The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, September 01, 1913, Page 26, Image 26

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The Commoner
VOL. 13, NO. 29
Five Hundred
Bank Crashes
"In Hid fifty yeai'H of our national
batikH over II vo iuind d luivo trout- to
tho wull,- In the Inst dopre.sHlon, follow
ing 'Oil, nourly one hundred fulled with
in three yenra. These failures nvolved
ovor $;ir0,000,()00 of aHHotH. They woro
for tho most part small institutions, in
cornnuinltles where their slotting must
luivo wrought both havoc and Hurfcrifii?.
To have created a fund from which de
positors could have been paid In forty
clKbt hours would buvo required a
yearly lax upon deposits of a fraction
of 1 per cent a tenth or a twentieth.
Tho average loss to tho fund on tho
money so paid out ovon undor the local
and 'friendly' receiverships still In
voffiio, would have been Jfi per cent a
tottil of perhaps 20 or HO millicns less
than tho life cost of a l"lo battleship.
Yet It is seriously pretended that a de
posit guarantee und of tills character
would promote 'wildcat banking' and
make, our hanks ui :afo! As though,
perchance, tho depositors of tho ?IfO,
000,000 in the Pittsburgh bank, for ex
ample, would havo boon less cautious
in tho 'choice of institution for tho
'aafo keeping' of their funds." Edi
torial from Collier's.
Tho Oklahoma law lias gono
through tho flro and found not want
ing it has boon in operation 5
years and no depositor lias lost a
cont nor been compelled to wait for
tho return of his savings. Write
today for copy of the law, with
booklet giving full information as to
tho depositing of your funds in an
Oklahoma state bank. Interest paid
on savings deposits and time certifi
cates. Accounts from thirty states.
Muskogee, Oklahoma
M. G. Haskell, Pies.
I Have Several Good Farms
f for Sale for Cash
I nra ofTorlnff tlioso farms bocnuso T neou tho
xrtonoy. 1 nm not n n-nl ostnto nKcnt ntul am offer
ing .only my own Innils. I Imvo ono farm, 200
acros, ir0 acres or tnoro In cultivation, 3 note Itm
prevent outs, good barn, 150 ncrcs or moro uooil
lovel black land bottom, balanco black land rolling
nplniul. This especial Iannis very lino allalfa land.
Alfallu makes ovory year four crops and many
times moro than llvo. This farm Is worth $100 por
aero, but In order to holl quick 1 nm ollorlnic at bnir
prlco. 1 hnvootlior lands whlcli I am olTorhiK for
$20.00 to $30.00 por aero. It will nay you to In vcstl-
Sato, write or muiino at once. W. M. Freomiui,
'aula Valley, Oliluhumu.
In the Field of Agriculture
HJ3& tk
It- jA -JJk. f
Alfalfa is a grass crop that can
be grown successfully in practically
ovory state in tho union. It not only
produces largo yields in good years,
but has amply demonstrated its
worth during prolonged dry periods
such as have been experienced over
largo sections of the country this
summer. Nebraska is one of the
states that has taken front rank in
tho raising of alfalfa. Among her
alfalfa growers is W. A. Stahl, who
has a twenty-five acre field on his
farm near Liberty which has a his
tory. The crop on that field has
never failed. Three years ago the
twenty-five acres produced $1,000
worth of seed and thirty-five tons of
hay, and even this year, as dry as it
was, the field will net Mr. Stahl at
least $50 per acre. Mr. Stahl con
ceived the idea that there would be
no better chance to impress upon the
farmers of the community the value
of alfalfa than to have a meeting In
the field at the time the seed was
being threshed. He sent out notices
to the farmers in the neighborhood
and about seventy-five responded to
his invitation. When they reached
the field half of the threshing had
been done. A wagon load of alfalfa
seed was standing near the thresher.
This load was worth $500, and there
was still that much moro to thresh.
In addition to this amount of seed,
Mr. Stahl had cut ovor twenty-five
tons of first-class hay worth at least
$10 per ton, besides a lot of splendid
alfalfa straw for feed and tho pas
ture for the remainder of the fall.
