Harrison press-journal. (Harrison, Nebraska) 1899-1905, December 05, 1901, Image 5

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    i ii
Governmental Problems
Dwelt On at Length in
the Document.
Czolgosz and His Ilk Enemies cf
the Human Race.
rrcldent Iefrnl the Working of tli
Protective Tariff Construction of the
Nlmragoim t'aual I'rf-cfl, and the Lay
ing of m Calile to Hawaii and tlio
Philippine Change in the Present
AlUUlaLaw Recommended The Navy.
A comprehensive synopsl of President
Roosevelt's moge lo Congress Is given be
low: To the Penate and House of Representative:
"The emigre assembles this year under
the shadow of a great calamity. On the sixth
of September, President McKinley was shot
by ail auarrblst while attending the Pan
American Exposition nt Buffalo, und died In
thai city on. the fourteenth of that month.
"Of the last seven elected Presidents, he Is
tho third who has been murdered, and the
bare recital of this fart Is sufficient to Jus
tify grave alarm nmong all loyal American
citizens. Moreover, the circumstances of this,
the third assassination of an American Presi
dent, hare a peculiarly sinister signlncance.
Both President Lincoln and President Car
field wire killed by assassins of types unfor
tunately not uncommon In history. President
Lincoln falling a victim to the terrible pas
sions aroused by four years of civil wur,
and President Garfield to tho revengeful van
ity of a disappointed office-seeker. President
McKinley wo killed by an utterly depraved
criminal belonging to that body of crliiilnnls
who object to all governments, good and bad
nlik-o, who ore against any form of popular
liberty If It la guaranteed by even the moat
Just and liberal Iowa, and who aro as hoatlle
lo the upright exponent of a free people's
sober will as lo tun tyrannical and Irresponsi
ble despot.
"Jt is not ton much to say that at the time
of President McKinley' death he was the
most widely loved man In all the United
Ktatcsa while wo have never had any public
roan of bis position who tat been ao wholly
free front tho bitter animosities Incident to
public life. - There could be no personal
hatred of hint, for hr. never acted with aught
but consideration for the welfare of other.
No one could fall lo reapect him who knew
film In public or private life. Tho defenders
of those murdere.rou criminals who seek t.j
rxcuso their criminality by asserting that It
Is exercised for political ends, invetgh against
wenlth nnd -Irresponsible power. Hut for this
assassination even this btiae apology can
not be urged." .
Thu President speaks In the highest terms
of the personal and public virtues of Mr. Mo
Kinley. Describing the nature of the assas
sination and the motive thai Inspired it, the
message continues: '
Motive of the Assassin.
"The blow was' aimed not nt, this Presi
dent, but at all Presidents at every symbol of
government. The anarchist, arid especially
the anarchist in the I'nlted Mates, is morn!
one type of criminal, more dangerous than
any other because-he represents the same;
depravity In a greater decree. The man who
advocates anarchy directly or Indirectly, In
any shape or fashion, or the men who apolo
gizes for anarchists and tbftlr deeds, makes
himself morally accessory to murder before
the fart. The anarrli'st Is a criminal who.-'e.
fiervertcd Instincts lead blm to prefer conlu
lim and chaos lo the jnot benelicent form
of social order. His protest, of concern for
worklngmeu is outrrfguous In lis impudent
falsity: for If the political Institutions of this
i-ountry do not afford opportunity to every
honest and Intelligent son of toil, then the
door of hope Is forever closed against him.
The anarchist is everywhere tint merely tho
enemy of system and progress, but the dead
ly foe of liberty. If ever anarchy is triumph
ant its triumph will List for but one red
moment, to bo succeeded . for ages by the
gloomy n!g!H of despotism.
Would r'.xcludn Anarchists.
"T earnestly recommend to the Congress
that In the exert lac of Mb wire discretion It
should take Into consideration tiie coming
to this country of anarchists or persons pro
fcksing principle hostile to ull government
snd justifying the murler of those placed
In authority. No iimitcr calls more' urgently
for tho wiKcftt thought of the Congress,
"The federal court should be given Juris
diction (ivft any nun who kills or attempts
lo kill the President or any man who by the
Constitution or by law is In line of succes
sion for the Presidency, while tho punish
ment for an unsuccessful r.i tempt should be
proportioned to the enormity of the offvnao
against our Institutions.
"Anarchy ! a crime azslnst the whole
human race: anil all mankind should band
gainst the anar hist. His initio should bo
made an often., against the law of mttlonti,
like, piracy and that form of manstonllrig
known as the slave trade for It is nf fur
bla'ker Infamy than either. It should be so
Iceland by treaties among nil civilized pow
er. The Trust J'roblem.
"The tremendous and highly romp!
Industrial development which went on with
ever accelerated rapidity during the latter
half of the nineteenth century brings us face
lo face, at the beginning of the twentieth,
with very serious social problems. The old
laws, tind the old customs which lind almost
the binding force of law, were nine quite
sufficient to regulate the accumulation and
distribution of wealth. Since the Industrial
chances which have so enormously liurroased
the productive power of mankind, they are. no
longer sufficient. -
The creation of great corporate fortunes,
ha not been due lo the tariff nor to any
other governmental action, but lo natural
''cause In-the business world, operating In
other countries as they operate In our own
"It Is not true that as the rich have growrr
richer the noor have grown poorer, on mw
contrary, never before has the average man
h. -ne. worker the farmer, the small tra-1
r born so well off as In this country and
el the present time. Tbere bav been abuse
connected with tne accumulation of wcnlih;
ii remm. true that a fortune ac.umu
fated onir on trend!'!"" of conferring lm-
in, ti.ntl l .iii-llis unon others. uc
cesaful enterprise, of the type which benefit
II mankind, 'an only exist If the condition
are uch as lo offer grat prizes a iho re
wards of success
The captain of Industry who have driven
At. -nilUVlavKlMni actoii this continent,
who have built up our commerce, who bav.)
