The Loup City northwestern. (Loup City, Neb.) 189?-1917, December 11, 1903, Image 8

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

Chief Executive Recommends Passage of Important
Legislation- Causes Leading to the Formation of
the New Republic of Panama- No Obstruction Now
to the Building of the Isthmian Canal -Venezuelan
Dispute a Triumph for International Arbitration—
Extension of Purposes of Appropriation for Enforc
ing Trust and Interstate Commerce Laws Favored
—Public Land and Postal Frauds -Need for
Treaties Making Bribery Extraditable Relations
of tho Government to Capital and Labor.
The I resident Charges the Colombian Government with Acting in
Bad Faith in Repudiating the Treaty Between That Country
and the United Slates Precedents Brought Forward to Explain
the Attitude of the State Department in the Recent Crisis —
Country Has Deen in an Almost Constant State of Turmoil
for Many Years The Importance of Preserving Peace in
tho I3thmu3 Declared of Paramount Importance.
Freriilcat Roscvc’.i ■ mesragt* to tho j
second aerssion of tho Fifty-eighth Con- j
•’root is substantially as follows:
To the Senate and House of liepresen- >
With a nation a.< with a man the most i
Important tilings arc those of the house
hold. aid therefore the country Is espe
cially to lie congratulated on what has
been accomplished in the direction of pro
viding for the exercise of supervision
ovei the great corporations and combina
tions of corporations engaged in inter
state commerce. The Congress has cre
ated ttie Department of Commerce and
l.ntior. including the Bureau of Corpora
tions, with for the first time authority to
secure proper publicity of su<-h proceed
ings of these great corporations as the
public has the right to know. It has pro
vided for (he expediting of suits for the
enforcement- of the Federal anti-trust
law; and l»y another law It has secured
<•< treatment to all producers in ihe
transportation of their goods, thus taking
a long stride forward in making effective <
the work of the Interstate Commerce j
Department of Commerce and Labor.
The establishment of the Department
of Commerce and I.abor. with tho Bureau
of Corporations thereunder, marks u real
advance In the direction of doing all that
Is possible for the solution of the questions
vitally affecting capitalists and wage
Functions of New Department.
The preliminary work of the Bureau
of Corporations in the department has j
shown the wisdom of its creation. Puh- ,
licity in corporate affaire will tend to do
away V'l.”’ Ignorance, and will afford !
fuels u,. which Intelligent action may .
he taken Systematic, Intelligent I rives- -
ligation Is already developing facts the
knowledge of which Is essential to a right
understanding of the needs and duties of
the business world. The corporation
which is honestly ai d fairly organized,
whose managers iri the conduct of its
business recognize their obligation to deal
! -.uarcly w ith llieir stockholders, their
competitors, and the public, l as nothing
to fear from such supervision. The pur
pose of this bureau i.r not to embarrass
or assail legitimate business, but to aid
In bringing about a better industrial con
dition—a condition under which there
Hhall be obedience to law ar.d recognition
of public obligation hy all corporations,
great or small The Department of Com
merce and Labor will bo not only the
clearing house for Information regarding
tb« business transactions of the nation
but the executive arm of the government
to aid in strengthening our domestic and
foreign markets, in perfecting our trans
portation facilities, in building up our
merchant marine, in preventing the en
trance of undesirable immigrants, in im
proving commercial and Industrial condi
tions, and in bringing together on com
mon ground those necessary partners in
industrial progress capital and labor.
Commerce between the nations is stead
ily growing in volume, and the tendency
of the times is toward closer trade rela
tion’ Constant watchfulness Is needed
to secure to Americans the chance to par
ticipate to the best advantage in foreign
trade; and wo may confidently expect !
that the new department will Justify the j
expectation of Its creators by the exor- |
else of this watchfulness, ns well as by j
the businesslike administration of such
laws relating to our Internal aiTuirs as
are intrusted to its care
In enacting tIio laws above enumerated
the Congress proce-ued on sane and con
servative lines Nothing revolutionary
win attempted; but a common;-ense and
successful effort was made In the direc
tion of seeing that corporations are so
handled as to subserve the public good.
The legislation was moderate. It was
characterised throughout by the Idea that
we were not attacking corporations, but
endeavoring to provide for doing away
with any evil in them; that we drew the
line against misconduct. not against
* wealth, gladly recognizing the great good
dene by capitalists who alone, or in
conjunction with his fellows, does his
wo. k along proper and legitimate lines.
