The Loup City northwestern. (Loup City, Neb.) 189?-1917, May 11, 1916, Image 6

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

•Not Only Weights and Measures, but About Every Detail of Every
Public Utility Passed Upon by Federal Bureau of Standards—
Idea Is to Present Well-Tested Methods Which Will
Commend Themselves to All States.
Washington.—Ever since the advent
®f the new year the bureau of stand
ards of the department of commerce
has been deluged with inquiries from
all corners of tbe country concerning
standards of everything from electric
and gaslight brilliance to the strength
of a water pipe. And most of these re
quests are pouring in from public serv
ice corporations and their old enemies,
the public utilities commissions.
Primarily the bureau of standards
was charged with the duty of testing
and determining standards of exact
measurements of every kind and na
ture. A steel yardstick which may be
a yard long in June will be something
less than a yard in cold December, and
It is the bureau’s task to find out what
constitutes a real yard under all con
ditions. Naturally, in pursuing this
chase for elusive constants, the bureau
branched off, more or less, into meas
uring things other than yardsticks, and
among other details it became inter
ested in learning what amount of elec
tricity should go into an electric light.
As this was only a step from learning
what constitutes a real gaslight candle
power, the bureau learned that also.
Several years ago, it appears, those
who planned for the future of the bu
reau anticipated that eventually they
would be called upon to referee the
constant clashes between public serv
ice corporations and those state and
municipal commissions appointed to
regulate the corporations. They felt
that the day would come when the
word of the bureau of standards must
settle such controversies, and they set
to work to rig up their administrative
plant to provide for it.
And just as they planned the need
arose, and they were prepared. For
a while the public utility experiments
and decisions of the bureau were car
ried along as a rather unclassified por
tion of its administrative burden, but
as the demand for information in
creased along public utility lines it
was finally decided to set aside a cer
tain part of the bureau's force into
separate quarters and put them to the
task of working out the destiny of
those corporations which serve the
Some Knotty Problems.
Electric light and gas companies and
street railways furnish most of the
knotty problems the bureau is called
upon to solve in the public utilities
field, and perhaps no problem has giv
en the bureau more study and trouble
than the process of electrolysis of un
derground pipes in cities where the
streets are honeycombed by pipes of
all sorts.
Most of the street railways are op
erated on the single, overhead trolley
plan, with the electric current passing
through the car into the track, via the
wheels, after it has passed through the
car motors. Most of the current is
properly conducted back to the gene
rating stations, but some of it escapes
and menaces gas and water pipes in
the vicinity. These stray currents
produce what is known as electrolysis,
which eats away the pipes. This leads
to constant wrangling between the i
street railway companies and the cor- i
porations whose pipes have been in
jured. While it has so far been almost
impossible to completely prevent the
corroding of pipes thus exposed, the I
bureau has been able to advise public
utilities commissions how to compel
the various corporations involved to
mitigate this current wastage and the
consequent evi! effects.
As a result of tests made during the
past year at St. Louis, Springfield,
Mass., and Springfield, O., the bureau
has been enabled to lay down some
• definite rules which will prevent a ,
great deal of damage from this agency. :
Bonding of the joints of rails to give ;
greater conductivity to tho rails, was
one plan. Another was embodied in
radical roadbed changes, to lessen the
connections between tho earth and the
rails. At present the bureau is con
ducting tests to show the extent of
electrolytic action on pipes of all kinds
and this is expected to throw addi
tional light on the question.
The bureau gets every assistance
from the gas and electric companies
and from municipalities, while the
street railway companies usually give
but scant attention to the matter. The
reason is obvious, as the results of the
work tend to increase the cost to the
railway companies through the neces
sary installation of safeguards, where
as railways themselves are not con
cerned in the matter of damaged pipes
owned by other parties, unless a Law
suit results, and the courts have been
able to get very little action here.
Gas Service Standards.
Determining service standards of
gas, both for heating and illuminating,
is another factor in the work of the
bureau. Most city and state utility
commissions rule rather uniformly on
the matter of meters, meter testing,
heating value and candle powen of the
gas product, degree of chemical purify
and amount of pressure required,
the bureau experts have been able to
formulate a set of uniform regulations.
It is the aim of the bureau to make
the gas requirements of San Francisco
as near those of New York as possible.
