The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, November 01, 1913, Page 9, Image 9
Yiif.wn-riiy wy$$W9B&w'v The Commoner NOVEMBER, 1913 9 Rosslter, formerly Chief Clerk of the Census, aS special agents to study the present conditions of statistical work, particularly the unfinished work of the Thirteenth Census, and to make plans for the better organization and administration of the Bureau in connection with its future operations. As a result of this study several recommenda tions have already been made the purpose of which is to insure greater progress in completing the final reports of the Thirteenth Census. It has been deemed undesirable to tabulate "Occu pations" further than has t lready been done and stopping the work at this point will expedite the publication about six months and reduce the cost of completion by about $65,000. The report on Native or "Mother" tongues has been limited to the chapter in the forthcoming final volume on population. The numerous tables relating 'to Mines and Quarries that were already in b ille tins, proofs or manuscript have been printed, same to constitute the final report. The tables for the benevolent institutions and for prisoners in jails, the insane and feeble minded, and paupers are to be published without further derivative tables or explanatory text. The an nual compilation of statistics on forest products has been abandoned, being without authority of law. The annual report on financial statistics of cities in 1912 is to be completed and published by January 1, 1914, and the report for 1913 is to be curtailed. Both reports are to be printed only with brief explanatory texts and no further attempt is to bo made to elaborate future reports on municipal financial statistics. The reports on Mortality Statistics for the years 1911 and 1912 are to be published before the close of the pres ent calendar year and the work upon the stand ardization qf, death rates, life tables and occu pational mortality suspended until then. LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE In the Urgent Deficiency Appropriation Bill Congress has made provision for the establish ment of a light station on Navassa Island in the West Indies. This island lies between Haiti and Jamaica In the direct route through the Wihdward Passage to the Isthmus of Panama, and to Caribbean portfc. For ships bound north it Is thVflrst'lahdfaU after leaving' the Isthmus.. The "fcurV&rtfc .iii this' region are 'if rqgular and strong,' 'anciVeamerjs Sometimes 'have . to stop until the weather clears sufficiently for (them to pick' up the coast of Haiti. The 'isjand lias been occupied by American citizens.' ' The increased traffic makes the establishment of an efficient aid at this point desirable and this traffic will be still further increased on the opening of the Panama Canal. It is proposed to establish a flashing acetylene light in a second-order lens on a high tower so as to prevent obscuration by the plateau when passing the island close to, as well as to be equally visible on all sides. The proposed light on a 150-foot tower will be visible 23 miles, The light will be of about 20,000 candlepowe'r, sufficiently bright to be seen at this distance in clear weather. It is proposed to equip this light with sufficient acetylene gas to operate for a year at a time, and it will probably require at tention after a thorough preliminary watching at intervals of from three to six months. BUREAU OF NAVIGATION Two years ago John McNamara, of "Williams port, Pa., was shanghaiied on an oyster boat on the Chesapeake Bay and after inhuman treat ment endeavored to escape and was drowned. Twenty-two days later the master of the same boat was murdered and two members of the crew were killed. Crews of other vessels were ill treated, forced to sleep in ill-ventilated and un sanitary quarters, and other appalling conditions were alleged to exist throughout the oyster fleet. To remedy these conditions during the winter months, the Department of Commerce purchased the motor boat .Tarragon and .placed her in charge of Mr. A. Lincoln Dryden, former State Senator of Maryland and Collector of Customs at Crisfield, with a crew of three men. Close supervision of the shipment of seamen, the quar ters provided for them and their treatment was begun, and has resulted in a reconstruction of many of the crew quarters on oyster vessels and in the betterment of the conditions of not less than 3,500 men. During the past summer the Tarragon was sent into the Philadelphia and New York cus toms districts where over 15,000 small motor boats were navigating dangerous waters and in many instances carrying large numbers of men, Women and children. During the month or August in. the New York district alone 1,574 in . spections were made and 605 vessels were found without the life-saving equipment required by law. One hundred and sixty-four of these vessels had no means for extinguishing burning gasoline and had the gasoline exploded or caught flro the safety of those on board would have de pended on ,the vessel getting ashore or on the life-preservers. Two hundred and fifteen vessels carrying 1,284 persons were found without such life-preservers. Many vessels wore navigated, without lights after sunset and without whistles with which to sound passing signals if collisions threatened. These figures furnish an outline of the benc ficient work of the Tarragon in its mission oT safeguarding life on small vessels. A campaign of education was conducted in. which the owners and operators of vessels cordially cooperated and the efforts of the Department met with general approval. Penalties in most Instances wore mitigated to nominal sums and the owners of motor boats made to realize that the safe navi gation of their vessels was the object of tho Department and only such penalties were im posed as were necessary to that end. ' As the motor boat Season in the northern ports is closed, tho Tarragon is again in the oyster fleet supervising the shipment of crews, their treatment and the quarters and food fur nished. After this work is done the vessel will proceed through the sounds in South Carolina and as far south as Key West, Fla., admonishing owners of motor vessels as to the navigation laws, looking after the interests of the crews and seeing to it that vessels are equipped with every means of safeguarding the lives of those who travel 6n the water. COAST . ND GEODETIC SfRVEY The six vessels of the Coast and Geodetic Sur vey employed on the coast of Alaska during the summer have closed work for the season. The steamer Patterson is upder instructions to pro ceed direct lothe Hawaiian .Islands and to con tinue the survey of .the.,shores of those islands. Tho steamers. McArj.hu r, Gedney anc'. Explorer will proceed to Seattle, while the Yukon, and Taku are to be laid up in Alaska. During the fiscal year t,l 94.3 and during the season v Just. closed, the principal work .oE these vessels in .Alaska has been a-survey of the en trance to the Kuskokwiin. River by the steamers Explorer and Taku; surveys in Kasook Tnlet, Sukwan Strait, Tle'Vak Strait and San Cristoval Channel by the steamer Gedney; surveys in Cook Inlet,- in the vicinity of Alalik Bay', between Al'alik Bay and Resurrection Bay, at Nakat Har bor,' Burriett Inlet and .Iniskin Be by tho steamer' 'MeArthur; surveys of Clarence. Strait and of the Shumagin islands and in the vicinity of Unihiak Pass by the' steamer Patterson; sur veys of the northwestern part of Prince. "William Sound between Naked Island and Port Wells, artd in the north arm of Simpson Bay and thence to the southward and westward by the steamer Taku; and surveys of Turnagain Arm, Cook In let, and in the approaches to the Kuskokwim River by the steamer Yukon. The Survey of Tlevak Strait by the" steamer Gedney has made available a passage formerly feared and avoided by navigators. By its use the steamer route for vessels along that part of the coast may be considerably shortened. The inspection of the 3 41st meridian boundary between Alaska and Canada has been completed. The two parties at work in the Mt. St. Ellas region and the party on Portland Canal have closed work. In the course of the survey in the Mt. St. Elias region, that peak, which is at the southern extremity of the 141st meridian boundary, was ascended to within 1,500 feet of the summit. THE STATE DEPAIITMEXT For the benefit of the readers of the Com moner the following statement is made in regard to the more important appointments that come under the control of the Department of State. The foreign service is divided into three classes". The Ambassadors and Ministers come in the first class. There are 11 Ambassadors and 32 Ministers. These are not under the civil service and appointments are therefore made di rectly by the Presfdent, with the approval of the Senate. - , , In the second class come the cecretaries of embassies and legations. There are 0G secre taries. These are under civil service and en trance is by 'examination and appointment from the eligible list the appointments being made by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The consular service is made up of consuls general consuls, vice consuls, consular assist ants consular agents, and clerks. There Afft 57 consuls general and 241 consuls. Tho, posi tion of vice consul is honorary rather than one of pecuniary value; ho receive no salary excopt in the absence of the Consul. These places are appointive and are not covered by the civil serv ice; neither arc the clerks and consular agents but the salary for these places is so small that one can hardly afford to accept such a position unless he has somo reason for desiring to ac quaint himself with the country to which Uq goes. Consuls Ubnoral, Consuls, and Consular Assistants are under tho civil service. Entrance to this service Is through examination, the Presi dent making appointments from the eligible list with confirmation by tho Senate. Tho appoint ments, according to tho regulations, aro for tho first and second classes, in which the salary In $2,000 and $2,300, respectively. 'Promotions aro made In .the service according to merit, all promotion!; being by appointment and with the confirmation of tho Senate. Tho President has the right to appoint by special order, subject, of course, to confirmation, but linn announced that this will only bo done In extraordinary cases and when available men cannot be found in tho service. There Is a long-standing dispute as to whether Ambassadors and Ministers should bo put under civil service. In most European countries the diplomatic service is a career and men outer with the expectation of remaining In It for life, Thoro are some in this country who favor tho adoption of this plan but they have not thus far been able to alter tho system. The President has changed considerably more than half of the Ambassador? and Ministers and the appointees will not suftor in comparison with tho men whom they suc ceeded. Tho criticisms that have been in ado have not been directed against the charncter of tho appointments; these have not only com mended themselves to the American public, but the appointees have been well received abroad, occasionally some newspaper complains that "ex perionced men" aro being dismissed and that men without diplomatic experience aro being substituted -it must. bo remembered that tho Democrats have not ha'd much chanco during tire last twenty years ttf secure diplomatic' experience; and tho fair minded will not give much weight to the Republican contention thnt the serVlcd suffers when a .Democrat takes the place of a Republican. The Democrats who have received appointment have either been journalists ok literary men of high standing or men of- ex perience in political and business life. It Is a great mistake to suppose that experience in the diplomatic service necessarily fits one for a diplo matic appointment. Experience may acquaint one with the formalities of such a life but these aro of little importance compared with the more substantial qualities required. An ambassador or minister can soon learn .enough of the formalities from tho secretaries, whose !)osltios, being under, the civil service, are permanent, but he cannot absorb from others the things thnt make a successful diplomat. To properly repre- sent one's country abroad the ambassador or minister must have a thorough acquaintance with his country, must be In sympathy with, American institutions, and in harmony with tho polcies of the administration. No : resident can hope for great success In his foreign policies it he has to work them out through men who are at heart antagonistic to him. Moreover, long absence from home may greatly impair one'a ability to properly represent his country's ifl interest. If the civil service were applied to, ambassadors and ministers the President would have to take those ho found In office and make such use of them as he could, regardless of tbcli4 fitness or unfitness for the particular work to be. done, whereas, under the appointive system, which we ndw liave, the President can select men who are especially qualified for the work ta be entrusted to them, it is tho difference be tween a ready-made suit and clothes cut to fit." .Before Nebraska passed a lav,- requiring state banks to contribute to a fund which guaranteed the payment In full of depositors in any state bank that failed it was asserted with so muck emphasis and repetition ttut it convinced a great many persons that it would mean that most ot the banks would surrender their charters aatl become national banks. Nothing of tho kind happened. Tills fact may be cited to allay any fears that might arise because the national bank ers, are. pow declaring their solemn belief that the passage of the Owens-Glass currency bill -will force many national banks to become state banks, dfcfc i'