The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923, June 28, 1901, Page 10, Image 10

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The Commoner.
The Usefulness of Hawks.
Some weeks ago there appeared in
,Tho Commoner an interesting bulletin
regarding the value of birds as insect
destroyers. An Ohio reader of The
Commonor complained that hawks
preyed upon birds and should bo killed.
In the course of his lotter he says:
"I write this letter to you in hopes
your paper with its large circulation
over tho whole republic may be able
to opon tho oyes of tho public to tho
real causo of tho fast decrease of our
feathered friends. As I was born and
raised near a large city I know some
thing about the destruction of birds,
both in the suburbs of the city and in
tho rural districts. I think I can truly
say that for every bird killed by one
man one thousand aro killed by other
enemios, the hawk being the greatest
enemy. Ono hawk will catch from five
to twenty birds in one day, and there
are not twenty song birds killed in a
year by man, in a township. Every
township has from 20 to 100 hawks,
largo and small. You may call it 20,
and ten birds a day apiece makes 200
birds killed in ono day or 73,000 in
each township in a year. Twenty-five
townships to a county and 88 counties
in tho state of Ohio, would make a to
tal sum of 151,800,000, the number of
birds killed in ono year for a single
state. The only wonder is that there
is a bird left; and they do get so scavce
that tho hawks have to visitHho poul
try yards. Tho farmers notice that
some seasons the hawks hardly bother
tho poultry at all, while at other sea
sons tho loss of poultry is something
"Now if Professor Brunor wants to
do something practical towards saving
from destruction all of the birds, he
wants to use influence to havo the leg
islatures of states pass laws to place
bounties on tho killing of hawks. Wo
had a lqw pf that kind in Ohio a few
years ago. A bounty of fifty cents
each was paid for hawks' heads, and
the sportsmen started out with their
long range rifles and tho hawks were
thinned out fast, and tho birds began
to make a marked increase; but an
other political party got control of the
legislature and the law was repealed in
the interests of economy.
"The hawks aro getting plentiful and
tho birds decrease just in proportion
Crlap, Tootlisomo and Requires No Cooking:.
as the hawks increase. I am some
what of a hunter myself and shoot a
hawk whenever I got a chance, and
have shot quite a number on your
western prairies as woll as in my na
tive stato. I have seen a single hawk
catch a flock of twelve quail in ono
day. Now if every friend of the bird
would shoot a hawk whenever he got
a chance, bounty or no bounty, there
would be a noticed increase in the
small birds.
"Tho fact remains that tho hawks
aro on the increase and tho birds on
tho decrease, but by giving a suitable
bounty tho boys will get out their rifles
and will keep pegging away until the
last hawk is dead, and then you will
see a marked increase of birds and
small game."
This complaint was submitted to
Professor Brunor and called forth tho
following reply:
"Since tho statements made in tho
foregoing letter differ considerably
from recent published accounts deal
ing with the food-habits of hawks, it
has been deemed advisable to at least
call attention to what has been done
on the subject. Accordingly a brief
Statement is handed you herewith,
which, if thought advisable, might be
published along with that letter.
"Mr. C. Hart Merrlam, when hand
ing the manuscripts for a bulletin on
the Hawks and Owls of the United
States to-tho secretary of agriculture,
accompanied the same with a brief
summary of the food-habits of these
birds as follows:
" 'The statements herein contained
respecting the food of the various
hawks and owls aro based on the criti
cal examination, by scientific experts,
of tho actual contents of about 2,700
stomachs of these birds, and conse
quently may be fairly regarded as a
truthful showing of the normal food of
each species. The result proves that
a clas3 of birds commonly looked upon
as enemies to the farmer, and indis
criminately destroyed whenever occa
sion offers, really rank among his best
friends, and with few exceptions should
bo preserved, and encouraged to take
up their abode in the neighborhood of
his home. Only six of the 73 species
and sub-species of hawks and owls of
the United States aro injurious. Of
these, three are so extremely rare they
need hardly be considered, and another
(the fish hawk) is only indirectly in
mainder of mankind given a whole
some lesson. Why not pursue a liko
policy when dealing with our feathered
"If hawks and owls, which are gen
erally credited with being the Ishmael
ites among birds, may at times be
considered our friends and worthy of
protection from the thoughtless gun
ner, what shall we say about the song
and other birds?" : . '
Great Stock Country.