A fairly uniform meter regulation, for
instance, would remove a great ob
stacle to meter manufacturers. At
present a meter acceptable In San
Francisco might not do at all in New
The bureau, thanks to the experts,
could furnish at this moment a set of
rules for the government of public
utilities anywhere, which, with possi
bly a few minor alterations, could be
put into effect with marked benefit to
the community and without serious
hardship to the corporations affected.
For instance, three sets of model elec
tric ordinances have been prepared—
one for large cities, one for medium
sized cities, and one for smaller cities
and towns. Big-city requirements are
inclined to be more stringent than
those applicable to smaller communi
ties, and to enforce these requirements
upon electric power companies in small
towns would be more or less of a hard
ship. Then there is a different set of
model regulations, suitable for adop
tion by state utilities commissions,
which strike a happy medium between
the stricter regulations of the large
cities and the laxer rules applicable
to the smaller communities. In formu
lating these tables of measurements
the bureau has received support not
only from utilities commissions
throughout the country but from elec
tric companies as well.
It frequently happens that represen
tatives of the bureau are asked by pub
lic utilities commissions to attend hear
ings on matters of more than usual
importance. In such case an expert
is sent, and usually he supplies data
of vast benefit in enabling those in
terested to reach a definite conclusion.
Safety Codes.
One important phase of the bureau’s
work is its plan to formulate and have
adopted a national gas and electric
safety code for the protection of both
workers and consumers. The idea is
to have the code uniform throughout
all states. This work, however, is not
completed. Sometime this year a con
ference will be held in Washington
to consider the bureau's national elec
tric code, and if adopted by the con
vention its adoption by the state leg
islatures will be urged.
The same method has been followed
in the preparation of a gas safety code
for all the states.
To investigate the telephone as a
public utility it has been necessary
to make some survey of telephone
transmitting and receiving apparatus,
as well as switchboard equipment. So
far this work has been slight, but from
now on the bureau will devote itself
more energetically to this task. In the
opinion of the bureau telephone stand
ards are in sore need of fixing.
Public service commissions through
out the country are noting increasing
frequency of petitions for permission
for connections between telephone sys
tems under different ownerships and
the question is constantly arising as to
whether an impairment of service
would result.
Thomas Mott Osborne, former war
den of Sing Sing prison, posed for the
Survey in the old iron head cage
which he found in the cellar of Auburn
prison. The head cage weighs eight
pounds, and was used as recently as
18 years ago on refractory prisoners.
$1,000 for Nine Lives.
Des Moines, la.—W. O. Allen, a
West Des Moines high school teacher,
has received a Carnegie hero medal
and $1,000 in cash for bravery in
saving nine person* from drowning at
Athens, O., in 1907. Allen was a stu
dent at Ohio university at AthenB,
when the Hocking river overflowed
and carried everything before it. Al
len and a companion, using a small
skiff, rescued nine persons.
leady for Big Flood.
Drayton, Mo.—Foreseeing a flood to
cover the whole earth, John Rule, a
farmer, living on Red river, has built
an ark in which he expects to save
himself and his family.
Organized to Clean Up New York’s
East Side and Keep It
New York.—Five hundred organized
'police girls, with badges, clubs, blue
cans and jackets are the latest thing
In the campaign to keep the East side
ClThe girls, bedecked with glittering
badges recently swooped upon the
residents of the district and informed
_' ’" l">:’
them that banana peelings and the like
should not be thrown from windows
into the streets and that rubbish must
not be permitted to accumulate in the
corners of the room.
The girl police has been organized
by Harry S. Schiacht, president of the
East Side Protective association.
The captain of the squad is Cecilia
Goldberg, thirteen years old. The girls
have given pledges to keep their own
homes clean. They are intelligent
school children between the ages of
twelve and eighteen.
Boy Wins Release of Parents Who
Were Prisoners of Villa’s Band
of Cutthroats.
Philadelphia. — Little four-year-old
Harry Joline of this city sang to Vil
la's ferocious guerrillas and brought
about the release cf his imprisoned
This youthful traveler is the son
of Mr. and Mrs. Harry Joline. With
his father, who is a mining engineer,
and his mother he has traveled during
the last 45 days a distance of 14,000
miles, passing through the United.