..l,...,l nor manufactures, have on Ihe
.,.u a.... ffreir eood to our te'ople. With
out them the material development of which
we are so Justly proud could never have
taken place. Moreover, we should roognlze
,i im,ee linrtorlanee to this material
development of IcBVlng a unhampered
i. ,,. .nl.le with the nubile good the strong
and forceful men upon whom Iho success
of buaineaa operations inevnauiy !.
t antlon I I'rged.
H,iitii,ni,1 reason for caution In deal
Inz with corporations I lo be found In the
H.,i.,nl ciiimereial rondltton or to
day The same buslnes condition which
have produced the great aggregations of cor
porate and Individual wealth have made Uieiti
IL ,.i f, ir. in International, romlncr-
claf competition. America has only Just
begun to assume that commanding position
in the International buslnes world which we
he eve w more sun more u n.,.. .
'T. .V" ,r....,..t ii,nn.nc that t Ills noelllotl
I not Jeoparded, espoctslly at
the overflowing aiiunnanre oi i -
rsl resource and the aklll, business energy,
and mechanical aptitude of our people inak'
..e.l.n msrketa essential. I ndcr ucn con
dltlou It would be most unwise to crnmp
oi lo fetter the youthful lrngih of our
""Vi'latr o great buslnes enlerprle ran
never have Its effect, limited to ''';"
... ii .,,r,..,l throughout, and while It
la bod for every body, It I worst for those
farthest down. The capitalist may be shorn
of hi luxuries; bulslh wage-worker may
l- f tvpn bur necessltle.
"In fsetng new Industrial conditions, the
latlen will treneral'.y be both utiwla and In-
ettic. ve ur.lers uodertsken after culm Inquire
und wllk rotn-r self-restraint. Much of Ike
l.latlua directed at the treats would have
Wn exceed :n!y iai blevaue had It -not ulso
beri. i-at.rely Inetf ctive. In desliug wttti
businos interests, for the iMrniirirtit to uu
derlr.te t y rrudo and Ill-considered ligisla
tion to do what may turn out to be bad,
would be to Imur the risk ol SLrii far-reacb-ing
nullnnal disaster thst It would be pr-(et-obie
to on-lrrtake ncthi;;g ai all.
All tbla is true: and yet it I slfn true
that iheid are real and grave evils, one of
the c'.-ef being over-espltaHZQlwui because
of Its n, any baleful enns'-quencet: ; and a reso
lute a.d practical effort must be u-aJo lu
correct these evils.
4iovernment hupervUion.
"It Is no limitation ypon property right
or freed"tii of contract to reruire that when
n! r'-eiv frnnj govei-umelit tue privilege, of
doni- b!.'ine.i-s und"r rorpoi;.fo form, v.iitch
f rce them from lndividut.1 rei-.nonsltiility,
lis I rna'.ilis tlictn call Into their eriferjit ises
the (i:jiTat of the public, tiny eh, ill do so
upti-i absolutely truthtul repreecnt at itiea as to
tl-,c value of the property in which the capi
tal ts to lie invoted. t'orpori.tiona en-'ag-d
in 'MTMute ccimtierce should be regulaterj
If I y are fo-K.d to exercise a license work
ing to tiie piibilc Injury, it should be as
mi:' J the aim of those who seek for social
bet rn:e;it to rid the business world of
cr:-- i s of cunning r,g t0 rid the entire body
p-ilH of crimes of violence, (freat corpori
lloii.i exist, only because they are rriited
am! rafeguyrdra by our Institution afid it
Is therefore our right, and our duty to see
thet they work In harmony with these lnsti
tul 'ens.
rubllclty Remedy for Trut.
"The first essentlil In determining how lo
deal with the great industrial combinations
is knowledge of the facts publicity, lu the
Intcreet of the public, the government should
bam the right to inspect and examine the
workings of the great corporations engngej
In interstate business. Publicity Is the only
au-c remedy which we can now invoke. V.'hut
further remedies are needed in the way of
governmental regulation, or taxation, can
only be determined after publicity has been
obtit'ned. by proccs of law. and In the course
of ndrninlstration. The first requisite l
knowledge, full and complete knowledge
wlut h may be made public to the world.
"Artificial bodies, such aa corporations and
Joint stock or other associations, depending
upon any statutory law for their existence or
privileges, should be subject to proper gov
ernmental supervision, and full aud accurate
tnf -mutton as lo their operations should bo
inr le public regularly at reasonable intervals.
' The large corporations, commonly cnll-d
trurtii, though organized In ono state, always
do business in many atatcs, often doing very
little business in the state where they ere
Incorporated. There Is utter lack of uniform
ity in tho state laws about them: and as no
stale has any exclusive Interest lu or power
ovrr their acts, tt has In practice proved Im
possible to get adequute regulation through
state action. Therefore, in the Interest of tho
wh'.lo people, the Nation should, without In
terfering with rhe power of the states In the
matter Itself, also assume power of supor
vl . ctt and regulation over all corporations
doing an Interstate business. This 1 espe
cially true where the corporation derive a
n .-.n of Its wealth from tho existence of
Korie monopolistic element or tendency In It
buineM. There would no no naroanip in
ai.ri, flimervislon banks nro subject to It, and
in rheir cafo It in now accoptod as a simple
matter of courre. Indeed. It la probable that
sun: rvlrlnn of corporation by the .National
government need not go o far as is now the
can) with Oil supervision exercised over them
by so conservative a state as massacuuseua,
in writer In nroduco excellent results.