The purpose of the legislation, which pur
pose will undoubtedly be lultlllcd. was to
favor such a man when he does well, and
to supervise his action only .to prevent
him from doing 111. Publicity can do no
liar ni to the honest corporation. Th
only corporation that has cause to dread
It Is the corporation which shrinks from
• he light, and about the welfare of such
corporations we need not be oversensitive.
The work of the Department of Com
merce and Labor has been conditioned
upon this theory, of securing fair treat
ment alike for labor and for capital.
Capital and Labor.
The consistent policy of the national
government, so far as It has the power,
is to hold in chock the unscrupulous man,
whether employer or employe; but to re
tuse to weaken individual Initiative or
to hamper or cramp the industrial devel
opment of the country We recognize
that this is an era of freedom a oil com
bination, in which great capitalistic cor
porations and labor unions have become
factors of tremendous Importance in all
Industrial centers. Hearty recognition is
given the far-reaching, beneficent work
which has been accomplished through
both corporations and unions, and the
line as between different corporations,
ns between different unions, Is drawn ns
it l.t between different Individual.-; that
is, it is drawn on conduit, the effort be
ing to treat both organized capital and
organized labor alike; a.-klng nothing
save the interest of each shnll be brought
into harmony with the Interest of the
general public, and that the conduct of
each shall conform to the fundamental
rules of obedience to law. of Individual
freedom, and Of Justice and fair dealing
towards all. Whenever either corpora
tion, labor union, or Individual disre
pan’s the law or acts in a spirit of arbi
trary and tyrannous interference with
the rights of others, whether corpora
tions or individuals, then where the
Federal Government has jurisdiction, it
will see to It that the misconduct Is
stopped, paying not the slightest heed to
the position or power of the corporation,
the union or the Individual, but only to
one vital fact—that is, the question wheth
er or not the conduct of the individual
or aggregate of individuals is In ac
cordance with the law of the land. Every
mini must be guaranteed his liberty and
his right to do as he likes with his prop
erty or his labor, so long as lie does not
Infringe the rights of others No man is
above the law and no man is below It;
nor do we ask any man's permission when
we require him to obey it. Obedience to
the law is demanded as a right; not asked
as a tavor.
Receipts and Expenditures.
From a1! sources, exclusive of the pos
tal service, the receipts of the govern
ment for the last llscal year aggregated
$560,396,674. The expenditures for the
same period were $506,099,007, the surplus
for the fiscal year being $54,297,667. The
indications are that the surplus for the
present llscal year will be very small. If
indeed there be any surplus. From July
to November the receipts from customs
were, approximately, nine million dollars
less than the receipts from the same
source for a corresponding portion of last
year. Should this decrease continue at
the same ratio throughout the fiscal
year, the surplus would be reduced by,
approximately, thirty million dollars.
Should the revenue from customs suffer
much further decrease during the fiscal
year, the surplus would vanish A large
surplus is certainly undesirable. Two
years ago the war taxes were taken off
with the express Intention of equalizing
the government rocei]>ts and expenditures,
and though the first year thereafter still
showed a surplus. It now seems likely
that a substantial equality of revenue
and expenditure will be attained. Such
being the case It is of great moment botli
to exercise care and economy In appro
priations, and to scan sharply any change
In our fiscal revenue system which may
reduce our Income. The need of strict
economy in our expenditures is empha
sized by the fact that we can not afford
to be parsimonious in providing for what
is essential to our national well-being.
Careful economy wherever possible will
alone prevent our inciwnc from falling
below the point requli r.n order to meet
our genuine needs.
Needs of Financial Situation.
The integrity of our currency is beyond
question, a ml under present conditions it
would be unwise and unnecessary to at
tempt a reconstruction of our entire mon
etary system. The same liberty should
be granted the Secretary of the Treasury
to deposit customs receipts as is granted
him in the deposit of receipts from other
sources, in my message of Dee. 2. 1902.
1 called attention to certain needs of the
financial situation, and I again ask the
consideration of the Congress for these
Geld and Silver Standard.
During the last session of the Congrogs,
at the suggestion of a joint note from
the Republic of Mexico and the Imperial
Government of China, and in harmony
with an act of the Congress appropriat
ing $.’"»,000 10 pay the expenses thereof,
a commission was appointed to confer
with the principal European countries in
the hope that some plan might be devised
whereby a fixed rate of exchange could
be assured between the gold-standard
countries and the silver-standard coun
tries. This commission has filed its pre
liminary report, which has been made
public. I dee m it important that the
commission be continued, and that a sum
of money be appropriated sufficient to
pay the expenses of its further labors.
