The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, January 13, 1905, Page 5, Image 5

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JANUARY 13s 1905
The Commoner.
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IT SEEMS' to be tho general opnlon that tho fall
of Port Arthur will not by any means termi
nate tho war between Russian and Japan. A
Berlin cablegram carried by the Associated Press
says: "The hfghest diplomatic opinion here is
that the surrender of Port Arthur make3 it im
possible for any government friendly to Russia -to
advise peace or to unite with any other govern
ment for mediation. Tho feeling at the Russian
court, it is asserted here. Is so absolutely for con
tinuing the war that probably not one person
who has access to the emperor of Russia could be
found who, even privately, favors Russia accepting
defeat. German military opinion, while acknowl
edging the large moral effect of tho fall of Port
Arthur, inspiring the Japanese and depressing the
Russians, regards it as oi.ly an incident and as
having little relation to the immense field opera
tions that will begin in the spring. General Kour
opatkin, it is asserted in official circles, has 600,000
troops east of Baikal, of which more than 400,000
are already at Mukden. It is impossible, the Ger
man military men aver, for the Russians to cease
fighting with that army in being, which by spring,
they add. ia likely to number all told 700,000 men.
The- Japanese, being fully informed of Russia's
preparations, are putting forth every resource tc
surpass them. Field operations of a magnitude
not before seen in the war it is believed will begin
in a few weeks."
THE terrors and the pathos of war are shown in
two reports. General Nogi describes the sit
uation at Port Arthur in this way: "Order is
maintained at Port Arthur by the officers. The
people are quiet. Our minute investigation was
not finished until Tuesday night. The total num
ber of inhabitants is about 35,000, of whom 25,000
are soldiers or sailors. The total number of sick
or wounded is 20,000. Common provisions and
bread are plentiful, but there is a scarcity of meat
and vegetables. There are no medical supplies at
Port Arthur. The Japanese are strenwouslysuc
coring the people. The capitulation committees are
pushing their respective works." General Stoes3el,
after making his gallant fight, wired the czar of
Russia as follows: "We shall be obliged to- capitu
late, but everything is in the hands of God. We
have suffered fearful losses. Great sovereign, par
don us. """We have done everything humanly pos
sible. Judge us, but be merciful. Nearly eleven
months of uninterrupted struggles have exhausted
us. Only one-quarter of the garrison is alive, and
of this number the majority are sick and, being
obliged to act in the defensive without even short
intervals for repose, are worn to shadows."
THE defense of Port Arthur made by General
Stoessel has commanded the admiration of
the military world. Lord Roberts, speaking to a
London correspondent, said: "It has been a mag
nificent defence. What a splendid soldier he i3 to
be sure, how all the world must admire him."
Other British soldiers spoke enthusiastically of
the fine stand S'toessel made and General Miles,
writing to the New York World, says: "The de
fense made by the Russians was the most sublime
in history. There is nothing since the siege of
Troy to which it can be compared. No garrison
ever was subjected to such tremendous destructive
offense night and day from land batteries and
ships of war, as well as by cunningly placed mine3
by skilled engineers. In spite of the terrible havoc
wrought by heavy guns and mines charged with
the most powerful explosives known to man, the
gallant garrison 'under General Stoessel- has
maintained its position nearly a year." .
REFERRING to the probable effects of the fall
of Port Arthur General Miles says: "The
main effect of the surrender is" that it promises the
Japanese fieet time to prepare for the reception of
the Russian Baltic squadrons now on the way to
the Far East. At the same- time it assures to
Japan a strong base on the mainland. While thi3
less and capture is not in any essential decisive, as
the results have for some considerable time been
expected, it is, however'a severe blow to the Rus
sian arms, It not only deprives Russian of a port
of -refuge in that part of. the world, but it wrests
rom ker a most important winter. harbor."
THE estimated loss at Port Arthur is 11,000 men.
Tho loss in killed, wounded and missing dur
ing three days at Gettysburg was 43,339. Tho Now
York World says that tho following figures rough
ly computed from press reports and occasional of
ficial reports will give some idea of tho frightful
loss of life on land and sea:
Russia had in Port Arthur 40,000
Transferred from, war vessels for shore duty 10,000
Able-bodied men on duty when Port sur
rendered g.OOO
In hospitals 15,000
Unaccounted for 3G.000
Japanese operating against Port Arthur.... 200,000
Estimated Japanese losses at Port Arthur.. 75,000
Russian naval losses around Port Arthur. . . 4,000
Jap. losses, including sinking of transports 5,000
THE siege3 famous In tho world's history are
presented by the New York World as follows:
Iroy, seventh century B. C; 10 years; result, fell;
attackers, Greeks; defenders, Trojans. Rhodes,
304 B. C; lasted 1 year; result, fell; attackers,
Greeks; defenders, Rhodians. Constantinople,
1453; 53 days; result, fell; attackers, Turks; de
fenders, Greeks. Gibraltar. 1779-83; lasted about
3 years; result, held out; attackers, Spanish and
French; defenders, English. Genoa, 1800; lasted
2 months; result, fell; attackers, Austrians; de
fenders, French. Saragossa, 1808-9; lasted 4
months; result, fell; attackers, French; defenders,
Spanish. Antwerp, 1832; lasted 19 days; result,
fell; attackers, French; defenders, Dutch. S'ebas
topol, 1854-55; lasted 11 months; result, fell; at
tackers, English and French; defenders, Russians.
Delhi, 1857; lasted 4 months; result, fell; attack
ers, English; defenders, Sepoys. Vicksburg, 1802
03; lasted 13 months; result, fell; attackers, union
army; defenders, confederates. Metz, 1870; lasted
2 'months; result, fell; attackers, Germans; de
fenders, French. Strasburg, 3870; lasted 1 month;
result, fell; attackers, Germans; defenders, French.