States, Canada and Mexico. At the
time of the Columbus raid he and his
parents were in Juarez, Mexico, and
were subjected to considerable affront
Harry Jolinu.
anil finally were incarcerated in a
bull pen. Young Harry was allowed
to roam about, and soon succeeded in
capturing and holding the affections
and imaginations of Villa's fierce sol
diers, who showered him with Villa
currency and released his father and
mother and saw them safely to the
Harry is also a young hero in the
eyes of traveling men and doctors who
consider his feat of traveling 14,000
miles in ever-changing altitudes with
out becoming sick, a truly remarkable
achievement. He has imbibed ail
kinds of spring, soda and mineral wa
ters, and has changed his clothing on
some days, twice, and occasionally
three times, to suit the climate through
which he was passing. Changes vary
ing from freezing to summer heat,
traveling on 23 railroads and sleep
iuj on railroad trainsjind in different
hotels each night have left no ill ef
fects upon this youngster.
Nez Perce Urges All Redmen Who Can
to Go to the Carlisle Indian
Carlisle, Pa.—Superintendent Oscar
H. Lipps of the Carlisle Indian school,
is in receipt of a letter from Stephen
Reuben, a Xez Perce Indian, who left
the school 33 years ago. Mr. Reuben
says he has nc escaped the tempta
tion of the reservation, but he is
thankful that he has been given
strength and courage to rise when he
fell and “stand like a man.” He urges
the pupils to make use of their oppor
tunities here, for they will be thank
ful some day, as he is today, for what
Carlisle is doing for the Indians.
He says among other things: “I
allowed not my hair to grow below my
ears. I wear still the stiff head collar
on my neck and I wear a good suit
like I had on while at Carlisle. I am
living on a farm, raise grain, vege
tables and fruit, and drive six horses
with train wagons just like I did in
Buck county, Pennsylvania. I built
a house for myself from what I
learned of the carpenter’s trade at
Carlisle. I have 1,524 fruit trees, one
half bearing fruit now.”
Seven-Inch Howitzer Carried Thirty
Eight Miles in Three Hours Over
Hilly Road.
San Francisco.—Officers of the coast
artillery here expressed satisfaction
over a test made to determine the
value of the automobile as a factor in
coast defense.
The Thirteenth company was rushed
from Fort Miley to Half Moon bay.
The artillerymen took with them a
seven-inch howitzer, weighing four
The distance is 38 miles, over a hlily
road, and the trip with horses would
take, army officers estimated, about a
day and a halt. The artillerymen cov
ered the distance in 90 minutes in mo
tor cars. The gun was only three
hours on the way.
Knocks His Customer Down.
Portersville, Cal.—W. S. Beller, a
carpenter, employed at a local mag
nesite mine, was prevented from com
mitting suicide when he was knocked
down by a clerk in a local drug store
just as he had thrown back his head
preparatory to tossing into his mouth
sufficient poison to have killed a regi
ment of men.
He bought the poison with the state
ment he was to use it In poisoning
gophers, and his actions aroused the
suspicions of the clerk.
Batters Who Make Their Hits Count.
“Gavvy" Cravath of the champion Phillies holds the 1915 record for the
greatest number of runs driven in in one game. He hit home eight in the
contest with Cincinnati on August 8, twice sending three men over the plate
by doubling. The last major leaguer to turn this trick was Harry Davis, who
did it in 1890 against Brooklyn. Harry then was with the Giants. Fournier
of the White Sox set the American league record for the year when, on July
6, he batted in six tallies.
George Sisler of St. Louis Browns Can
Play Any Position on Diamond—
Is Hard Hitter.
"How long do you think it will be
before baseball produces another
player like Ty Cobb?” someone asked
of a crowd of old-timers in the press
box during a recent fanning bee.
“Looks to me as if it had already
produced one.” remarked George
Tlavis, scout and former manager of
.he Giants. He was looking at Sisler,
the versatile young athlete of the
Browns. "There's about the best ball
player we've seen in years.”
This brought on quite a discussion,
and after going all the way down the
line of new stars it was the unani
mous verdict that Sisler is by far the :
rreatest ballplayer discovered in recent
years. And this is not due entirely to
uis versatility. Though he can play
any position on the diamond except
behind the bat he is a star in any
placp they put him.