With regards to the improvement of
the American merchant marine the
President recommends that the Con
gress direct the Secretary of the
Navy, the Postmaster-General, and the
Secretary of Commerce and Labor, as
sociated with such a representation
from the Senate and House of Repre
sentatives as flip Congress in its wis
dom may designate, to serve as a com
mission for the purpose of investigat
ing and reporting to the Congress at
its next session what legislation is de
sirable or necessary for the develop
ment of the American merchant ma
rine and American commerce, and in
cidentally of a national ocean mail
j service of adequate auxiliary naval
cruisers and navel reserves.
On the subject of immigration the
message calls attention to the report
of a committee of New York citizens
ot high standing, Messrs. Arthur ▼.
Vriesen. Lee K. Frankel, Eugene A.
Philliin. Thomas W. Hynes, and Ralph
Trautman, which deals with the whole
situation at length, and concludes with
certain recommendations for adminis
trative and legislative aethm. It is
now receiving the attention of the
Secretary of Commerce and Labor.
The message continues:
Anti-Trust Laws.
j On the subject of the antitrust
measures which have been dealt with
by the Congress the President says:
i In my last annual message. In connee
’ tU n with the subject of the due regula
tion of combinations of capital which
are or may become Injurious to the pub
lic. I recommended a special appmpria
| tion for the better enforcement of the
anti-trust law as It now stands, to be
expended under the direction of the At
torney-General. Accordingly (by the leg
islative. executive, and judicial appro
priation act, of February 25, 1903. 32
Stat., S5t. 904>. the Congress appropriated,
for the purpose i f enforcing the various
Federal trust and Interstate-commerce
laws, the sum of tlve hundred thousand
dollars, to be expended under the direc
tion of the Attorney-Genpral In the em
ployment of special counsel and agents
in the Department of Justice to conduct
proceedings and prosecutions under said
laws in the courts of the United States.
I now recommend, as a matter of the ut
most Importance and urgency, the exten
sion of the purposes of this appropria
tion. so that it may be available, under
the direction of the Attorney-General, and
until used, for the due enforcement of
the laws of the United States in general
and especially of the civil and criminal
laws relating to public lands ami the laws
relating to postal crimes and offenses and
the subject of naturalization. Recent in
vestigations have shown a deplorable
state of affairs in these three matters of
vital concern. By various frauds and
by forgeries and perjuries, thousands of
acres of the public domain, embracing
lands of different character and extend
ing through various sections of the coun
try. have been dishonestly acquired. It
Is hardly necessary to urge the Import
ance of recovering these dishonest acqui
sitions. stolen from the people, and of
promptly ah'd duly punishing the of
Postal Frauos.
I speak in another part of this message
of the widespread crimes by which the
sacred right of citizenship is falsely as
serted and that "inestimable heritage”
perverted to base ends. By similar means
—that is. through frauds, forgeries, and
perjuries, and by shameless briberies—
the laws relating to tlie proper conduct
of the public service In general and to
the due administration of the PostofFico
department have been notoriously vio
lated, and many indictments have been
found, and the consequent prosecutions
are In course of bearing or on the eve
thereot. For the teasone thus indicated,
and mo that the Government may he pre
pared to enforce promptly and with the
greatest effect the due penalties for such
violations of law. and to this end may
lx? furnished with sufficient instrumentali
ties and competent legal assistance tor
the Investigations and trials which will
be necessary at many different points of
the country, I urge upon the Congress
the necessity of making the said appro
priation available for Immediate use for
all such purposes, to be expended under
the direction of the Attorney-General.
Needs for Treaties Making Bribery
Steps have been taken by the State
Department looking to the making of
bribery an extraditable offense with for
eign powers. The need of more effective
treaties covering this crime is manifest.
The exposures and prosecutions of of
ficial corruption in St. Louis. Mo., and
other cities and states have resulted in
a number of givers and takers of bribes
bee iming fugitives in foreign lands. Brib
ery has not been included in extradition
treaties heretofore, as the necessity for
it has not arisen While there may have
been as much official corruption In former
years, there has been more developed
and brought to light in the immediate
past than In the preceding century of
our country's history, it bhouiu le tile
policy of the United States to leave no
place on earth where a corrupt man
fleeing from this country can lest in
peace. Tlit-re is no reason why bribery
should not be included in all treaties as
extraditable. Tile recent amended treaty
with Mexico, whereby this crime was
put In the fist of extraditable offenses,
has established a salutary precedent in
this regard. Under this treaty the State
Department has asked, and Mexico has
granted, the xtrtidition of one of the St.