No better cattle and sheep, country
in America. Cheap lands, pure, run
ning water, and flowing wells, fine cli
mate, no malaria, plenty of hay.
Write for information to
O'Neill, Neb.
A Debt Statement.
An interesting statement has been
made regarding tho national debts of
the world's great nations. In 1793 it
was estimated that the total debt of
tho nations was $2,500,000,000. It is
now estimated at $31,000,000,000. The
increase in debt, population and, coin
during the past century may be stated
about as follows:
Per cent.
Increase in population 150
Increase in gold and silver 300
Increase in debt 1,000
It will thus be seen that this vast
world's debt has largely exceeded the
increase in coin,' ana must be based
largely on credit. What has caused
this Irightful increase of debt? Pos
sibly one-third resulted from building
railroads and improving rivers and
harbors. The rest may be charged to
wars many of thom unholy and little
short of barbarous! This is the bur
den that agriculture has carried- for,
in tho end, tho great expense of war
and destruction must come out of the
soil. Rural Newyorker.
Mr. Fleming's Opinion.
Congressman Fleming of Georgia
thus comments upon the ono majority
decision of tho supremo court:
"In three great crises which havo oc
curred since tho war where tho su
preme court was directly concerned,
the republican party has invariably
carried its point by one majority and
has never wasted any of its resources
in getting a larger majority than ono.
"First, there was tho electoral com
mission, under which Tilden was de
frauded of his election by the people.
That decision was in favor of the re
publican party by one majority all it
"Next there was the income tax de
cision, in which the republican party
found it necessary to limit the power
of congress under the constitution,
and it succeeds in reversing the law
that had stood for a hundred years,
and did it by ono majority all it
"Then again there was the Porto
Rican tax cases, in which the republi
can party found it necessary to en
large the powers of congress under
the constitution, and it succeeded in
reversing the accepted principles of
law that had stood for a hundred years
and did it by one majority of tho
court all it needed.
"Every good citizen is impelled to
give the court the fullest credit for
sincerity and honesty, and these three
instances of one majority will no doubt
be accepted by the public as mere co
incidences. But I venture the asser
tion that if the republican party con
tinues to get many more such critical
decisions by one majority, the average
American mind will come to the con
clusion that it is not altogether due to
Government Changed.
The constitution, to defend which
nearly a million men have poured out
their blood on a thousand battle fields,
is not for all. Some milions who. havo
lived all their lives under the folds of
the star-spangled banner havo been
jurious, leaving but two (tho sharp- told ? tne supreme court that the
A little boy down in N. C. asked his
mother to write an account of how
Grape-Nuts Food had helped their
She says Grape-Nuts was first
brought to her attention on a visit to
Charlotte, where sho visited the
Mayor of that city who was using the
Food by tho advice of his physician.
Sho says, "They derive so much good
from it that they never pass a day
without using it. While I was there I
used the Food regularly. I gained
about 15 pounds and felt so woll that
when I returned home I began using
Grapo-Nuts in the family regularly.
My little 18 months old baby shortly
after being weaned was very ill with
dyspepsia and teething. She was sick
nine weeks and wo tried everything.
Sho became so emaciated that it was
painful to handle her and we thought
wo were going to lose her. Ono day a
happy thought urged mo to try Grapo
Nuts soaked in a little warm milk.
Woll it worked liko a charm and sho
began taking It regularly and improve
ment set in at once. She is now getting
well and round and fat as fast as pos
sible and on Grape-Nuts.
Sometime ago a number of tho fam
ily wore stricken with LaGrippe at the
same timo, and during tho worst stages
we could not relish anything in the
shape of food but Grapo-Nuts and or
anges, everything olso nauseated us.
