The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, October 14, 1910, Page 6, Image 6

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THERE WAS A carnival of killing at the auto
mobile racing in Long Island. A New York
World report says: "All records were broken
in tho big Vanderbilt cup race yesterday. Never
before had thero been so many cars entered;
never beforo had tho winner travelled at such
groat speed; novor before had such an enormous
outpouring been thrilled by tho contest. Never
beforo had the toll of death been so heavy. Four
men dead and live dying and fully a score more
injured more or less seriously is tho new mark
made in yesterday's Long Island race. Never
beforo had tho speed mania claimed so many
victims except in tho fatal Paris-to-Madrid road
race' a few years ago."
CHINA TOOK another forward stop when tho
newly constituted imperial senate was
opened by tho regent, Prince Chun. A Pekin
cablegram to tho Chicago Tribune said: "Thero
was littlo or no ceremony to mark the historic
event. In a brief address Prince Chun stated
that tho wish of the people was for a parliamen
tary government and commanded the senators to
labor for this consummation. A parliamen
tary building of amplo dimensions will bo con
structed, but pending its completion the sessions
will bo conducted in tho narrow quarters of the
law college. Tho lack of room was given as
the reason for tho exclusion of representatives
of the press from today's proceedings. The same
rule was applied to outsiders, not even the mem
bers of tho foreign diplomatic corps being in
vited to be present. Tho imperial senate con
stitutes the second stage in the development of
a popular representative government. Tho first
was tho inauguration a year ago of the provincial
assemblies! The crowning event will be the es
tablishment of a general parliament, which, is
promised." , ' )
CONCERNING THE democratic nominee for
governor, tho Springfield (Mass.) Republi
can says: "John A. Dix's relationship to the
famous General John 'A. Dix, of the civil war
period, is not yet wholly clear. One New York
paper says he is the general's nephew, while
others leave him the son of a cousin of the
general. It is the same old family of Dixes,
in either case, which is again before the public.
The earlier Dix was named John Adams Dix and
the later one John Alden Dix, it is worth while
to know. The earlier Dix had a considerable
career in public life, for he was United States
senator from New York in 1845-49, secretary
treasury in 1861, a major general in the civil
war, minister to France in 1866-69, and gov
ernor of New York in 1873-75. He became a
republican after the war, having been previously
a leading war democrat. The general is best
remembered by his dispatch to a New York
official, while ho was secretary of the treasury
in tho last months of Buchanan's administra
tion: 'If anyone attempts to haul down the
American flag, shoot him on the spot.' "
REVOLUTION IN Portugal has resulted in
tho substitution of a republic for a mon
archy. Lisbon, tho capital, was captured by the
revolutionists and the King Manuel, a mere boy,
accompanied by his mother, found refuge in
flight. The army and navy deserted to the revo
lutionists and the overthrow of tho government
was complete. An Associated Press report of
tho causes leading up to the overthrow, says:
"Rumors of the overthrow of the monarchy in
Portugal have been current for a long timo past.
In fact tho voice of dissension has not been
silent since Manuel ascended the throne after
the assassination of King Carlos and the crown
prince on February 1, 1907. The Lisbon news
papers within recent date have printed alarm
ing reports of an alleged plot of the clerical
party for tho overthrow of the Portuguese gov
ernment and tho establishment of a military dic
tatorship. The Seclou declared that the clerical
party's strong dissatisfaction with tho policy of
tho government has culminated in the organiza
tion of a rebellion to overthrow the government,
riince Manuel became sovereign half a dozen
cabinets have been formed and have resigned.
Tho ministry under tho presidency of Francisco
Daveiga Belrao resigned on Juno 17, after hav
ing recommended the dissolution of the cham
ber of deputies, which was opposed by the king
as well as the liberals, the monarchists and tho
republicans. A new cabinet was formed on June
26, with Antonio L. Leixeira de Sousa as pre
mier. In addition to serious dissensions over
political matters, Portugal has been on the verge
of a rupture with tho Vatican, a fact 'that has
led to serious conflict between the clericals and
tho anti-clericals. The ransacking of houses was
a daily occurrence. The liberty and dignity
of the population were violated in every possible
way by a criminal court' officer ' possessing- the
powers of inquisitor. These monstrous acts and
this renewal of the worst epoch of tyranny hap
pened at tho moment when the advent of the
young king led the credulous to believe that an
improvement in affairs was about "to take place.
The republicans, however, were not deceived.
They continued their propaganda throughout
the country, convinced that the salvation of Por
tugal was only possible in a republic. The re
publican propaganda, showing a succession of
scandals and the ministers compromised in
.shady affairs, forced the king to summon to
power men calling themselves liberals. This
final action was the last straw. Opinion was
such that the biggest commercial association
in Lisbon, took the initiative in a formidable
movement of protest involving, if necessary, a
general strike. The monarchist parties, form
ing the conservative 'bloc,' ocpffed at the en,try
of republican deputies into parliament. Al
though their number doubled in three years, the
monarchists did not understand that this was
the will of the people manifesting itself in spite
of formidable pressure- on the part of the au
thorities and the" inequity of the electoral law
against the republicans."
qpHE FATHER of Manuel, King Carlos and
X tho Crown Prince Luis were assassinated
February 1, 1908, while riding in a carriage
through one of the principal streets of Lisbon.