Louis bribe givers.
There can be no crime more serious
than bribery. Other offenses violate one
law. while corruption strikes at the foun
dation of all law Under our form of gov
ernment oil authority is vested in the
people and by them delegated to those
who represent them in otfi ial capacity.
The exposure and punishment of public
corruption is an honor to a nation, nut
a disgrace. The shame lies In toleration,
not in correction. No city or state, still
less the nation, can ho injured by the
enforcement of law. As long as public
plunderers when detected can find a
haven of refuge in any foreign land and
avoid punishment, just so long encour
agement is given them to continue their
practices. If we fail to do all that In us
lies to stamp out corruption we can not
escape our share of responsibility for the
guilt. The first requisite of successful
self-government is unflinching enforce
ment of the la .v and the cutting out of
Alaskan Boundary.
The message gives in detail the
pauses which led to the appointment
of the Alaskan boundary commission,
and congratulates both countries on
the satisfactory termination of the
sessions of the tribunal. It continues:
The result is satisfactory In every way.
It Is of great material advantage to our
people in the far Northwest. It has re
moved from the field of discussion and
possible danger a question liable to be
come more acutely accentuated with each
passing year. Finally, it has furnished
a signal proof of the fairness and good
will with which two friendly nations can
ap|>roach and determine issues involving
national sovereignty and by their nature
Incapable of submission to a third power
for adjudication.
Claims Against Venezuela.
Referring to the success which
crowned the efforts of the I’nited
States to have the Venezuelan dis
pute submitted to impartial arbitra
tors the President says:
There seems good ground for the be.
lief that there has been a real growth
among the civilized nations of a senti
ment which wt'l permit a gradual sub
stitution of other methods than the
method of war In th*- settlement of dis
putes. It is not pretended that as yet
w■* are near a position in which it will
be possible wholly to prevent war. or
that a Just regal’d for national Interest
and honor will in all cases permit of
the settlement of International disputes
by arbitration: but by a mixture of pru
dence and firmness with wisdom we think
il is possible to do away with milch of
the provocation and excuse for war, and
at least In many cares to substitute some
other and more iatlona 1 method for the
settlement of disputes. The Hague court
offers so good an example of what can
be done in the direction of such settle
ment that It should be encouraged In
every way.
President McKinley, in his mes
sage of Dee. 5, 1898, urged that the
Executive be authorized to correspond
with the governments of the principal
maritime powers with a view of in
eorporating into the permanent law of
civilized nations the principle of the
exemption of all private property at
sea. not contraband of war. from cap
ture or destruction by belligerent
President Roosevelt says he cor
dially renews this recommendation, as
a matter of humanity and morals.
Consular Service.
1 cal! your attention to the reduced cn t
In maintaining the consular suvi.c for
the fiscal year ending June 3D. 1303. as
shown in the annual report of the Aud
itor for the State uml other d partmanti*,
as compared with ‘.lie year previous. I’or
I the year under consideration the excess
of expcndltures over receipt* on account
of the consular service amounted to CKt
12'>.12. as against $#fi.371.50 for the year
ending June 3<i. 1302, and S14T.04O.1S for the
year ending June SO. 1301. This is the
best showing In this respect for the con
sular service for the past fourteen years,
and the reduction In the cost of the serv
ice to the Government luis been made in
spite of the fact that the expenditures for
the year In question were more than
$20,000 greater than for the previous yeur.
Rural Free-Delivery Service.
The rural free-dellvery service has been
steadily extended. The attention of the
Congress Is asked to the question of the
compensation of the letter carriers and
clerks engaged in the postal service, es
pecially on the new rural free-dellvery
routes. More routes have been Installed
since the llrst of July last than In any
like period In the department's history.
While a due regard to economy must be
kept in mind In the establishment of new
routes, yet the extension of the rural
free-dellvery system must be continued,
for reasons of sound public policy. No
governmental movement of recent years
has resulted In greater immediate benefit
to the people of the country districts.
Ktiral rree delivery, taken tn connection
with the telephone, the bicycle, and the
trolley, accomplishes much toward les
sening the isolation of farm life and mak
ing it brighter an.l more attractive. In
the immediate past the lack of just such
facilities as these has driven many of the
more active and restless young men and
women from the farms to me cities; for
they rebelled at loneliness and lack of
mental companionship. It is unhealthy
and undesirable for the cities to grow at
the expense of the country; and rural
free delivery is not only it good thing
In itself, but is good because it is one
of the causes which check this unwhole
some tendency towards the urban con
centration of our population at the ex
pense of the count; y districts. It is for
the same reason thai we sympathize with
and approve of the policy of building
good roads. The movement for good
loads Is one fraught with the greatest
benefit to the country districts.