We all appreciate what your fam
ous food has done for our family."
shinned and Cooper's hawks) that
really need to be taken into account as
enemies to agriculture. Omitting tho
six species that feed largely on poul
try and game, 2,212 stomachs were ex
amined, of which 56 per cent contained
mice and other small mammals, 27 per
cent insects, and only 3 per cent
poultry or game birds. In view of
these facts the folly of offering boun
ties for the destruction of hawks and
owls, as has been dono by several
states, becomes apparent, and tho im
portance of an accurate knowledge of
tho economic status of our common
birds and mammals is overwhelming
ly demonstrated.'
"From the data given above wo may
readily infer that careful research has
shown us that these birds aro not so
bad as we imagined them to be, but
that they are even capable of rendering
the tiller of tho soil valuable service as
police officers in dealing with vermin
like mice, ground-squirrels, gophers,
prairio dogs, etc.
Hawks, like men and boys, some
times do, no doubt, develop abnormal
tastes as well as habits. Occasionally
one may develop a fondness for the
inhabitants of our poultry yards or
oven for tho harmless and beautiful
song birds of our groves, meadows and
fields. But this fondness for bird flesh
in a few individuals does not indicate
that tho entlro group Is mado up of the
samo class of Individuals as regards
their traits or desires. In the case of
tho man or boy chastisement Is, or
Der Boeren.
I should be, administered and tho re- Independent.
constitution does not protect them.
They no longer have unalienable
rights. Congress can take every ono
of them away. Five men who live at
Washington, surrounded by an atmos
phere of imperialism, militarism and
plutocracy, have changed the whole
form of our government. All men
not even all white men born in. the
United States are no longer equal be
fore the law. The law that is, tho
constitution provides that some of
them shall not have soldiers quartered
upon them, shall not bo subject to un
reasonable searches and seizures, shall
not bo held to answer for crime except
upon the presentment of a grand jury,
shall have the benefit of counsel, shall
be confronted With the witnesses
against him, shall be tried in tho dis
trict whero the crime was alleged to
be committed by a -jury of his peers,
shall not be subject to excessive bail
nor twice be put in jeopardy for the
samo offense. Now some sixteen mil
lions of people are living w.Ithin the
jurisdiction of the United States who
havo been deprived of all these rights.
Now Christian men can be transported
ten thousand miles away from their
homes, tried in secret, denied counsel
and be deprived of; life, liberty and
property without any process of law.
This is the ending of tho great party
founded by Lincoln which drew its in
spiration from the declaration that
"all men woro created equal" and in
whose ranks so many of us were glad
to serve for many years. Nebraska
Fight on, brave souls, with .Bothaandj
De Wet!
Ye noble men and boys, whom, to
Requires ten times your force in
English foes.
God crown your arms with freedom's
victory yet,
For hallowed is your strife,- ye pa
triots bold;
And may your every aim be true to
The tyrant's legions into Afric's
Fools that they are, mere purchased
things and sold. ( .
That heart is pulseless to our na
tion's creed
Who lauds the coining of men's
blood to gain
Gold for a clique andubjects for a '
reign, - o
Or for assaulted freedom does not'
bleed. ;
Rise, freemen, all! ere King and
Would-Be King
And Greed the knell of all republics
Franklin Quinby, in The Public. .
One of the first things to attract the
attention of Baby Clarence was grand
ma's hat-rack, made of a pair of deer
horns. One afternoon when ho was
three years old, his papa took him to
Capt..G.'s park. When relating the in
cidents of the trip to his mamma on
their return, ho exclaimed: "And, oh,
mamma! I saw a deer, and he had a
hat-rack on his head!" Current Lit- ,
Astonishing Binder Twine Offer.
If you need blndor twlno for this season's
crop, and want tho highest grado binder twino
mado, oitlior Standard, Sisal or Manila, and
you want to rocoivo an astonishingly low prico
oilor, an extraordinary inducoraont for you to
sond to Chicago for your twine, cut this notico
out and mail to Skaks Roebuck & Co., Chicago,
111., and you will rocoivo by return mail, post,
paid, samples of tho highest grado Standard,
Sisal and Manila, together with a most extra
ordinary oiler, including a pueoiai urico that
I will moan a biff sdving to you.