I believe that a law can Do tramen wnicn
will enable the Nat onttl government to exr-
is. control a ong the Hues a'.iove inuicaioa.
proimnif oy tne experience kuiocu iuiuusu
the pnsaage and sdmln!s:rallon of the lntor-.tut.-cnmmercn
Act. If. however, the Judg
ment of the Congress la that It lacks tho
nc-uitntional nower to nas aucti an
t.Mei a constitutional amenutneni snouia ae
soti nltted to confer Ihe power.
Tii. m should be created a Cabinet officer.
to be, known as becrelary of Commerce and
ind.iairies. as nrov ded In the bill introduce.i
nt t:ic last tiesmon ot trie uongress. n mourn
be his province to deal with commerce in us
brcad-at senae Including among many other
tu-,ngM whatever concerns labor and ail ma
lore affecting the great business corporation
anil our merchant marine.
Restriction on 1 mmlsratlon
With tho solo exception of tho farmlnt;
In'T'-i', no one matter Is ot surn vital mo
riKtit to our whole people as the. welfure of
the vage-workvrs. If tho farmer and tho
we;r--wc,rker ore well on. It la anaoiureiy
-ertain that a 11 others will be wen on, 100.
It is thureforc a Dialler for hearty congratit
lat on that on the whole wages are high"r
to-day in the I'nlted Hlates than ever before
in our history, ana rar niKner iimu in "j
other country. The standard ot living ih hiso
buner than ever uerore. every euori oi icR
Isli.cr and sdminlstrator should be bent to
.cir-n the nermanency of this condition of
things and Its Improvement wherever possi
ble Nut only mutit our taoor i proioci-
by Hie tariff, but It should also be protected
ao far as It Is possible from the presence in
th'-i country of any laborers brought over by
roiitrart, or of those who. coming freely,
yei n present a standard of living so dc-
pre:ii-u that tney can iiuo'thch u,u men n,
the labor ninrkei and drag them lo a lower
It". I I regard it as m cesfury, with this
end in view, to re-enact immediately tne mw
excluding Chinese laborers and to stret.gth-
it wherever necepnary in orner to maau
Ish enforcement entirely rn-uvo.
Jo far aa pruct.ii.-ii tile tinner me corou.ii
of government work, provision ennui. i no
m.-i-J.' to render the enforcement of the einhf
hoiir law eauy and certain. In nil Indus
tri carried on directly or Indirectly for the
I'n'tcd Slates government, women ana ran-
drcn should bo protecten trom exeesaivo
hours of lubor, from night work, and from
We :U unocr utisnnltury conauions.
The most vital prolilem wnn wnicn rins
rolilitry. and tor innl lliauer me wuoic .
Hired world, ha to oeai, is uie in m
wl-ich ha for one side the betterment of bo
cinl conditions, moral and physical. In large
Hies, and for another sine tne enon m i
with the tniiglo of far-n-aening quesuuns
wb-ch we group together when we speak of
bu.nr. Very great goon tins ocen aou m
be acconipllahed by associations or unions 01
wate-workere, when manageo wun i
tin .i:,iit and when fhey combine Insistence
upn their own right with law-abiding re
sue, t for the rlghiB of others. The display of
the." qualities In such bodies Is a duty lo the
Nation no less than to the association them
es. Klnally, mere. must, aiso m m"x
', 1 .U.. ,,n,.nwn ..,,, I It, flfltor
canes no acrmii uy n " , , , , ,
to safeguard the rlghiB and Intereet of all.
l.'nder our t oiiBtltutmu mere is mui-u iiw
acoiie for audi action by the aiaie ana tne
municipality tlujn by the Nation. Hut tin
points surh as thosu touched on above tho
Manorial goveruuieui. ctiii e-.i..
"tiiir prcrent Irnmlgratbin law are unei'-hifii'tory-.
We need every honest and effl
eieiil Immigrant ntted to become an Ameri
can rtll7.cn, every Immigrant who come here
to riay, who brings here a strong body, a
stout heart a good head, and a resolute pur.
pore to do hi duty well In every way and in
bring ' up hi children n law-nbldlng and
(lo.l foarlnK member- of the community. Hut
there should be a comprehensive law enact
ed with Ihe object of working a threefold Im
pmtruient over our present yalcrn. Klrst,
we should aim to exclude absolutely not only
all person who are kuown to be believer In
anarchistic principles or tuvmbcr of an
archistic oi.letlos. but also all peron who
are of a low moral tendency or of . unsavory
repti'ation. This mean that we nhould re
quire a more thorough system of Inspection
abroad and a more rigid system of examina
tion at eor immigration pons, me miiiim
lug especially necessary.
"The second object of a proper Immigra
tion Uw ought to be to secure by a careful
end not merely perfunctory educatlonnl test
some Intelligent capacity tn appreciate Amer
ican Institution Bnd act sanely a Ameri
can citizen. This wuiild not keep out all
anarchists, for many of them belong to the
Intelligent criminal class. Hut It would do
wnat I also In point, that la. tend to dc
crease the urn of Ignorance, ao potent tn
producing the envy, uaplclon, malignant
passion and hatred of order, out of which
ittar.-hlstlc aenlitnent Inevitably prlngn.