In the Philippines and Porto Rico,
it is declared, steady progress is being
made and the condition of the island
ers already has been materially ad
Receipts of General Land Office.
On the subject of the public lands
of the country the message says:
The cash receipts of the General Land
Office for the last fiscal year were $11,
024,743.65, an increase of $4,762,816.47 over
the preceding year. Of this sum. approx
imately, $8,461 193 will go to the credit
of the fund for the reclamation of arid
land, making the total ot this fund, up
to the 30th of June, 1903, approximately,
A gratifying disposition lias been
evinced by those having unlawful in
closures of public land to remove their
fences. Nearly two million acres so in
closed have been thrown open on de
mand. In but eomnarativel.v few cases
has it Hc-n necessary to go into court
to accomplish this purpose This work will
be vigorously prosecuted until all unlaw
ful inclosures have been removed.
The work of reclamation of the arid
lands of the West is progressing steadily
and satisfactorily under tiie terms of
the law setting aside the proceeds from
the disposal of public lands. The corps of
engineers known as the Reclamation
Service, which is conducting the surveys
and examinations, has been thoroughly
organized, especial pains being taken to
secure under the civil-service rules a
body of skilled, experienced, and efficient
men. Surveys and examinations are
progressing throughout the arid states
and territories, plans for reclaiming works
being prepared and passed upon by
boatds of engineers before approval by
the S-retary of the Interior In Arizona
and Nevada, In localities where such
work is pre-eminently needed, construc
tion has already been begun. In other
parts of the arid West various projects
arc well advanced toward the drawing
up of contracts, these being delayed in
part by necessities of reaching agree
ments or understanding as regards rights
of way or acquisition of real estate. Most
of the works contemplated for construc
tion arc if national importance, involv
ing interstate questions or the securing
of stable, self-supporting communities In
the midst of vast tracts of vacant land.
The Nation as a whole Is of course the
gainer by the creation of these homes,
adding as they do to the wealth and sta
bility cf the country, and furnishing a
home market for the products of the East
ana South. The reclamation law, while
perhaps not ideal, appears at present to
answer the larger needs for which it is
designed, further legislation is not rec
ommended until the necessities of change
are more apparent.
Preservation of Forests.
The President points out the neces
sity of taking steps for the preserva
tion of our forests, especially at the
headwaters of streams. Of the cotton
weevil he says:
The cotton-growing States have re
cently been invaded by a weevil that lias
done much damage and threatens the
entire cotton industry. I suggest to the
Congress tin- prompt enactment of such
remedial legislation as its judgment may
Isthmian Canal.
The causes leading up to the estab
lishment of the new republic of Pan
ama, and its recognition by the
United States are given in much de
tail, as follows:
By tiie act of June 2*. 1902, the Con
gress authorized the President to enter
Into treaty with Colombia for the build
ing of the canal across the Isthmus of
Panama; it being provided that In tin
event of failure to secure sin-h treaty
after the lapse of a reasonable time, re
course should in' had to building a canal
through Nicaragua, it has not been
necessary to consider this alternative, as
I am enabled to lay before the Senate
treaty providing for the building of the
canal across the isthmus of Panama.
Tills was 1110 route which commended
Itself to the deliberate judgment of the
iingre.-s. and we can now acquire by
treaty the right to ci nstrmt the canal
over this route. The question now. there
fore. is not by which route the isthmian
canal shall be built, for that question
has been definitely and irrevocably de
cided. The question is sltrplv whether or
not we shall have an Isthmian canal.
In the year lM*i thi« G..v nin-.rut en
tered Into a treaty with New Granada,
the predecessor upon the Isthmus of
the Republic of Colombia and of the
present Republic of Panama, by which
treaty it was provided that the Govern
ment and citizens of the tinted States
should always have free and open right
of way or transit across the Isthmus of
Panama by any modes of communication
that might hr constructed, while In re
turn our Government guaranteed the
perfect neutrality of the above-mentioned
Isthmus with the view that the free tran
sit from the one to the other sea might
not he interrupted or embarrassed. Tile
treaty vested in the I’tilted Slates a
substantial property right carved out of
the rights of sovereignty and property
which New Granada then had and pos
sessed over the said territory The name
of New Granada h is pass* il away and its
territory his hern divided. Its successor,
the Government of Colombia, has ceased
to own any property la the Istlimus. A
new republic, that of Panama, which was
at one time a sovereign state, and at
another time a m re department of the
-•ic '• sd\ o confedei ation- known ns New
Granada and Col imbM, has nonr tm
reoded to thr rights which first .me stud
then the other formerly exercised aver
the isthmus. But ns long n» the Isthmus
endures, the mere geographical fact of Its
existence, and the peculiar Interest there
in which Is required by our position,
perpetuate the solemn contract which
hinds the holders of the territory to re
spect our right to freedom of transit
across It. and binds us In return to safe
guard for the isthmus and the world the
exercise of that inestimable privilege.
