The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, September 18, 1903, Page 7, Image 7

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SEPTEMBER 18, 1903.
la, therefore, presumed to know something about
the combine.
J, man who claimed the credit for having sug
gested to Horace Greeley the name of the repub
lican party, but' now Maine has come forward to
contest the honor. Mrs. Wasnburn, widow of
the late iBrael Washburn, jr., who was Maine's
war governor, is living in San Diego, Cal. The
Los Angeles Times says; "To Mrs. Washbu.n's
deceased husband belongs the honor of naming ,
the republican party. Israel "Washburn was a
member of congress from Maine from 1851 to
18(10, when he was elected governor:, and after tno
war until his death was collector Of the port at
Portland, Me. On May 22, 1854, the pro-slavery
advocates passed the 'Kansas-Nebraska bill
which was very obnoxious tc the free state men,
of whom Mr. "Washburn was a leader, and on the
night of its passage he called a meeting of the
anti-slavery members of congress to meet with
him the next morning in the rooms of Represen
tatives Elliott and Dickinson, of the Massachu
setts delegation. At that meeting Mr. Washburn
showed to them the utter futility of attempting
legislation through the whig and democratic par
ties, and advocated the organization of a new
party with a declaration of principles along the
lines afterward followed by the republican party.
His earnest appeal bore fruit, and then and there
the new party was launched. Wnen the ques
tion of a name for the new political organization
came up there was some difference of opinion, but,
dn the language of the biographer of Mr. Wash
burn, he said: 'The name "republican" is the
most proper and suggestive name and the least
objectionable that could be adopted. It is a nrlno
to conjure with, honorable in its antecedents and
history, and under it people ever so much divided
In their political views on other and minor ques
tions could unite on a footing of perfect equality
and with no implied surrender of principles or
convictions.' The idea was received with en
thusiasm by every member present except one,
who was not 'yet prepared to give up the long
cherished name of whig'
that on July 31, 1902, there were 4,001,497
, names on the pension rolls, and that the amounts
r. .paid, to, veterans and to Hvidows .and minor chil
. dr.en of veterans amounted approximately to
$142,0.00,000. Mr. Ware says that the iigures pre
pared for the twelvo months ending July 31, 1903,
. show that since July 31 of last year the army of
pensioners has decreased in numbers to 991,836.
The disbursements have been reduced to $136,
392,181. During the year 40,907 pensioners were
dropped from the rolls for various reasons, this
. including those whose names were removed on ac
count of death. Pennsylvania has the largest
number of pensioners, 103164 citizens of that state
being on the rolls and drawing during the ltfst
year $13;330,201.
.. ' ?
capital, unusual inteiest attaches to the
removal of the postmaster, Miss Huldah L. Todd,
who, has for years had charge, of the postofllce at;n,wx)Od, Del. Senator Alleo, who is under-
qtoodr. to' be the representative of the Addicks
forpes, demanded Miss Todd's removal and Pos
( master. General Payne called "for her resignation
on the ground that she was "particularly and per
spnajly obnoxious" to Senator Allcs. The friends
, Of Miss Todd .do not intend to tamely submit and
tjieyj. pay , that, they intend to bring the case ,to
Mjvf Roosevelt's personal attention Miss Todd's
enemies) however, declare that ;ias appeal will
be of no avail and so the politicians are wonder
ing whether the removal of this postmaster at
, GreeriVood' has been made the bai-s for an agree
ment whereby Mr., Addicks will Use his influence
to giveho Delaware vote to Mr. Roosevelt in the
republican national convention.
from Colombia and tne Washington corre
spondent for the Chicago Record-Herald says that
agents of the revolutionists have approached the
United States government with a; request for as
sista'n'ce and have been refused an- audience. At
the1 amc time the authorities at Washington do
not appear to loolc with great disfavor upon Pa
nama's secession. -T fact, the Washington corre
spondent for the Record-Herald says that the
authorities are expecting to hear almost any
time. that Panama has set up as an independent
state. If the Panama nation should be estab
lished," it would embrace nearly the whole of the
' Colombian part of the isthmus, extending to the
COstai Rican boundary on thef west, a distance of
about 225 'miles, with about the same distance to
The Commoner
in-0a& maliQS a new state about 450 miles
ong. The Record-Herald correspondent Bays
that on account of the vast marshes and almost
impassable trails to tho southeast, the Colombian
forces could reach tho isthmus only by water, and
the Colombian navy, such as it is, la said to bo
ripe for revolt and more likely to turn its guns
upon tho government than upon the robels."