The last item alone will doubtless
be enough to pay him for all labor
in connection with the field. A lec
turer was secured from the state ex
periment station to talk alfalfa, and
for two hours and a half the thresh
ing machine was stopped while the
farmers listened to tho address and.
gave thoir experiences concerning the
value of alfalfa and methods of seed
ing, harvesting and care.
Novel watch-shaped Llchtcr. Operated
with one hand; elve on Instantaneous
UKUt every time. No electricity, no bat
tery, no wires, non-explo-slvei
does away with
matches. Lights your pipe,
clear, cigarette, as Jet, etc.
Uamly thlnir for the end ol
your chain. Tremendous
sel!r. Write quick tor
wholesale terms and prices
A. W. BIUJ.UT UUUTKK CO., US 11 Ban. St., N.w York Clt j
For Govornmont FohIUoiu. jso month to
commouco. Annual vacations. Short hours. No
layoffa." Common education euniclont. Ovor
12,000 appointments coming. Inlluonco unneces
sary. Sontl postal Immediately lor IVeo list of
positions open.
FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, Desk 75, Rochostor, N. Y
JLVEML JFZTV" Business, Shorthand. T caching.
, , . Engineering. Etc. Tuition lr&
I "ii . 1 " ""'" f .w vuuu xiuuk.3 roilUHI. (JPCXU
I Oct.7t Como!
PI flNT ?,08KlXr!?tle8 Catalogue Ifree.
"HEAVEN AND HEIii Swodon'wrff'a 400
. PRXO vork: l$ cents postpaid,, 1'HHtor Saiidour
beyyqg, Windsor Place, H. JLoulq, lib,
In regions of light rainfall the
maintenance of the organic matter
of soils is tho most practical method
of increasing their water holding
capacity, according to tho North Da
kota experiment station. The plant
remains. Straw, stubble, etc., in
these sections decay very slowly, and
much care is necessary in returning
organic matter to these soils.
If live stock is fed on the farm
and tho straw and other refuse are
worked into the manure it will decay
faster whon returned to the land.
While a rotation can be used with
profit if live stock is not kept, it is
much easier to return the organic
matter contained in the crop resi
dues whon they are fed on the farm.
Live stock is not absolutely neces
sary whon beginning a rotation, but
for tho average conditions when they
aro kept the profits will be greater.
A rotation may be followed without
the return of the organic matter for
a time, but eventually it must be re
turned. If not returned in manure
more exponsive methods must bo
of July plowing has frequently been
found to be double that from Sep
tember plowing. Disk plows will
work better in a dry soil than will a
mold board plow. Except in sandy
soils, deep plowing is best if it has
time to settle and form a deep, firm
seed bed from which the plants may
draw plant food, and in which they
may develop a strong, vigorous root
system. On the other hand, accord
ing to Nebraska bulletin No. 118,
"Where the plowing is done shortly
before seeding and danger of dry
weather exists, the plowing should
be rather shallow unless plenty of
help is available to work the ground
until it is thoroughly firmed If the
soil is plowed deep and the seed
sown without much working, the
furrowslice will be loose, and may
dry out before tho young plants get
their roots through it and established
in the firm, moist soil beneath. It
is important that each day'r, plow
ing be harrowed the same day that
it is plowed, particularly if the soil
is moist. It is not only easier to
pulverize than at any other time, but
the mulch which is formed reduces
loss by evaporation."
Little good is accomplished by
building good roads unless some
system of proper maintenance is pro
vided. A strong effort is being made
by the office of public roads of the de
partment of agriculture to focus the
mind of the country on this ppint,
The investment of money in new
roads does not become real economy
until provision is made for keeping
these new roads in condition after
they are built. By allowing costly
built roads to fall into disrepair,
much of tho original investment is
wasted. In all computations for
road building, in the issuing of
bonds for new roads, this element
should be provided for.