The true Interpretation of the obliga
tions upon which the United States en
tered In tilts treaty of 1848 has been given
repeatedly In the utterances of Presi
dents and Secretaries of State. Secretary
Cass In 1S58 officially stated the position
of this Government as follows:
“The progress of events has rendered
the iiiteroceanlc route across the narrow
portion of Central America vastly Impor
tant to the commercial world, and espe
cially to the United .States, whose pos
sessions extend Hlong the Atlantic and
Pacific coasts, and demand the speediest
and easiest modes of communication.
While the rights of sovereignty of the
states occupying this region should al
ways be respected, we shall expect that
' these rights be exercised In a spirit be
fitting the occasion and the wants and
circumstances thnt have arisen. Sover
eignty has Its duties as well as its rights,
and none of these local governments,
even if administered with more regard to
the Just demands of other nations than
they have been, would he permitted, in a
spirit of eastern isolation, to close the
gates of Intercourse on the great high
ways of the world, and justify the act by
the pretension that these avenues of
trade and travel belong to them and thnt
they choose to shut them. or. what is
almost equivalent, to encumber them
with such unjust relations us would pre
vent their general use."
Seven years later. In 1S65. Mr. Seward
in different communications took the fol
lowing position:
"The United States have taken and
will take no Interest In any question of
internal revolution in the Stat.- of Pan
ama. or any State of the United States of
Colombia, but will maintain a perfect
neutrality in connection with such do
mestic altercations. The United States
will, nevertheless, hold themselves ready
to protect the transit trade across the
isthmus against invasion of cither do
mestic or foreign disturbers of the peace
of the Slate nf Panama. • • • Neither
4he text nor the spirit of the stipulation
in that article by which the United States
engages to preserve the neutrality of the
Isthmus of Panama, imposes an obliga
tion on this Government to comply with
the requisition [of the President of the
United States nf Colombia for a force to
protect the Isthmus of Panama from a
body of Insurgents of that country!. The
purpose of the stipulation was to guar
antee the isthmus against seizure or In
vasion by a foreign power only.”
For four hundred years, ever since
shortly after the discovery of this hem
isphere. the canal across the isthmus has
been planned. For two score years It
has been worked at. When made it is to
last for the ages. It Is to alter the
geography of a continent and toe trade
routes of the world. We have shown by
every treaty we have negotiated or at
tempted to negotiate with tne peoples In
control of the Isthmus and with foreign
nations hi reference thereto our consis
tent good faith in observing otlr obliga
tions; oil the one hand to the peoples of
the Isthmus, and on the other hand to
the civilized world whose commercial
rights we are safeguarding and guaran
teeing by our action. We have done our
duty to others iri letter and in spirit, and
we have shown the utmost forbearance in
exacting our own rights.
Last spring, under the act above re
ferred to. a treaty concluded between the
representatives of the Republic of Co
lombia and of our Government was rati
fied by the Senate. Tills treaty was en
tered Into at the urgent solicitation of
the people of Colombia and after a body
of experts appointed by our Government
especially to go Into the matter of the
routes across the Isthmus had pronounced
unanimously In favor of the Panama
route. In drawing up thin treaty every
concession was made to the people anil
to the Government of Colombia. We were
more than just in dealing with them. Our
generosity was such as to make it a se
rious question whether we had not gone
too far in their interest at the expense of
our own; for In our scrupulous desire to
pay all possible heed, not merely to the
real but even to the fancied rights of our
weaker neighbor, w’ho already owed so
much to our protection and forbearance,
we yielded In all possible ways to her
desires in drawing up the treaty. Never
theless the Government of Colombia not
merely repudiated tha treaty, but repu
diated it in such manner as to make it
evident by the time the Colombian Con
gress adjourned that not the scantiest
hope remained of ever getting a satis
factory treaty from them. The Govern
ment of Colombia made the treaty, and
yet when the Colombian Congress was
called to ratify it tin vote against rati
fication was unanimous. It does not ap
pcar that the Government made any rcul
effort to secure ratification.