A cedes, tho United States will bo placed In a
most delicate position, 'ihe Washington corre
spondent tor the Chicago Record-Herald tells us,
however, that the policy of t-his government will
be a "correct ono" uudor international law and
that "it will recognize any do facto government
as soon as it is convinced that the government has
more than a more evanescent existence and rep
resents the people of tho region involved. Tho
United States will not show unseemly haste in
recognizing tho new government and will be guid
ed by developments as if tho canal were not ono
of tho issues involved. But if tho isthmians can
maintain themselves for a reasonable time recog
nition by the United States is inevitable. Under
the treaty of 1840 tho United States is bound not
only to keep open all transisthmian lines of
communication, but to preserve the sovereignty of
Colombia upon tho isthmus. This latter obliga
tion will bo construed as relating only to at
tempted subversion of Colombia's sovereignty by
a foreign foe. It will not be held to require tho
United States to suppress 'the God-given right of
revolution' which Is so dear to tho Latin-American
heart. If rebellion breaks out at Panama tho
United States will dispatch war ships to tho
scene and will protect tho Panama railroad ac
cording to the treaty requirements. American
gun boats and marines onco the: , it will bo a
long before they come away."
that the senate sub-committee on territories
has recently returned from a trip to Alaska, Is In
favor of giving Alaska a dolegato to congress. It
Is said that the committee will oppose tho plan of
granting Alaska a territorial form of government.
( Aft
crease in the cost for carrying the mall on
what U styled the "star route service" has been
growing at a tremendous rate and that under this
policy millions of dollars havo been wasted by
the government The Wasnington correspondent
for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch says that "nearly
$7,000,0Uu is being paid out in excess of all former
rates of pay for such service notwithstanding the
rural free delivery which ought to have lessened
the cost" This correspondent explains that "up
to July, 1901, bidding for mail service had been
open to all persons In ever, section of the United
States and the large savings that have been made
have resulted from "the system of competition.
W. S. Shallenberger, second assistant postmaster
general, was led by George F. Stone, chief clerk,
to issue an order on February 13, 1900, that, here
after, no proposal for carrying the mails on 'star
routes' would be considered unless the person
making the proposal resided at some place satis-
factory to the second assistant postmaster gen
eral. The Idea was that the bidder should reside
,in the district of his contract. Consequently com
petition became no longer possible, and the sys
tem that had prevailed from the 'organization of
the departmontwas abolished. From that, the in
crease in cost began."
expenditures In the New England section
tor "star 'route service" was $1,105,033.51. Under
the new order abolishing competition, this was
increased in 1901 by $438,241.50 per year. Tho
Washington correspondent for .the Post-Dispatch
says that "in 1902 in tho western section the cost
was raised $947,059 per annum, and the estimated
increase in the middle states is at the rate of
$150,000 per month. To thi3 miict be added the
gains to the 'star' service by the discontinuance,
of the rural delivery, whi:h amounted in 1901
and 1902 to $396,098. Hero is shown an increase
on the expenditures for 'star' service from July 1,
1901, to June 30,. 1907, of $6,341,200, which must
still be Increased 'In like proportions in the sec
tions not yet let To the above Increase of 'star'
service must be added the' constantly increasing
cost of rural free delivery, which is growing into
colossal figures. Tho appropriation called for Is
now $12,000,000 per annum, and tho major portion
of this will consist of discontinued 'star' routes."