Finally all person hotild be excluded who
are below a certain tandard of economic fit.
nesi to enter our Industrial field a com
petitor with Amerlivn labor. There hotild
be proper proof of personal capacity to earn
n Amerlon living and enough money to In
sure a decent Hart under American rond1
tlnn Till would top the Influx ot cheap
labor, and the resulting competition which
live' rise tn so much nt blUi'Tiies In Ameri
can Industrial life; and It would dry up 111
soring of the pelllentlal Rwlnt condition
In our great cllle. where narchltlc organ
ization bav their greateat poMlblllty of
Question of Merlproclty.
"There I general rquleence In our pre
ent tariff system as a national ponry
first requisite to our prosperity I the con
tinuity and Inhlllty of this economic polity.
.Nothing could be more unwise than lo dis
turb the huslnesa Interests of Ihe country by
any general tariff change at Ibl time. Doubt,
apprehension, uncertainly rn exactly wluit
wo wish to avoid in the Interest of our coin
nnirclal and material well-being. Our xprl-
ence In the past bus shown that sweeping
revision of Ihe tariff are apt to produ e
condition closely aoproiichlnfi panic in the
buslnes world Vet it is nut or.ly possible,
but eminently desirable, to combine with the
stability- of our economic systi.-ri a aupple
itietitary syeteiu of r.-r'prwiil belli flt aud obli
gation with other tiations. Su h reelprocpy
i au Incldri.t and result of the Tlrm etab
lishinent a:id preAirvatlon of our present
eeonoiuie pulley, It i-s specially piovided
for in tiie preiieiit tariff law.
"tlur llrsi duty iii to sr; tbat tile protection
granted by !!;' tariff In every ase w here it
Is nerd'd 10 maintained, and tha recliiror-lty
be south' for to far as it tan safely be done
without Injury to our borne industries. Just
bow tar line is mu-t be determined accord
ing to the. Individual ca.v, renieinotring al
ways that every application of our tann" pol
icy to meet our Bhifiltig national needs must
be conditioned upon the cardinal fact that Ihe
duties must never he reduced below the point
that wiii cover the d''fer;.c between the
labor coal here and abroad. The well-being
of the wage-worker is a prime consideration
of our entire policy of economic legislation.
"ubltct to tins proviso of tne proper pro
tection necessary to our industrial well-belnj?
at borne, the principle of reciprocity must
command our nearly sup)ort. i lie pneno
meiial growth of our export trade emphasizes
tne urgency of the need fur wider market
and for a liberal policy In dealing with for
eign nation. Whatever la merely petty and
vexatious in the vay or trade restrictions
should lie avoided. The customers to whom
we dispose of our surplus products In Ihe
long run, directly or Indirectly, purchase
those surplus products by giving us some
thing in return. Their ability to purchase
our products should as far as possible be
secured by so arranging our tariff as to en
able us to take from them. those products
which we can use without harm to our own
industries and labor, or the use of which will
be of marked benefit to us.
'We have now reached the point in the
development of our interests where we are
not only able to supply our own markets
but to produce a constantly growing surplus
for which wo must find markets abroad. To
secure these markets we can utilize existing
duties in any case where they are no longer
needed for the purpose of prototlon, or in any
ca?e where the article' Is not produced hero
and the duty Is no longer necessary lor
revenue, as giving us something to offer in
exchange for what we ask. The cordial re
lations with other nations which are so de
sirable will naturally bo promoted by the
course thus required by our own Intere.BU.
"The natural line of development for a
policy of reciprocity will be in connection
with those of our productions which no long
er require all of the support once needed
to establish them upon a sound, basis, and
with those other where either because of
natural or of economic causes we are beyond
the reach of successful competition,
"I ask the attention of the Senate to the
reciprocity treaties laid before it by my pre
decessor. flnr Merchant Marine.
"The condition of the American merchant
marine Is such a to call for Immediate
remedial action by the Congress. It Is dis
creditable to us as a Nation thp.t our mer
chant marine should be utterly insignificant
In comparison to that of other nations which
wo overtoD in other forms of business. .
"American shipping is under certain great
disadvantage when nut in competition with
the shipping of foreUn countries. Many of
the fast foreign steamships, at a speed of
fourteen knots or above, aro subsidized; and
ell our ships, Bulling vessels arid steamers
alike, cargo carriers of Blow speed ana man
carriers ot high speed, have to meet the
fact that the original cost of building Ameri
can shins Is greater than 1b the caee abroad:
that the wages paid American oHicera and
seamen are very much higher than those paid
the officers and seamen of foreign competing
countries: and that the standard of living
on our shipa 1b far superior to the standard of
1 mng on the Bliins of our commercial nvnis.
"Our government should take such action
as wi l remedy therfo InequaliticB. Ihe Airier
lean merchant marina should be restored lo
tho ocean.
"The Act of March 14. 1!!00. Intended n
equivocally to establish gold as the standard
money and lo maintain at a parity therewith
all forma of money ui'-dium m use witn us
has been shown to be timely nnd Judicious
The nrico of our government bonds In the
world's market, when compared with the
price of similar obligations lsued by other
nation. I a flattering tribute to our public
credit. Thi condition it Is eminently desir
able to maintain.
"In many respect the National Hanking
Law furnishes sufficient liberty for the proper
exercise of the bunking function but thero
seems to be need of better safeguards against
the deranging Influence ot commercial crises
and financial panics. Moreover, the currency
,1. -..ii,! ulinnlil rrtnAi mn,nnaivi
to the demand of our domestic trade anif
Deduction of Revenue.