Statisticians have found that al
though the average expenditure on
the improvement of roads in this
country exceeds $1,000,000 a day, a
large portion of this money is wasted
because of tho failure to build the
right type of road to meet the local
requirements or the failure to pro
vide for tho continued maintenance
of the improvement. Officials of the
united btates department of agricul
ture when called upon for assistance
by the various states in dealing with
this phase of the road question are
pointing out that road building is an
art based on a science, and that
trained and experienced men are
necessary to secure the best results
from the expenditure of road funds.
Tea Pav
r nflrr K fnlt
Bit iviaa T TV w.uoui unta tuncoa
." "; don't tend tnoeani. Oiro eiprtu olfic!
AAinti B.J.UKB, '.H9LM. BalldUff, Si av KuZu.
Because of the drought, plowing
far winter "wheat will bo later than
usual in the greater part of the
wheat bolt. This is unfortunate, eb
early plowing has been found to givo
better results than late. The yield
It is a safe plan for any farmer to
seek advice from his state experi
ment station before investing money
for any materials necessary for the
improvement of his soils. If he does
not, he may easily become the victim
of unscrupulous dealers in fertilizer
products, or pay a good deal more
money than is necessary to get what
he needs. Speaking on this point,
Professor Elliott of the Ohio College
of Agriculture says: "As valuable
as lime is on the farm when tho cor
rection of acid soils is necessary it is
not necessary to pay big prices for
it. At recent extension schools dur
ing the discussion of soil liming it
developed that farmers were paying
as high as $9 a ton for carbonate of
lime when ground limestone, which
would do the work just as well, could
be secured for less than a third thnt
C0Si- ,, Ge,t g00d grouml "mestone
and it will correct acidity just as
readily as the best carbonate of lime
you can find on the market The
farm profits will not increase until
such useless waste is eliminated
from tho farm practices."
There is room on practicallv everv
farm for a few sheep, yet some farm
ers are prone to regard them as a
nuisance. However, during the past
few years the number of sheep have
increased in many states. Many
farmers have quit growing cattle
and are now raising sheep, because
gains can be made cheaper on sheep.
x rom tne ugures on averages of feed
ing tests made at several experiment
stations, it is shown that a pound
of mutton can bo produced from
about the same amount of hay and
only two-fifths the amount of grain
and concentrates required to make
a pound of beef. To make 100
pounds of beef, 440 pounds of hay
and 912 pounds of grain and con
centrates are required. To make 100
pounds of pork it takes 435 pounds
of grain and concentrates, while
sheep require only 464 pounds of
hay and 383 pounds- of grain and
concentrates to make 100 pounds of
Aside from their value as cheap
meat producers, sheep are a great
help in. ridding a farm of weeds. Of
600 different kinds of weeds found
in this country; sheep will eat 57G
varieties, while cattle will eat only
fifty-six. A flock of sheep will al
ways keep the yard and fence corn
ers clean, add value to the land in
fertility, and produce meat for the
family or market.
For the farmer who can not afford
an expensive silo, the "pit" will
answer the purpose' admirably for
the tenant or farmer of moderate
means who desires to have on his
farm a silo in which to store winter
feed for the livestock. An excellent
pit silo can be constructed with the
outlay of but a few dollars.-
The pit silos that aro now being used
vary in diameter from, eight to six
teen feet, and from twenty to thirty
six feet in depth. Silage is usual
ly fed to cows and beef cattle at tho
rate of from thirty to forty pounds
por day, therefore, a cow or steer
would require from three to four
tons of silage. A silo with a depth
of twenty feet and a diameter of
eight feet would contain approxi
mately eighteen tons of silage, which
would feed through the winter at
least five head of livestock.
The ground in which a silo is to bo
dug should first be given a smooth
surface, to facilitate the walls be
ing kept perpendicular. The ground
should be firm. For a pit silo eight
feet in diameter, a perfect circle can
be marked off by driving a stake in
the" center of the ground to be occu
pied. To the top of this stake affix
a board fully four feet in length. At
the far end of the board one large
nail should be driven, projecting
through the board, and then six
Inches- closer to the central stake a
second nail should be driven, oy
revolving the stake two circles win
bo described on the smooth surface
of the ground. The space between
the two circles should be dug out to
a depth of at least eighteen inches
This branch, six inches wide aaa