At the same time the present King Manuel was
badly wounded and Queen Amelie, who inter
posed her body in a vain effort to save her son,
narrowly escaped death. A writer in the Den
ver News says: "The assassination followed
close on the discovery and frustration of a
plot to assassinate Premier Franco, on January
2.3, and between that date and the date of the
murder of the king and crown prince there were
a succession of determined attempts by the
terrorists to assassinate prominent persons con
nected with the monarchy. The arrest of con
spirators and seizure of bombs and arms was
of almost daily occurrence, and for a time Por
tugal was a seething hotbed of anarchy. The
assassination of King Carlos and the crown
prince was one of the most daring in the his
tory of anarchy. The royal family had been on
a visit to Villa Vicosa. The date of their return
was known, and apparently every precaution was
taken by the police and military to protect them
on their journey. Arrived at Lisbon, the king,
crown prince, the second son, Manuel, and
Queen Amelie, entered a carriage and started
on the drive to the palace. The route was lined
with soldiers and a Btrong military escort rode
on either side, and before and behind the royal
carriage. The drive was without incident until
the carriage approached a corner, where a tall
building concealed anyone lurking in its shadow.
As the carriage came opposite, this corner a man
stepped from behind the building, raised a car
bine and fired. Instantaneously a dozen or more
men followed the first and fired into tho car
riage. King Carlos was seen to rise partially
from his seat, grasp his throat and sink back.
At the same time the crown prince apparently
struggled to rise, but collapsed and slid to the
floor of the carriage, and Manuel cried out and
placed his hand to his face. Almost with tho
first flash of the guns, Queen Amelie sprang from
her seat beside. the king and threw herself be-
tween her sons and the guns of the assassins.
She was an instant too late, however, to save
tho crown prince as the last bullet had been
fired. The soldiers turned upon the assassins
killing three of them and capturing a fourth'
the others escaped in tho confusion. Tho king
and crown prince were hurried to the military
arsenal which was nearby, but both expired."
THE PRESIDENT of the new republic of Por
tugal is Theophilo Braga. The emblem of
monarchy on the palace has been replaced by a
flag of red and green, the colbrs of the revolu
tionists. France has recognized the new re
public and the Spanish minister in full uniform
paid his respects to President Braga. Paris
dispatches say that Spain may be the next mon
archy to -be transformed into a republic. Young
King Manuel, with his mother, larided at Gi
bralter under British protection. The Spanish
premier has announced that his government is
not yet ready to recognize the new republic and
that appears to bo tho -attitude of other governments.
IN AN INTERVIEW with A. N. Rubankin,
political writer 'for the -Novoo Vrempya, St.
Petersburg, Tolstoy mde some interesting state
ments concerning what he conceives to be tho
dangers confronting America. Tolstoy said:
''America has always looked to me like a boiling
magic pot, a regular fairy land. You know that
if you ask a Russian peasant what he thinks
about America he will reply that America is, a
country of pigmies and giants an island of
demons and angels something beyond his actual
comprehension. America, to me, looks like a
new stage of historic dramas, the cradle of new
human experiments. I have been always a
stanch admirer of its public men, its cosmopoli
tan spirit and its optimism. What wonderful
statesmen and men of action it has produced!
Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Lincoln and
Washington those men were giants. I imagine
a typical American as an alert and optimistic
toiler, whose success and ideals of life are in
his work, no matter whether that work is for
the good or harm of his fellow men. It is a
quality which we Russians lack entirely. I have
known scores of such Americans personally.
What for a Russian is fascinating and dramatic
is usually for an American monotonous and un
comprehensive. Action, action, action, that is
the whole thing in an American novel, there
fore it reads, for the Russian, shallow, un
psychologic and boyish. If an American can not
reason out a subject he hates it. Therefore every
thing must be obvious and tangible. For a
Russian, religion must be mysterious and sym
bolic, allegoric and poetic. He likes to feel a
religion. An American wants a religion he can
thoroughly understand."
ASKED CONCERNING Theodore Roosevelt's
criticism of his works, Tolstoy said: "I
have read Mr. Roosevelt's condemning criticism
of my work, published last year. I was rather
surprised that Mr. Roosevelt was so superficial
and shallow in his judgment of my work. He
says in a few sentences that my writings are
grossly immoral and have done more harm than
good. I was deeply affected reading that, for
I had written with the very opposite purpose
in view. My idea of writing was to show how
bad it is to follow our selfish inclinations. When
Mr. Roosevelt says that selfish passions never
have actuated the Americans or Anglo-Saxons
he ignores the fact that every twelfth marriage
In America ends with divorce. He ignores the
fact that I have not written my novels for men
of his type and of his age, and he either has not
read my novels at all or he has read them but
has not understood them. Now in .regard to his
second criticism of my books, in which he says
they have influenced only tho feeble folk, but
have never had any influence upon men of action;
that shows that Mr. Roosevelt thinks he is tho
only typical man of action. Jf my books have
not had any influence upon him, they have failed
to have an influence upon every other man of
action just the same. But there he is greatly
mistaken. How does he know of other men?
He should name at least one other man of action
beside himself. But he makes a conclusion with-