"The collection from duties on Import and
internal taxes continue to exceed the orui
imry expenditure.. The utmost caro should
be taken not to reduce the revenues so that
thre wll be any possibility of a deii'-tt; nut
after nrovidina against any such contingency.
means should be adopted which will bring the
revenues more nearly within tho limit of our
actual needs.
"I call aneclnl attention to the need of Btrb
economy in expenditures. The fact, that our
national needs forbid us to be niggardly In
providing whatever Is actually necessary to
our well-being, should matte us aouDiy care
ful lo husband our nutlfitinl resources,
each of us husbands his private resource, by
scrupulous avoidance of anything like waste
ful or reckless expenditure.
Ilegiil.-itlon of Hnllrond.
In 1S87 a measure was enacted for Ihe reg
ulalion of Interstate railways, commonly
known as the Interstate Commerce Act. Ill'
cardinal nrovlsions of Ihut act, were tbat
railway rates should be Just and reasonable
and that all simmers, localities, ana oninm.i
riitles should be accorded equal treatment
commission was created and endowed with
what were supposed to be the necessary pow
era to execute the provisions of this act.
"That, law was lurgely an experiment. Ex
norienco ha abowii the wb.dom of Its pur
poecs, but has ulso shown, possibly that some
of Its requirements are wrong, certainly that
tho means devised for the enforcement of its
nrovlslons are defective.
"The act should be amended, The railway
I a public servant. Its rate should be Just
to und open to all shippers alike. Tho gov
ernment should see lo It. that within It Juris
diction this la so and should provide a speedy,
Inexncnsive. and effective remedy to that end
Atthe same time It must not be forgotten that
our railway are the arteries through whien
tho commercial llfeblood of this nation nows
Nothln could Ire more Owlish than the en
netment of letrisiation which would urilloces
swrllv Interfere with tho development and
operation of these commercial agencies. The
subject 1 one of grent Importance and calls
for the earnest attention of tho Congress.
The messairo nolnt out the vnlue of the
American forests and the necessity for their
conservation, and urge the construction ana
maintenance of reservoirs and Irrigating
systems for the reclamation of the arid lands
of Ihe West. Of the water rignt it ays:
"In the arid state the only right to water
which nbould be recognized I that of use. In
lrrlimtlon this right should attach to the
land reclaimed and bo Inseparable therefrom
(Irantlnn perpetual water right to other
than user, without compensation to the
nubile. I onen to all the objection which
opply to giving away perpetual franchise to
the public utllltb of cllle. A few ot the
Western slates have already recognized this
and bav Incorporated In their constitutions
the doctrine of perpetual slate ownership of
Ilevelopnient of Hatrall,
"Our aim hottld be not lmply to reclaim
the largest area of land and provide homes
for the largest number of people, but to
create for thl new Industry Ihe best possible
social and Industrial condition; and this re
quire that we not only understand the ex
isting situation, hut avail ourselves of the
best experience of the time In the solution
nf lis problems. A careful study should be
made, both by lb nation and tho tates, of
the Irlgattnn laws and conditions here and
abroad. I'lllmalely It will probably be neces
sary for the nation to co-operate with Ihe
several arid states In proimrtlon a these
state by their legislation and administration
how themselves fit to receive It.
"In Hawaii our slrn must be to develop Ihe
territory on Iho traditional American llnsx.
We do not wish a region of large cttle tilled
by cheap labor; we wish a healthy American
community of men ''who themselves till lire
farm they own. All our -leglslsflon for the
Island .should be shaped with thl end In
view; the well-being of the average home
mnker must afford the true test of the
healthy development of the Island. Tho
land policy should a nearly as posslblo bo
modeled on our homestead system.
"It I ft pleasure to say that It I hardly
more neressary to report a to Porto lino
than as to any tale or territory within our
rontlnenlnl limit. The Islnnd 1 thriving as
never before, and It la being sdmlnlsterc 1
efficiently and honestly. It people re now
enjoying liberty end order under the pro
tection of Ihe l iilt'il Ftii'i, and upon th'.
fuel wn congratulate them and ourselves.
Their material welfare must be carefully
.,,! tculiiiiHlv considered aa the welfare of
any other portloD of our country. We have
given them th great gut oi tree access tor
their product to the markets of the United
State. 1 ask the attentlou of the Cougres
lo the need of legislation concerning the pub
lic laud of Porto Kico.
Progress in Culm.
'Tn Cuba such nroeress ha been made to
ward putting the independent government of
the inland upon trflrm footing tbat before the
preeent session of the Congress rloses this
will be an ac o'upllsbed fact. Cuba will then
start a her own mistress; and to thq beauti
ful Ijueen of the Antilles, as she unfolds tbla
new page of her destiny, we extend our
heartbrtt greeting and good wlshe. Else
where I have discussed the question of reci
procity. In the ease of Cuba,- however, there
are weighty reasons ot morality and of na
tional interest why the policy should be herd
to have a peculiar application, and I most
earnestly nsk your attention to the wisdom.
Indeed to the vital need, of providing for a
substantial reduction in the tariff duties on
Cuban imports Into the I tilted Sstates. t una
has In her constitution affirmed what we de
sired, that she thould stand, in international
matters, in closer ur.d more friendly relations
with us than with any other power; and we
are bound by every consideration of honor
and expediency to pr.3S commercial measures
in the interest of her material well-being.
The Philippine Problem.
"In the Phlllooines our problem I larger.
