the na
turalization laws of this country. Previously it
was a division of a bureau which administered
both the naturalization and immigration laws.
Substantially all of the frauds perpetrated
upon the elective franchise through the natural
ization laws have been eradicated by this fed
eral supervision, and the standard of citizenship
is raised because of the knowledge of our in
stitutions which the alien is required to have in
order to pass the examination specified. This
great reform has been accomplished through the
close scrutiny given to the examination of appli
cants for citizenship by the burean of natural
ization, under the direction of Secretary Wilson
of tho department of labor. With but slight ex
ception the naturalization laws of today are what
they were during the greater portion of the
century when the proceedings for obtaining cer
tificates of naturalization were left to the tender
mercies of those whose end to attain was prin
cipally tho production of voters. Probably
about twenty per cent of those obtaining title to
the priceless heritage" were prompted by
patriotic motives, while the remainder were
actuated by tho interests of others.
This great work of reform, although of vital
importance to all those to whom the1 title of
American citizen belongs, whether bv right of
nativity or by favor of law, does not find its
imitation within the boundaries of tufa count ry
but each patentof citizenship carries with it a
bearing upon the greater question of interna
tional relationship in the recognition of our
otizens by foreign sovereignties.
Commissioner General Camlnetti has recentlv
ssued a circular relative to the distribution of
hook-worm infection. Few realize t le pre
valence of this disease in foreign countripa o,i
the facility with which the infection carS
by immigration regions where the disease
has hitherto beqn unknown. Hook-worn TnfS
tion practically belts the globe between thp
parallels of 36 degrees north and degrees
south latitude, effecting, to a greater or less ex
tent, alj countries lying between thoqV 1?mu
Of the whol.e papulation of Wmft 4 St
tween sqa-lovej- and an altitude o three tWsand
feet, ninety yer, cent are infected, aceorto
Information furnished by the Rockefeller sani
tary commission. It &1bo affects fifty per cent
of the total population of British Guiana, in
Egypt a general estimate places the infection at
fifty pfer cent of the laboring population, in
Natal fifty per cent of the cooUo laborers on
sugar and tea estates are infected, with the dis
ease spreading among natives and Europeans
In many plantations in Ceylon, ninety per cent
of the laborers are infected. Of the 300,000,000
people in India, 60 to 80 out of every 100 harbor
the parasite. It also obtains in the Philippines,
in Samoa, southern Mexico, and Central America!
In Europe it does not exist to any great extent
The attention of the scientific wbrld was first
directed to tho serious character of hook-worm
infection by an outbreak of the disease among
the workmen engaged in the St. Gothard tunnel,
in 1880. The presence of the disease in the
southern part of the United States is well-known,
the indications being that it was originally
brought from Africa. Experts of all countries
are agreed that' the anemic condition caused by
the hook-worm parasite is an enormous econ
omic loss. In our own .country, Dr. Herbert
Gunn, special inspector for the Qalifornia state
board of health, in his report on hook-worm in
fection in the mines of that'state, says: "There
is no question tha1 the general efilcency of the
men is noticeably impaired-'.'
The pommissioner genera) of immigration is
bending every effort to cope with this most
serious situation.
On March 4th the chiefs and. employees of the
department of labor banqueted at "The
RaleighV .in celebration of the anniversary. The
pleasure of the occasion was much enhanced by
addresses by the secretary of, labor, Mr. Wilson;
Assistant; Secretary Louis.P. Post;; Solicitor John
B. Densmore; Commissioner, General of Immi
gration, Mr. Caminetti; commissipnerof natural
ization, Mr. Campbell; commissioner, of labor sta
tistics, Mr. Meeker; and Miss Julia C. Lathrop,
chief of .the children's bureau.,
The first annual report 'of the secretary of
labor has been made public.
Particular attention' Uri the report' is called to
the activities of' the department,'1 !Wrihg the
eleven months it has been' in existence', in the
work of mediation and conciliation. Through
tho good offices of tho department, under section
eight of the organic act, a great many impend
ing trade disputes have been amicably adjusted,
without resorting to 'any strikes or suspensions.
Men from other branches of the service were de
tailed during the first few months, as conciliators
notwithstanding that no appropriations were
made for carrying out .this most essential work.
If ample provisions are made by congress in the
appropriation bill for the 'coming year, this
feature of the department's activities promises
to become a great factor in the promotion of in
dustrial peace, and in the establishment of closer
relations between employers and employees.
During the fiscal year, -1,197,872 immigrant
aliens entered the United States an Increase of
359,720 as compared with the 838,172 that en
tered during the preceding fiscal year.
It is observed that immigration is heaviest in
April, May and June, 1913, the arrivals for these
months ranging from 106,000 to 17G.000 per
In addition to the number of Immigrants ar
riving, over 225,000 aliens of "the non-immigrant
class entered, making a total of 1,427,000, 'com
pared with 1,0T7;000 for the 'previous fiscal year.
During- the same time 611,900 aliens departed
irom theountry, of whom. 308,000 were 'of the
emigrant class, and 303,000 were of the non-immigrant
blass. The actual increase, therefore,
in the-alien population for 1913, was 815,000,
compared witli 401,000 fbr the'llscal year 1912.
It is interesting to note that the ages of 986,
uuu ranged between fourteen and forty-four
years, 14 7,0,p 0 were under fourteen, and 64,300
. forty-five or over. , ,,
Of- the arrivals 269,Qo!6 could neither read
nor wrrte. It thus appears that over twenty-six
per cent of the aliens oyer fourteen years of
age, who were admitted, were illiterate.
.bach year is shown an. increase in the number
of aliens .declaring their citizenship intentions,
in the number petitioning for naturalization, and
rn?fbenumber Emitted to citizenship.
i ?i ??o''tl0' ;fiBCal yea posing June 30, 191-3,
JV Qoni?plaraAlons of tatetftpn were issued,
and 82,017 certificates of citfzenship granted:
th J n86 'n 0OTtIflteii oyW W0 of. more
nifJl rMeil e. average, nuinberof
alien declarants for the first. s ylaf s, excluding
!fu rk , . &v -.
V. !I ,