Sisler is a great pitcher, a dandy
first baseman, a corking good outfield
George Sisler.
cr and can play either second, short
or third as well as 90 per cent of the
men in the league, in addition to that
he hits well over .300.
Among Others Developed for Majors
Are John Tener, Christy Mathew
son and Larry Lajoie.
The New England league goes out
of existence with a record to be proud
of in the way of developing talent for
the majors. The following are a few
of the men who started with the New
England league: John K. Tener,
president of the National league;
Christy Mathewson, Larry Lajoie,
"Rabbit” Maranville, Hugh Duffy,
Charley Farrell, Harry Davis, “Stuffy”
Mclnnis, Martin Rergen, Jack Doyle,
Harry Lord, Ainsmith, Larry Gardner
and Henriksen.
Proud of His Pitchers.
Manager Herzog is particularly
proud of his pitching material, princi
pally youngsters, including Dale, for
merly of Montreal; Fred Tony,
Schneider, McKenery, Mitchell, Dowd,
Earl Mosley, formerly of the Indian
apolis and Newark Feds; Schultz and
Stanley Douglas.
Makes Pitchers Work.
“Chick” Gandil reminds one of
George Stovall In one way. He makes
the pitchers cover first, and if the In
dian hurlers fail to improve in fielding
it will not be “Chick’s” fault, for he
absolutely declines to scoop a ground
er and dash for the pack himself.
Indians Are Fast.
Manager Lee Fohl makes the pre
diction the Cleveland fans are going
to see the fastest base-running team
this year that has represented that
city since the days of Jack Powell.
Jimmy Callahan, leader of the Pi
rates, says that Joe Schultz, once with
the Brooklyn, will fill the gap at sec
ond base. Cal is trying to build up a
team of youngsters.
* * *
The struggle for the second-base po
sition on the Reds is all over. Bill
Rodgers will play the position.
* * *
The Pittsburgh National league club
has asked waivers on Infielder James
Smith, Catcher Fred Blackwell and
Pitcher Douglas.
* * *
Beall, Killifer and Griffith have
about been decided on as the Red out
field this season.
* * *
Players of the Yankees believe that
before June 1 Frank Gilbooley will be
a more-talked-about tosser in Gotham
than Benny Kauff.
Outfielder Shorten of the Red Sox
is said to be one of the best young
players ever signed by the Hub cham
* * »
Connie Mack has forbidden golfing be
cause he believed it spoiled the batting
eye of some of his Athletics last sea
* • *
Clark Griffith has unearthed a prom
ising young catcher named Gliarrity,
who played with Minneapolis last year.
Gharrity may till the shoes of Catcher
Ainsmith of tho Washingtons, as the
latter is troubled with his eyes.
* * *
"Ollie” O’Mara of the Brooklyn Na
tionals has rounded into great shape.
It will take some tall hustling on the
part of any recruit to oust the peppery
little shortstop from his regular job.
* * *
"Jimmy” Callahan reports the Pi
rates are in great shape. “Honus”
Wagner will be his able lieutenant,
and from all accounts the athletes will
surely be on their toes this year.
* * »
George Maisel, brother of Fritz of
the Yankees, has won the job of utility
outfielder with the Detroit Tigers.
* * *
I.efty I.eifield, former Cub hurler. is
a member of the St. Paul A. A. team.
* * •
Clark Griffith has a youngster who
he thinks will bo the talk of the cir
cuit. He is Charley Jamieson.
* * *
Hap Meyers, former Brooklyn out
fielder, is now a member of the San
Francisco SeedA
* • *
Manager Herzog of the Reds has re
leased Pitchers Dowd and Caporal. |
Waivers have been obtained on both i
men. Dowd goes back to Montreal j
and Caporal returns to Elmira, in the '
New York Staf:e league.
* * *
Terry Turner of the Indians started ;
out with the Columbus team 19 years j
ago, and he is still an artist in his
* * *
If Elmer Jacobs makes the team. Pi
rate fans will see Heine Zimmerman's
double. Jacobs carries a physique and
facial expression which greatly re
semble the eccentric Zim
• * *
Ira Thomas. Bush, Wvckoff and
Schang agree that Rube Bressler will
come back in great shape this season.
* * •
Bill Martin, recruit shortstop of the
Giants, who was with the Braves last
year, has suffered three broken legs
in his short athletic career in college
and professional baseball.
