The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, January 08, 1904, Page 3, Image 3

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JANUARY S, '1904:
The Commoner.
Mr. Bryan on the Democratic Party
Mr.. Bryan has written for the Encyclopedia
Americana, now being published by the Ameri
cana company of New York, an article on the
democratic party. This article gives in condensed
form the history of the democratic party, to
gether with a discussion of somo of the more Im
portant issues advocated by that organization,
and will be reproduced in Tho Commoner by.
courtesy of the publishers. Papers quoting fiom
this article.- will please give credit to the Ency
clopedia Americana.
It is not convenient to publish the entire
article in one issue. The second chapter is pre
sented in this issue and other chapters will fol
low until, the entire article has been reproduced.
Andrew Jackson (q.vr) of Tennessee, the
hero of the war of 1812, had grown in fame and
popularity1 from the day of his victory over the
English at New Orleans. In 1824 he became the
nominee of his party, and in the election follow
ing received 155,872 votes, as against 105.321 cast
for John Quincy Adams; 44,282 cast for Crawford;
and 46,587 cast for Henry Clay. In the electoral
college, Jackson received 99 votes, Adams 84,
Crawford 41, and Clay 37. As no one of the can
didates' had a majority of the electoral college
the election of the president devolved upon the
house of representatives; and by a coalition be
tween the friends of Adams and the friends of
Clay, tho former received the votes of 13 states,
while Jackson received but 7 and Crawford 4.
The defeat of Jackson after he had secured
a large plurality of the popular vote, and a con
siderable plurality in the electoral college,
ardused great partisan feeling, and from that time
until 1828, Jackson was the candidate of the par
ty, his campaign growing in strength as the years
preceded until when election day arrived he nad
a popular majority of nearly 140,000, and a ma
jority of nearly 100 in the electoral college. Cal
houn was chosen vice president at the same
time. , . .
The chief features of Jackson's administra
tion were his treatment of the nullification act of
the South "Carolina legislature, and his veio of
the act for the rechartering of the United States
bank. He took vigorous steps to enforce the
federal authority and, In an elaborate message,
presented tho arguments against the right of se
cession with a force and clearness nover slnco
surpassed. His action in this matter resulted In
the alienation of John C. Calhoun, who up to
that time had been a staunch political friend.
Tho fight over the bank charter not only oc
cupied a largo part of the time of his adminis
tration, but resulted in a controversy that pcr
. meatcd other Issues. The senate passed a resolu
tion censuring him for removing tho deposits from
tho bank, and this became an issue. Under tho
leadership of Thomas A. Benton, of Missouri, tho
democrats began a fight for tho reversal of tho
. action of tho senate, and finally secured a ma
jority of that body and expunged tho resolution.
"While Jackson's military achievements weo
tho foundation for his early popularity, his great
political fame was duo to championing the cnaso
of the masses, as against tho concentrated power
of wealth. In his message vetoing tho bank char
ter he presented with emphasis and accuracy tho
democratic view of tho sphere of government. Ho
"Distinctions in society will always exist un
der every just government. Equality of talents,
of education, or of wealth, cannot be produced by
human institutions. In the full enjoyment of the
gifts of heaven and the fruits of superior Industry,
economy, and virtue every man Is equally entitled
to protection by law. But when tho laws under
take to add to those natural and just advantages
artificial distinctions to grant titles, gratuities,
and exclusive privileges to make tho rich richer
and the potent more powerful tho humblo mem
bers of society the farmers, mechanics, and tho
laborers who have neither tho time nor tho
means of securing like favors for themselves, have
a right to complain of the injustice of their gov
ernment." Jackson's position on the bank charter repre
sented the views of his party adherents. His
veto was sent to congress on July 10, 1831, and t
was the main Issue of the campaign of 1832, when
with Henry Clay as his opponent he secured a
popular plurality of 157,000. In the electoral col
lege he had 219 votes as against 49 cast for Clay.
His secretary of state, Martin Van Buren, suc
ceeded him as tho democratic candidato, and was
elected, having both a popular majority and at
majority In tho electoral college Van Burcn de
feated William Henry Harrison In that year, and
was dofcated by him in tho following campaign.
In tho earlier campaigns tho nominations wcro
made by a congressional caucus, or by the vari
ous atatos, but Jackson's rcnomlnation in 1832 was
made by a national convention held at Baltimore,
and Van Burcn was nominated by a convention
held at the same placo four years later.
In 1840 the democratic convention was ngaln
held at Baltimore, Van Buren was renominated
and a lengthy platform was adopted. As thia
platform was the basis of all platcorms adopted
from that tlmo to the breaking out of the chll
war It is worthy of reproduction. It was as
"1. Resolved, That tho federal government Ifl
ono of limited powers, derived solely from tho
constitution, and the grants of powers shown
therein ought to bo strictly construed by nil tho
departments and agonts of tho government, and
that It Is inexpedient and dangoroua to excrclau
doubtful constitutional powers.
"2. Resolved, That the constitution docs not
confer upon tho general government the power to
commence and carry on a general system of in
ternal improvements.
"3. Resolved, That the constitution docs not
confer authority upon tho federal government di
rectly or Indirectly, to assume tho debts of tho
several states, contracted for local Internal Im
provements or other stato purposes; nor would
such assumption bo just or expedient.
"4. Resolved, That JubUco and sound policy
forbid tho federal government to foster one
branch of Industry to tho detriment of another,
or to cherish the Interests of one portion to tuo
injury of another portion of our common country
that overy citizen and every section of tho
country has a right to demand and inBlfat upon an
equality of rights and privileges, and to com
plete an ample protection of persons and property
from domestic vlolenco or foreign aggression.