They are very rich tropical islands, inhabi
ted by many varying triDes, representing
widely different stages of progress toward
civilization. Our earnest effort, is to help
these people upward along the stony and dif
ficult path that leadB to self-government. We
hope to make our administration of the is
lands honorable to our nation by making It
of the highest benefit to the Filipinos them
selves; and as an earnest of what we Intend
to do, we point to what we have aone. Al
ready a greater measure of material prosper
ity and of governmental honesty and effici
ency has been attained In the Philippines
than ever before in their history.
"lu dealing with the Philippine people we
must how both patience and strength, for
bearance and steadfast, resolution, our aim
Is high. We do not desire to do for the Is
landers merely what ha eisewnere neen done
for tropic people by even the best foreign
governments, w hope to do tor mem wum
has never before been done for any people
of the tropics to make them flt for self-
government after the lasmon oi me reaiiy
free nations.
"To leave the Islands at this time would
mean that they would fall Into a welter of
murderous anarchy. Such desertion of duty
our part would bo a crime against nu-
manlty. The character of Oovernor iarr, anu
of hi asHoclaten and subordinate is a prooi.
if such bo needed, of the sincerity or our ei
fort to give tho Islanders a constantly In
creasing measure of self-government, exactly
as fast :ib they show theioselve fit to exer
,.ine it since tho civil government was .es
tablished not an appointment has been made
in the Island with any reference lo conBioer
ations of political Influence, or to aught else
snvo the fitness of the man aud the needs
of the service. . , ,
There are still troubles aneaa in tne is-
innrio The. insurrection has become an atiair
ot local banditti and marauders, who deserve
no higher regard than the briganus or por
tions of the old world. Encouragement, di
rect or Indirect, to these Insurreetos stands
on tho same footing as encouragement to hos
tile Indians In the days when we still nao In
dian wars. As we will do everything In our
power for the Filipino who Is peacerui, -wa
will take the sternest measures with the
Filipinos who follow the path uf tho insur
recto and the ladroue. , , , '
The time has come when tnere snouia ne
additional legislation for the I'liiiippiries.
Nothing better can be done for tne rsianus
than lo introduce Industrial enterprises.
Nothing would benefit them so much aa
throwing them open to industrial develop
ment. H I therefore necessary mai me
Congress should pas law by which the re
nounces of the islanda can be developed: so
that franchises (for limited terms of years)
can be granted to companies doing business
In tliern. and every ' encouragement be given
to the incoming ot business men oi every
kind. .....
I call your attention most, earnestly to me
crying need of a cable to Hawaii ana tne-
Philippines, to be conunueu rroui uie n...
Ippines to points in Asia. We should not
dofor a day longer than necessary tue con
struction of uch a cable. It is demanded
not merely for commercial put lor pouucai
and military considerations.
"Either the Congress should immediately
provide for tho construction of a govern
ment cable, or cine an arrangement should
bo made by which like advantages to those
accruing from a government cable may be
secured to the government by contract with
a privato cable company.'
Recommend Nlcaragonn ( an:tl.
"No single great material work which re
mains to be undertaken on this continent is
of such consequence to the American people
a the building of a canal across tho Isthmus
connecting North and South America. While
i, rifi,M-,i effect would nerhans be most
marked upon the Pacific coast and tho gulf
and South- Atlantic stntes, n wouni ui
vrcntlv henefit other 'sections. It is em
phatically a work which It is for the interest
of the entire country to begin and complete
nu soon as possible; It Is one of those great
works which oply a greut nation can under
tiike with Dronnects of success, and which
when done are not only permanent assets
In the nation's material Interests, nut stanu
Ine monuments to its constructive ability.
r nm irhiri in be able to aiuiuuiice to you
that our negotiations on this subject with
tit-eat Britain, conducted on both Bides in a
mirii nt fricndl I no and mutual good w
and respect, have reeulted In my being able
to lay before the Senate a treaty which If
ratified will enable us to begin preparations
r.r n isthmian canal nt anv time, and which
guaranlees to this nation every right, that
it h'.a eve- afckerl in connection with the
,.Un,.i in this treatv. the old C.laytmi-Bu!
wcr treaty, no long recognized os Inadequate
to Bupply the base for the construction rind
maintenance of a necessarily American ship
canal, is abrogated. It specifically provides
iimt the i'nlted States alone shall do the
-cr.tr ,.f hniMliic and assume the respond
billty of safeguarding the ennui and shall
rneiihiie Its neutral use by ail nations on
terms of equality without the guaranty or
Interference of any outside nation from any
quarter. The signed treaty will at. once be
laid before tho Senate, and If approved the
cnniniu ii then nroceed lo Kivo effect to
tiie advantage It, secures u by providing for
the building of the cnnnl.
"Tii. true end of every great and free peo-
ntA should ha elf-resiieeling peace; and tills
iIm mn.t earneatlv desire sincere and
enrdinl friendship with nil others. Over the
ii, amriit of recent years, wars between
the greut civilized powers have become less
sod les frequent. Wars with barbarous or
ml. barbarous peoples come in an entirely
H,rT-,,t ctcirnrv being merely a most re
grettnblo but necessary International police
duty which must be performed for the sake
nt the welfare of mankind. Peace can only
v. .HU nnrtninlv Where both Side Wish
, i,,. ii- hot more and more the civilized
people are realizing the wicked folly of war
and are attaining that condition of Just and
Intelligent regard for tho right of other
which will In the end, us ""i "" "
lleve make world-wide peace possible. 1 he
peace conference at The Ilngue gave definite
expression to tins nope nuu ir.-n.-i
ed a strldo toward their attainment.