Paris, 1870-71; lasted 4 months; result, fell; attack
ers Germans; defenders, French. Khartoum, 1881;
lasted almost a year; result, fell; attackers, Mahdi'a;
defenders, English and Egyptians."
THE Nebraska legislature met and organized
Tuesday, Jan. 6. George L. Rouse was elected
speaker of the house and William Jennings presi
dent pro tern of the senate. In the caucus pre
liminary to the organization a desperate fight
took place between the Nebraska railroads. The
Union Pacific and the Elkhorn championed the
candidacy of Mr. Douglas of Rock county. The
Burlington railroad organized the opposition and
brought about the nomination of Mr. Rouse. It
seems tot be generally agreed that in the senate
the organization is controlled by the Union Pa
cific and Elkhorn railroads while the entire house
is controlled by the Burlington The entire con
test was one between two rival railroad factions
and no other element seems to be seriously con
sidered. AUSTRALIA is a continent without an orphan
age, according to a writer in the Chicago
News The News says: "Each waif is taken to a
receiving house where it is cared for till a country
i!rmiQ found The local volunteer societies can
vass tlel riinborlfoods and send to the children's
commttee thfnames. of any families they have
fmmd There children may be placed. The chil
dren committee selects the home which it judges
is best aTapted to the development of the chimin
' nuestion No child is placed in a family so poor
-'' that he child might suffer. The foster-parent re
ceives a sum averaging $1.25 per week for the
care of the child and for proper clothing. Wnen
n? school I a-e the child fiat be sent to school. The
Scafvlnfeer committee looks after its care and
culture and zealous neighbors often assist in
watching the growth and education of these happy
chi dren When the child is fourteen years old
he berfns to work. His earnings are placed in the
nostal savings bank, and at the age of seventeen
Sr eighteaenni goes out into ttrid edent
Thus the state at an expense of about $60 a year
to raised a man or .woman to. contribute to its
wealth and provontcd tho manufacture of a crimi
nal and tho oxpenso of courts, prlHons and reforma
tories." INTERESTING railroad statistic arc presented
by a writer In tho Kansas City Journal. Ac
cording to theso statistics, the numbor of tons of
freight carried ono mllo was 90.G22,dOO,000 In 1893,
and 171,290,000,000 In 1903, tho IncronHO in ton
years being 80,708,000,000 tons or cIobo to 90 per
cent. The average rato received per ton por mllo
in 1893 was .893 cent; In 1903 It was .781 cent;
showing an averago roductlon per ton por mllo of
.112 cent, or a littlo ovor a mill per mllo, amount
ing to a total rato roductlon of ovor $171,000,000.
Tho cross vtncomo of American railroads In 1903
was $1,998,000,000; operating expenses, $1,310,000,
000; not earnings, $682,000,000; fixed chnrges, $5C0,
000,000; leaving $122,000,000 available for dividends.
VSi-'Cy
COMMENTING upon tho proposition that nearly
$120,000,000 be appropriated for tho mainte
nance and extension of the navy during tho ensuing
fiscal year, Samuel D. Clonk, writing in tho New
York World, says: "la such an expenditure nec
essary? Is It not truo thnt a wise government,
like a wise man, will spend Its money whoro It
will do the most good? Is there any neod of rush
ing ahead and adding ship to ship without limit?
Whence comes the threat of war? The armamont
of a republic should consist In large part of tho
intelligence and wisdom of Its citizens. How much
do tho uneducated negroes of tho South add to
tho strength of tho nation? Is there no call for
the enlightenment, not only for their own good,
but for tho bencllt of the wholo people? To bo
suro, tho federnl government has a commissioner
of education, William T. Harris, but how many
people have ever heard of him. His services
are reckoned so valuable that he Is paid $3,500 a
year the salary of a captain in the navy or of a
new-made colonel In tho army. Let us have mil
lions for education and as few cents as possible as
tribute to war."
IS. VANN, of Leouburg, Fla., Is curious to know
, "why the northern poople misrepresent tho
motives of the southerners." Referring to tho
proposed reduction of representation of the
southern states In Congress, Mr. Vann, writing
in tho New York World, says: "In Florida we
have no educational test '-von. We use the Aus
tralian ballot system, and any one having sense
enough to mark his ballot properly, which con
sists of placing an X before the name of tho
voter's choice, can vote. In addition tho law re
quires any man between the ages of twenty-ono
and forty-five years to pay a poll-tax of $1 per
year, said tax going to the public school fund of
the state. Not a negro In a hundred pays his poll
tax, and this disfranchises himself. Negroes In
Florida do not pay as much as one one-thousandth
of the taxes for schools, while they receive one
fourth the total school disbursements. You will
readily sec that we have a very simple method of
voting, and also pay the expenses of educating the
negroes how to vote."
POSTMASTER General Wynne was once a
newspaper correspondent at the capltol city.
A good story concerning Mr. Wynne is going the
rounds. It Is related that President Roosevelt
once asked Mr. Wynne: "How does it feel to
attend a cabinet meeting after having spent so
much time on the outside trying to find out what
occurred at similar gatherings?" "Oh, it Is not
so much how he feels," said Secretary Wilson, "as
how the rest of us feel." Wynne ,ias Irish blood
in his veins ,3hd ready wit at the tip of his tongue.
He came back in this fashion: "That reminds
me of what Secretary Foster said when he took
charge of the treasury department I was his pri
vate secretary. One day he remarked to me:
'Wynne when I first ca to Washington as a
member of the cabinet I gazed In awe at the dis
tinguished men who were- my colleagues and won
dered how I got there. Mter I had been in the
cabinet three months I wondered how my collea
gues got there.'"
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