"5. Resolved, That It Is tho duty of every
branch of tho government to enforce and practice
the most rigid economy In conducting our public
affairs, and that no raoro revenue ought to be
(Continued on Page 14.)
Recently the Jacksonian club, a democratic
organization in tho city of Omaha, adopted a res
olution introduced by Mr Edward E. Howell,
which resolution was as follows:
"Whereas, Time makes a great many
changes in the thoughts and ideas of man
kind, and more particularly in the conditions
. and creeds of political parties, and,
"Whereas, Somo five or six years ago a
wave of fusion swept over this nation, and
more particularly over the state of Nebraska,
which made the democratic party of the na
tion tremble as to the ultimate result, and
gave rise to honest differences among demo
crats, who- were equally loyal to the cardial
principles of the party, equally proud of Its
record and devoted to its traditions, and,
"Whereas, Some few years ago this cluo,
. over the protest of some of its members, saw
fit to pass a resolution of expulsion affecting
certain members whose names are embodied
' In this resolution, who had been and are now
loyal democrats, and,
"Whereas, This organization being ol
'simon-pure democracy,' the good faith of the
party demands that it be broad enough, and
intelligent enough in its scope and ljJ
become the resting place of all democrats,
therefore, be it, , ,
"Resolved, That the following named gen
tlemen, to wit: . . reinstated as member?
of this club, in good standing, with dues paid
in full to January 1, 1904 and that the secre
tary be instructed to furnish each one ofthe
persons named a copy of this resol tlon.
Tho adoption of this resolution by a demo
cratic club at once attracted tho attention of news
papers of the country and in response to tele
cranhic inquiries, addressed to some of the gen
tlemen who had been "reinstated, the opinion
was very generally and forcibly expressed to the
etat th?s action on the part of the Jaetaonlan
club meant not only a desire to induce ; the wan
derers to return, but meant also a. wWHngness on
tho part of the democrats who d been falthiol
to the party to surrender their opinions, to ac
knowledge that in their position in 1896 and m
1900 they were wrong, while those who had de
serted tho party were right.
The gentleman who introduced this resolu
tion in the Jacksonian club went so far as to say
that "reparation" Ayas duQjthe men who had de
serted the party, and for several days in ino -light
of the expression of 'sentiments of this
character, some might have entertained the no
tion that the democrats had completely surren
dered their convictions.
In tho Omaha World-Herald of Monday, De
cember 28, there appeared an article sighed by
Richard L. Metcalfe, the editor of that newspaper.
In the beginning, Mr. Metcalfe said that any club
had tho right to admit o: to expel men at its
pleasure, and that whatever such an organization
might do could not be the concern of outsiders.
Mr Metcalfe's letter, however, deals with the sub
ject as it interests democrats generally and Com
moner readers interested in reading tho
protest made by a democrat who has not found
it necessary to be "reinstated." .
Referring to the resolution heretofore repio
duced. Mr. Metcalfe said: '
"So far as tho democratic party Is concerned
no resolution of reinstatement is necessary, rhe
party's latchstrlng hangs without; the light In
the window is never extinguished; and 'while the
lamiT holds out to burn, the .vilest sinner may
return.' All he needs to do Is to abandon his re
nubHcan idols and give his support to demo
cratic principles and democratic candidates.
"Parenthetically, it may be said that being
for harmony, he should not bear concealed weap
ons Things of that character should be cast
Side because they are not conducive to har
mony and there are within the democratic tem
ple many discerning eyes that cannot fail to ac-
tCCVhlPnrkbwafd E. Howell said that he
introduced his resolution in the hope of winning
In the narty former recalcitrants, so that they
miJht retara determined to work for the party's
nd winSS to forget the differences of the past,
g , ' In lder to shoulder with the democrats
anv,d' Sm not stray labor for the great principles
Sft party upon whose success depends the per-
nnfuifv nt nnnnlnr government on constitutional
lineswhen Mr. Howell said that, he voiced tho
sentiments of democrats generally.
"But referring to the 'reinstated,' Mr. Howell
also said: 'It has been a great Injustice to thoso
men who have been barred from the delibera
tions of their party for so long a tlmo and It was
duo time that reparation be made. When Mr.
Howell said that ho caused many democrats to
inquire: 'What Injustlco has been done to men
who could have returned at any time and against
whom the democratic party's doors have not been
barred?' Also, 'What Injustice has been done to
men who, of their own accord, turned their back
upon tho party with whose principles they had
professed sympathy and gave aid and encourage
ment to a political organization with whose prin
ciples no well grounded democrat can possibly
sympathize?' Also, 'By what manner of reason
ing may a statesman reach the conclusion that
G 000 000 democrats who remained true to tncir
party and supported for the presidency an able,
faithful and honest man, to whom they have ever
been and are now proud to pay tribute, owe any
thing in the form of "reparation" to men whose
democracy was not strong enough to keep tnem
from supporting the-republican ticket during two
national campaigns?' On the 'reparation' theory,
Mr Howell spoke for himself. He did not rep
resent any considerable number of democrats
who. having remained true to their party, are not
prepared to admit that those who were faithful
were wrong, while thoso who deserted were rlgnt.
"Some of the statements made by the gentle
men to whom tho olive branch was extended are
decidedly interesting. One of these gentlemen
says that the action shows that democrats of Ne
braska 'are now willing to accept the eastern Idea
of democracy' and to 'recognize the hopelessness
of Bryanism, and that the salvation of the party
Ilea in the east' Another says that truth is
mighty and will prevail,' and congratulates the
democratic party that 'the official organism of the
party has come to its own after eight years
amalgam with the paternal vagaries of populism
This same gentleman interprets the resolution a
(Continued on Page 11.).
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