The Monroe Doctrine.
"Thl same pence conference acquiesced In
-i.,i,..t nt the Monroe doctrine as
compatible with the purposes and aim of
the conterenre. - .
"The Monroe doctrine should be tne car
dinal feature of the foreign policy ot ull the
nniiotis of lh two Americas, a It Is of the
L'nil'ed mates. The doiYflne I a derlnra
ii..,c iiif there niunt 1iei.no territorial ag
grandizemerit by any non-Amerban power at
the expense of any American power on Amer
ican soil. It I In no wlae Intended ns hostile
tn, any nation in tho old world. Still less Is
It Intended to give rover If) any aggression
by one new world power at the expense of
any other. It Is simply. a step, and a long
step toward aaattrlng the universal pence of
tho world ny ccurirr,l me iiwriBi iii.i u
... nonce on this hemisphere.
"Thl doctrine ha nothing to do with the
commercial relation of any American power,
save that It In thith allows each of them to
form such a It desires. In other words, It
i. re.tiv a guaranty of the commercial In
rtenemlenre of the Americas. Wn do not ask
..riee i hi doctrine for any exclusive com
mercinl dealings with any other Amerlran
stale We do not guarantee any tnte agulnt
punishment If It misconduct Itaelf, pro
vided that punishment does not take the
form nf the acquisition of territory by any
Mon-Americnn power.
"Our attitude In Cuba I a tifnclcnt guar
anty nf our own good faith. Wo have not
the "lightest desire to secure any territory
nt the expense of any of our neighbors. Wo
wleh lo w-ork with them hand In hand, o
that all of us mnv bo uplifted togethor, nnd
w rejoice over the good fortune of soy of
them we gladly bull their material prosper
ity and political stability, and are concerned
and alarmed If any of theui full Into Indus
trial or political cbo. We do not wish to
see any old world military power grow up on
thu continent, or to be compelled to become
a military power ourselve. The people of
the America can prosper bet If left to work
our their own salvation In their own way.
Powerful Navy Irgecl.
"The work of upbuilding the navy must be
steadily coutlnued. Whether we desire it or
noti we must henceforth rerogulze that we
have International duties no less than inter
national rignts. Kven if our flag were haul
ed down In the Philippines and Porto Kico,
even if we decided not to build the Isthmian
canal, we should need a thoroughly trained
navy of adequate size, or else.be prepared
definitely and for all time to abandon tho
Idea that our nation la among those whose
sous go down to the sea In ships. Cnkss
our commerce is always to be carried in for
eign bottoms, we must have war craft to
protect it,
"So far from being in any way a provoca
tion to war, au adequate aud highly trained
navy is the beet guaranty airaiusi war, the
cheapest and most effective peace tnaurance.
The cost of building and maintaining such a
navy represents the very lightest premium
for Insuring paece which this nation can
possibly pay.
"Probubly no other great notion in the
world is so anxious for peace as We are.
There is not a single civilized power which
has anything whatever to. fear from 'ag
gressiveness on our part. All we want is
peace; and toward Ibis end we wish to be
able to secure ' the same respect 'or our
rights In return, to insure fair treatment to
us commercially, and to guarantee the safety
of the American people.
"Our people Intend to abido by the Mon
roe doctrine and to Insist upon it as the one
sure means of securing the peace of the
Western hemisphere. The navy offers us the
only means of making our Insistence upon
the Monroe doctrine anything but a -subject
of derision to whatever nation ehooBes
to disregard It,. We desire the peace which
comes as of right to the Just man armed;
not the peace granted on terras of ignominy
to the craven acd the weakling.
"It 1 not posslblo to improvise a navy
after war breaks out. The ships must be
built and the men trained long in advance.
In the late war with Spain the ships that
dealt the decisive blows at Manila and San
tiago had been launched from two to four
teen years, and they were able to do as they
did because tho men In tBe conning tower,
the gun turrets and tha engine-rooms hfia
through long years of practice at -sea learned
how to do their duty.- . .
"It' was forethought; and preparation which
secured us the overwhelming triumph of
If wo fail to show forethought and prepara
tion now,- there mav cortie a time when dis
aster will befall us Instead of triumph; and
should this time come, the fault will rest
primarily, not upon those whom the Occi
dent of events puts In supremo command at
the moment, but upon those who have failed
tn nrenare In advance. -'
There should be no cessation in me wum
of completing our navy, ft Is unsafe end
unwise not to provide this year for several
additional battlfships and heavy armored
cruisers, with auxiliary and lighter craft in
nronort on: for the exact numbers ana char
acter f refer you to the report of the Secre
tary of the Navy, nut tnere is sometning e
need even more than additional ships, and
this is additional officers and men. To pro
vide battleships and cruisers and then lay
them up, with the expectation of -leaving
thorn unmanned until they aro needed in
actual war, would be worse than folly; it
would be a crime against the nation.
To send any warship against a competent
enemv unless those .aooai'd it nave uweu
ir-oineri hv venrs of notual sea service, in
cludiug Incessant gunnery practice,, would be
to invite not merely disaster, but the bitter
est shame and humiliation. Four thousand
nrblittonitl p.enmen aud one thousand addl
tlonal marines should be provided; and an
Increase in the officers should be provided
by making a largo addition to the classes at
Our rresent Naval Force.
we now b.-ive seventeen battleships ap
propriated for, of which, nine are completed
and have been commissioned for actual serv
ice. The remaining eight will be reaay in
from two to four years, but it will take at
leust that time to recruit aud train the men
to fight them. It Is of vast concern that we
huvo trained crews ready for the vessels by
the time thev are comlli ssloned. t,oon snip:
and good guns are Blmply good weapons, aim
the host, weauons aro useless save m tne
hands of men who know how to ngnt wnn
them. Thn men must Vie trained and drilled
under a thorough and well-planned system
of progressive Instruction, wniie trie recruit
ing must bo carried on with still greater
Ti,r novnl roll t .1 forces are state organi
atlons, and are trained for coast service, and
In event of war they will constitute tue inner
line of dnfense. Thev should receive hearty
encouragement from the general government.