Revolution in Panama.
Immediately after the adjournment of
the Congress a revolution broke out In
Panama. The people of Panama had
long been discontented with the Republic
of Colombia, and they had been kept quiet
only by ttie prospect of the conclusion
of tile treaty, which was to them a mat
ter of vital concern. When it became
evident that the treaty was hopelessly
lost, the people of Panama rose literally
as one man. Not a shot was fired by a
single man on the isthmus in the Interest
of tlie Colombian Government. Not a
life was lost in the accomplishment of
the revolution. The Colombian troops
stationed on tin- Isthmus, who had long
been unpaid, made common cause with
tin people of Panama, and with aston
ishing unanimity the new republic was
started. The duty of the United States
in tlie premises was clear, in strict ac
cordance with the principles laid down
by Secretaries Cass and Seward In the of
ficial documi nts above quoted, tlie United
States gave notice that it would permit
the landing of no expeditionary force,
the arrival of which would mean chaos
and destruction along the line of the rail
road and of the proposed canal, and an
interruption of transit as an inevitable
consequence. Tlie de facto Government
of Panama was recognized in tlie follow
ing telegram to Mr. Ehrman:
"The people of Panama have, hy ap.
patently unanimous movement, dissolved
their poiitieal connection with the Re
public of Colombia and resumed their in
dependence. When you are satisfied that
a dc fa>to government, republican in
form and without substantial opposition
from its own people, lias been established
in tlie State of Panama, you will enter
into relations witli it ns the responsible
government of the territory and look to
it for all due action to protect the per
sons nml property of citizens of the
Pnited Slates and lo keep open the
lathnilHti transit, in accordance with the
obligations of existing treaties govern
ing tile relations of the United States to
that tenltory."
Disturbances on Isthmus Since 1846.
When these events happened, fifty-seven
years had elapsed situ e the United States
had entered Into its treaty with New Gra
nuda. During that time the Governments
of New Granada and of Its successor.
Colombia, have lain in a constant state
of flux.
A long list of the disturbances and
revolutions which have convulsed the
isthmus is given, and the report con
The above Is only a partial list of the
revolutions. rebellions. Insurrections,
riots, and other outbreaks that have oc
curred during the period In question; yet
I (bey number til for (la in jwa It aiTi
I tie noted that one of Ihiui lusted for near
I ly three years before it Wa» fpwiled; an
other for nearly a year. In s.Vwi. tin*
I < xperienee of over half * century hue
shown Colombia to be utterly incapable
••f keeping order on the Isthmus. Only
the active Interference ot the United
States has enabled her to preserve so
lunch a» a semblance of sovereignty. Had
it not been for the exercise by the United
States of the jiollcc power in tier interest,
tier connection with the Isthmus would
have been sundered long ago. Ill ISM. Uv
isuo. hi I8TC. In 1KS5, In 1901. and again in.
1WC. sailors and marines from United
States war ships wore forced tO' land In
order to patrol the isthmus, to protect
life and property, and to sec that the
transit across the isthmus was kept
open. In 1861, in 1962, in lsss, and In 1900.
the Colombian Government asked that the
United States Government would land
troops to protect its interests and main
tain order on the isthmus. Uerhaps the
most extraordinary request Is that which
has just been received and which runs
as follows:
■'Knowing that revolution liar already
commenced in Panama [an eminent Co
lombian} says th U it" the Government of
tho I'nite I Slates will land troop* to pre
serve Colombian sovereignty, and the
transit. If requested by Colombian charge
d’affaires, this Government will declare
martial law; and. by virtue of vested con
stitutional authority, when public order
is restored, will approve by decree the
ratification of the canal treaty as signed;
or. If the Government of the United
States prefers, will call extra session of
the Congress—with new and friendly
members—next May to approve tin;
treaty. (An eminent Colombian} has the
perfect confidence of vice-president, he
says, and if it became necessary will go
to the Isthmus or send representative
there to adjust matters along above lines
to the satisfaction of the people there.”
This dispatch is noteworthy from two
standpoints. Its offer of immediately
guaranteeing the treaty to us is In sharp
contrast with the positive and contemp
tuous refusal of the Congress which has
Just closed Us sessions to consider fa
vorably such a treaty: it shows that the
Government which made the treaty really
had absolute control over the situation,
but did not choose to exercise this con
trol. The dispatch further calls on us
to restore order and secure Colombian
supremacy In the Isthmus from which the
Colombian Government lias just by its
action decided to bar us by preventing
the construction of the canal.