• * *
Some of the experts are expecting
great things from Karl Adams, one of
Moran's young pitchers. They figure
the youngster as a regular slabman
before the season is far advanced1..
Free Pass Evil Is “Booed” by Every
Fan Who Really Loves Game—
Batter Always Anxious to
Boost Batting Average.
Whenever a batter receives a base
on balls, or is hit by a pitched ball,
the manager of the team at bat may
have the alternative of permitting the
batter to take first base, as has been
customary under the present rules, or
he may put a base runner on first base
and permit the batter to continue at
bat. The base runner substituted shall
be permitted to re-enter the game at
any other time as a base runner, and
the batter shall not be forced out of
the game as is the custom under the
present rules when a man runs for
The rule above will accomplish
many things, make the game more
speedy, make lot more control on the
part of the pitchers, make more and
better base running, make it necessary
to keep at least one lightninglike run
ner on the squad and do away with
intentional passes.
Perhaps where it will make the big
gest hit with the players is that it
will make for bigger batting averages.
When a batter is hit by a pitched
ball or passed by being given four
balls, he is not credited with a time at
bat, it is true, but, on the other hand,
it is a time he does not have a chance
to make a hit, and every batter wants
as many chances to boost his batting
averages as possible.
The free pass evil is “booed” at by
every fan who really loves the game.
To not permit a brilliant hitsmith like
Cobb to get a fair chance at making
a hit, when a hit means runs and per
haps the game, is something the fan
frowns upon.
He wants to see his hero stride up
to the plate, pick out one to his liking
and smash it out for a three-bagger
or a homer and send in runs ahead of
Demon Fence Buster and Macaroni
Consumer Was Kidded Out of
Majors by Paragraphers.
The humorous sport paragraphers
never did appeal to Ping Bodie's sense
of humor.
They grated on Ping's nerves so
long that they finally succeeded in
driving him from the big leagues.
Ping is on the coast now and doing
well, and according to reports from
that western extreme of the continent.
Ping Bodie.
Ping wouldn't return to the big show
even if he got the opportunity.
Out on the coast the demon fence
buster and macaroni consumer is
quoted as saying: "No more big
league stuff for mine. They kidded
me out of the majors and I’m through
with them. I'm content to play in the
minors, because here the fans are
kindly in their treatment toward me.
So arc the players. The sticks are
good enough for me."
Jimmy Callahan, New Manager of Pi
rates Disagrees With Former
President Taft.
Professor Taft's idea of voiceless
coaching, as expressed by the former
president at the recent National
league banquet, seems unpopular. Jim
my Callahan, new manager of the
Pittsburgh Pirates, is one manager
who has announced his stand against
quiet coaching.
“Noisy coaching may not suit men
of a sensitive nature, but I believe the
fans generally in the I’nited States
like it,” said Callahan in reply to
Mr. Taft. “Half of the sport in the
game would be taken away by stop
ping the noise in connection with the
sport and I don't believe the men who
make baseball rules will ever legis
late out loud coaching.
“Nerve is a vital essential for a ball
player, and if he has it the coaching
doesn't bother him. If he hasn’t, then
he is one of the few who will object
to the loud coaching.”
Tigers’ Official Jester.
The Tigers are to have an official
jester this season, provided Rube Mar
shall stays with them, and they are
going to have one second to none of
the baseball clowns who already have
established big league reputations.
For some reason, the Jungaleers have
been blessed with very few of the
funny fellows.
McGraw Sweet on Palmero.
Hank Palmero, the Cuban wonder,
is banking on making the New York
team this year. Palmero is bigger and
heavier than he ever was before, and
his pitching has improved with his
strengia. McGraw likes his actions
this spring and believes that he will
fill the shoes' of Rube Marquard
Priceless Tapestries and Paintings
Were Removed From Paris When
the German Army Advanced.
M. Henri Marcel, French director "~9y
general of national museums, has just
reported to the government details of
the transfer to Toulouse of the art
treasures of the Paris Louvre, says the
St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
The occasion of the report was popu
lar rumors that some of the most val
uable paintings had been scratched or
otherwise damaged.
M. Marcel relates how he had op
posed the government’s order to re
move the treasures at the time of Von
Kluck’s drive to within twenty miles
from Paris, and how he finally consent
ed to pack them, as well as the most
famous tapestries of Reims, Chantilly
and Compiegne.