roads, otherwise known as the coal barons,
have refused to furnish to the census office 'sta-
Ustics of their operations. Tho law provide a
penalty of $10,000 and one yoar's imprisonment
lor tno officials of any corporation who fail to
furnish tho statistics demanded by tho govern
ment. Tho coal barons say that there aro im
portant defects in tho law and that they hare
prepared to test it in tho federal courts. A Wash
ington dispatch says: "It is beliavcd, too, that
tho anthracite companies aro taking advantage
or a technical error in an amendment passed in
ii , iho orl8,nnI census law, in which it Is pro
vided that tho reports on mining must bo com
pleted and published by July 1, 1903. Conscrva-.
tivo government officials hero view tho situation
with tho greatest concern, and admit frankly that
tho legality of tho provisions of the census act
and tho efficacy f tho act creating tho corpora
tion bureau of tho department of commorco and
labor will bo- finally decided if tho matter over
reaches an Issuo in tho courts."
and valuable properties of tha newly discov
eiud substance known as radium may bo counted
that which was mado known recently in New
York whon it was discovered that the substanco
lends a wonderful glow and brilliancy to dia
monds. Tho Now York correspondent for tho
Chicago Chronicle says: "A quantity of radium
of tho activity of 300,000, the first of its kind seen
here, will bo placed on exhibition at thr Ameri
can Museum of Natural History. This radium,
with somo of 700,000 activity, has beon used in
connection with tho Roentgen and ultra-vlolot
rays, in an investigation of the Interesting prop
erties developed in many substances, Including
tho Bemcnt-Morgan collection of over 13,000 speci
mens and tho Morcan-Tlffany collection of gems,
several thousand In number, and some tuousando
of other diamonds and other gems and minerals.
Certain diamonds, it was found, exhibit and re
tain a wonderful phosphorescence when exposed to
the radium rays, the glow of somo small dia
monds being clearly vlpiblc through six. layers
of paper. The new gem, kunzlto, is one of tho
most phosphorescent of all tho substances exam
ined, tho entire gem assuming under the radium
ray a rich orange-red glow."
tho castle of Rheinfeh at St Goar on tho
Rhine Is reported under date of August 1 by tho
Berlin correspondent for the Public Lodger. Tho
Berlin correspondent says: "The castle of nheln
fels, rising 375 feet above tho Rhine at the back
of tho little town of St. Goar, was regarded as
one of the most imposing ruins on tho river.
The castle was built by Count Dlethor III. of
Katzenelnbogen, who died In 1276, and a new
Rhine toll was established there. In 1092 it was
bravely and successfully defended by tho Hessian
general! Von Goerz, against the French general,
Count Tullard, with an army of 24,000 men. In
1758 tho castlo was surprised and taken by tho
French, who kept a garrison in It till 1763.
Thirty years later, when it was in the hands of
a Hessian general, it was basely deserted by him
and fell Into the possession of the French revo
lutionary army. In 1797 it was blown up, and in
1812 tho ruin was sold for $500. The ruin waa
bought in 1843 by Prince William of Prussia, af
terward German emperor."
earn twice or thrice tho dividends they pay
but put tho surplus earnings into "betterment,"
js a fact pointed out by tho New York World and
this plan' is referred to as "the conservative policy
quite opposite to that followed by England whero
extravagant dividenus have been paid and im
provements made by new capital until it Is diffi
cult to pay dividends at all." The World writer
adds: "The total capital of British railways Is
$283,000 per mile; of American roads $60,000 per
mile. 'Since 1896 tho dividends of the principal
British roads have decreased; on American roads
they have increased. Our engines arc compara
tively few-because they arc tho most powerful
.Jcnowtf. Though hut 41,228 in number they haul
in a year 649,8 '8,505 passengers and 111.089.347
tons of freight For every passenger car there are
forty .freight cars. We are a stay-at-home people.
Instead of traveling wo send goods. In ono re
spect our railways are shamefully inferior. There
were 345 passengers killed last year In this jcoun
try, none in Great Britain, though the usual
number of employeg were killed or injured there.
Here one employe out of every twenty-four Is in
jured within the year. However, aa tho average
passenger must travel the equivalent of .2,300
times the clrcuufcrence of. the earth .before he
gets killed, railway journeys are not totbe classic
- fled a 'extra-hazardous.' V . -: - : - ,