Importanc: ot Peace in Isthmus.
The control. In the Interest of the com
merce and traffic of the whole civilized
world, of the means of undisturbed tran
sit across the Isthmus of Panama has
become of transcendent Importance to
the United States. We have repeatedly
exercised ’.his control by intervening in
the coure - of domestic dissension. and
by protecting the territory from foreign
Invasion. In 1853 Mr. Everett assured
the Peruvian minister that we should
not hesitate to maintain the neutrality
of the Isthmus tn the case of war be
tween Peru and Colombia. In 1864 Co
lombia. wnich has always been vigilant
to avail itself of Its privileges conferred
by the treaty, expressed Us expectation
that in the event of war between Peru
and Spain the United States would carry
into effect the guaranty of neutrality.
There have been few administrations of
the State Department In which this
treaty has not, either by the one side
or the other, been used as a basis of
more or less important demands. It was
said by Mr. Fish in 1871 that the Depart
ment of State had reason to believe that
an attack upon Colombian sovereignty
on the isthmus had. on several occa
sions. been averted by warning from this
Government. In 1886, when Colombia was
under the menace of hostilities from
Italy ir. the Cerruti case. Mr. Bayard ex
pressed the serious concern that tho
i’nited States could not but feel, that a
European power should resort to force
against a sister republic of this hemis
phere. as to the sovereign and uninter
rupted use of a part of whose territory
we are guarantors under the solemn faith
of a treaty. «•
Treaty With Republic of Panama.
Every effort has been made by the Gov
ernment of tile United States to persuade
Colombln to follow a course which was
essentially not only to our Interests and
to the Interests of the world, but to tho
Interests of Colombia itself. These ef
forts have failed; and Colombia, by her
persistence in repulsing the advances that
have been made, has forced us. for tho
sake of our own honor, and of the Inter
est and well-being, not merely of our own
people, hut of the people of tno Isthmus
nt Panama and the people of the civilized
countries of the world, to take decisive
steps to bring to an end a condition of
affairs which had become intolerable.
The new Republic of Panama immediate
ly ottered to negotiate a treaty with us.
This treaty I herewith suhmit. By it our
interests are better safeguarded than in
the treaty with Colombia which was rati
fied by the Senate at its last session, it Is
better In Its t< rms than the treaties of
fered to us by the Republics of Nlcara-'
gun and Costa Rica. At last the right
to b«gln this great undertaking is made
available. Panama has done her part.
All that remains is for the American Con
gress to do its part and forthwith this
Republic will enter upon the execution
of a project colossal in its size and of
wcll-nlg.. incalculable possibilities for the
good of this Country and tho nations of
mn nkfrwl.
Provisions of Treaty.
Tty tlic* provisions of the treaty tho
United States guarantees and will main
tain the independence of the Republic of
Panama. There Is granted to the United
States ,'n perpetuity the use. occupation,
anil control of a strip ten miles wide and
extending three nautical miles into the
sea at either terminal, with all lands ly
ing outside of the zone necessary for the
construction of the canal or for its aux
iliary works, and with the Islands in tho
Bay of Panamn. The cities of Panama
anil Colon are not embraced In the canal
zone, but the United Slates assumes
their sanitation and. In case of need, tho
maintenance of order therein; the United
States enjoys within the granted limits
all the rights, power, and authority which
it would possess were it the sovereign of
the territory to the exclusion of the ex
ercise of sovereign rights by the Republic.
All railway and canal property rights be
longing to Panama and needed for tho
canal pass to the United States, includ
ing any property of the respective com
panies In the cities of Panama and Co
lon; the wor.;s, property, and personnel
of the canal and railways are exempted
from taxation as well in the cities of
Panama and Colon as in the canal zono
and its dependencies. Free immigration
of the personnel and importation of sup
plies for the construction and operation
of the canal are granted. Provision is
made for the use of military force and
the building of fortifications by the Unit
ed States for the protection of the tran
sit. In other details, particularly as to
the acquisition of the Interests of tho
New’ Panama Canal company and tho
Panama railway by the United States and
the condemnation of private property for
thi* uses of the canal, the stipulations of
the Hay-Herran treaty are closely fol
lowed. while the compensation to bo
given for these enlarged grants remains
the same, being ten millions of dollars
payable on exchange of ratifications; and,
beginning nine years from thut date, an
annual payment of $250,000 during tho
life* of the convention.
White House, Dec. 7, 1003.
The venerable William Jackson, one
of the oldest of Wesleyan ministers
and for twenty-four years governor of »
Didsbury college, is dead.