Each painting was wrapped in oven
dried wax paper, with a layer of cotton
over it back and front; special boxes
were made with copper spirals holding
the frames in position and protecting
them against sudden shocks. And final
ly 900 of the most valuable paintings,
with an even number of less value,
were taken to a special train in the
Midi station; the cars were padded
thickly; two guards were in each car.
That train, says the report, carried
over $200,000,000 worth of treasures. 1
Arrived at Toulouse, the most seri
ous operation, that of unpacking, was Y
successfully undertaken in the pres—'
ence of the entire Louvre board, and
each item was checked in after
thorough examination. Not one pic
ture suffered on the way or in pack
ing or unpacking; and all are stored y
in an “indestructible” building, which
has been tested as to dryness; in fact,
is under continual surveillance, so that
harm cannot come to the pictures or
They are not now on exhibition, but
only stored for safety. Mr. Marcel
thinks that it would be quite safe to
take them back to Paris now', “as they
will never be disturbed there now.”
General Galieni, however, the military
commander of Paris, has refused per
mission to bring them back before the
end of the war.
The works of sculpture and minor
pictures have not been removed from
the Louvre; and since March 1 the
gallery is open to the public daily, ex
cept Sundays and Mondays. But the
military authorities have insisted on
getting ready places of safety even for
the remaining art stores, which can be
removed in a tew hours should It be
come necessary.
Poesy in Wall Street.
“To me your Wall street is one of
the most poetic spots in America,'
said a young woman out of the West
on a trip through the narrow canyon.
“That sounds rather odd, I know, espe
cially to those who are accustomed to
associate Wall street with common
gambling and fortune-wrecking. But
I have never met any literary people, k
painters or musicians more highly v.
strung, as we sar, than the typical
men of ‘the street.’ They have, too,
the most wonderful imaginations. The
way they talk about piles of bonds
and gold and cotton and wheat is per
fectly fascinating. And they believe,
to a large extent, that what they tell
you about business is true. They are
carried away with the idea, just the
same as a novelist who is outlining
his next book to his publisher is car
ried away with his theme and plot.
They all love their work, and I do not
think they would take half so much
interest in making and breaking them
selves and other people if Wall street
were not hard and cruel and full of
excitement and humor and pathos.’’
Banker’s Keen War Vision.
An English army officer was starting
for the front last year and he called
upon his London bank to settle up cer
tain affairs before departing.
"You'll be back soon with a wounded
hand,” said the- bank manager. He was.
His wound healed, the officer made
i ready to go back to the front. Meeting
i the bank manager, he inquired: "Any
; more predictions?”
“You’ll be gone longer tbi3 time,"
said the manager, “and when you do
return it will be with quite a bad
wound in the leg.”
This also happened. The officer was
much surprised. Hunting up the hank
er, he inquired. “Since you know so
1 much, why can’t you tell me when the
war will end?”
“It will end,” said the manager, “on
June 17, 1916, but I shan't live to see
it. i’ll just about live until New Year’s
day and not much more.” He died
January 2.
The London Financial News, a very
sober, unimaginative newspaper,
vouches for this story.
Fertilizers From Municipal Waste.
A survey of the nation’s resources
in fertilizer materials has drawn atten
tion to the large supply of these to be
found in the accumulation of garbage
in cities. This waste material con
tains nitrogen, phosphoric acid and
potash, which are recognized as essen
tial to the production of large crops.
Valuable as these elements are to the
farms of the country, the garbags in
which they are found is a source of
trouble and expense to the cities. It
seems, therefore, that this garbage
can be disposed of most advantageous
ly by returning it to the soil in the
form of fertilizer.
Not Qualified Yet.
“I saw you out in your new car yes
“Did I look like a motorist?”
“Well, no. You had an air of re
sponsibility that gave you away, but
that will disappear in time.”
Changed Conception.
"What’s your opinion of Bommas
ter?” “Well, when I first met him, he
impressed me as being a leader of
men, a ten-thousand-volt human dyna
mo, a clarion-voiced czar who would
brook no opposition; but when I met
him the second time, in his office, I
sized him up for a pusillanimous
mouse.” “Where did you meet him
the first time?” “On the telephone."
And a Sure Harvest.
The seeds of rust and decay bring a
harvest of loss.