-riiir to nrirlitinn we shou a at once pro
vide for a National Naval Reserve, organized
and trained under the direction of the Navy
l leniiptineiit. and sub ect to the call or tne
Chief E-recutive whenever war becomes immi
nent. It should be a real auxiliary to tna
i, enao ns: noace estari Isliment, anu oi
fer material to be drawn on at once for
matinlne- our shins In time of war. It should
lu. composed of itraduatcs of the Naval Acad
ay. graduates ot tne nuvui aiuiuu, uiuccin
and crews of const-line steamers, longshore
schooners, fishing vessels and steam yachts.
together wth the coast population auuut
such centers as life-saving slatious auu ngm
Ncod for Powerful Navy.
"Thn American neonle must, either build
nnd maintain an adequate navy or else make
no their minds definitely to accept a sec
nndarv nosltion In international affairs, not
merelv in nolitical. but In commercial, mat
tors. It has been well said that, there is no
surer way of courting national disaster than
to be, 'opulent, aggressive, and unarmed.'
"It is not necessary to Increase our army
beyond Its present size at this time. Hut it
iB necessary lo keep it at the highest point
of efficiency.
"Kvery effort should be made to bring the
army to a constantly increuslng statu of ef
ficiency. When on actual service no work
snvo that directly in the line of such service
should be required. The paper work In the
army, as in the navy, should bo greatly re
duced. What is needed is proved power of
command and capacity to work well In the
field. Constant cure is necessary to prevent
dry rot In the transportation uud commis
sary departments.
"The Congress should provide means where
by It will be possible to havo Held exercises
by nt least a division of regulars, and if
possible also a division , of national guards
men, once a year.
"Only actual handling nnd providing for
men in masses while they are marching,
camping, embarking, and disembarking, will
It bo possible to train tho higher officer to
perform their duties well and smoothly.
"A great debt is owing from the public to
tho men of the army and navy. They should
bo so treated us to enable them to reach the
highest point of efficiency, so that they may
be able to respond Instantly to any demand
made upon them bo Bustaln the Interests of
the nation and the honor of Ihe (lug. The
Individual American enlisted man Is prob
ably on the whole a more formidable fighting
man than the regular of any other army.
Every consideration should bo shown him,
and In retur'n the highest standard of use
fulness should be exacted from him. It Is
well worth while for tho Congress to con
slder whether the pay of enlisted men upon
second and subsequent enlistments should
not be Increased lo correspond with the In
creased value of the veteran soldier.
Mllltln Law Obsolete.
"Action should he taken In reference to the
militia and to Iho raising of volunteer forces.
Our militia law I obsolete and worthlcsn.
The- organization and armament of the Na
tlonnl tlunrd of the several stales, which are
treated as mllltln' In tho appropriation by
the Congress, should be made Identical with
those prnvldedi for the regular force. The
obligation and dutle of the Ouard In time
of war bould he carefully defined, nnd a
system established by law under which the
method of procedure of raising volunteer
forces should be prescribed In advance. It
I utterly Impossible in the . excitement and
hntn of Impending war to do thl allsfac
torlly If the arrangement havo not been
made long beforehand. Provision should be
modn for utilizing In the first volunteer or
ganization called nut the training or those
citizens who havo already find experlenco un
der arm, and especially for the selection In
advance of thn onlcer of any force which
may bo raised; for careful selection of the
kind necessnry la Impossible after the out
break of war.
"Thnt tho nrmy I not at all a mero In
strument of destruction has been shown dur
ing the Inst three year. In the Philippine,
Cub nnd Porto ltleo It ha proved llBelf a
great constructive force, a most potent Im
plement for the upbuilding of a peaceful civ
ilization. Eulogy "f Veteran.
"No oilier citizen deserve o well of Ihe
republic a tho veteran, the survivor of
.fase who saved the union. They alt th
on deed which If left uadon vault bavflv
meant thnt all else In our history went roa
nothing. Put for their teadfst pr6we In
Ih greatest crlst of our history, all our
ennuis would be meaningless, and our great
experiment In' popular freedom aud self-gov
ernment- a gloomy laiture. jsoreoer, 1111.7
not only left u a united nation, but they left
u also a a heritage the memory of the
mighty deeds- by which tne nation was kept
united. We are now indeed one nation, one
in fact's well as in name: we are united
in our devotion to the flag, which I the sym
bol of all national greatness and unity; and
the very completeness of our union enable
u all, in every part of the country, 10 giory
the valor. shown alike Dy tne sou 01 mo
North and the- sons of- the boutti in the
times that tried men's souls.
Merit System Endorsed.
The merit system of making appointments
is in its esKence as democratic and American
as the common schools system itself. Jt sim
ply means that In clerical and other position
where the dutle are entirely non-political,
e.li applicants should have n fair field and
no favor, each standing on his merits as he
Is able to show them by-practical test. Writ
ten competitive examinations offer the only
available nu-ans in many cases for applying
this system. In other . caes;' as where la
borers are employed, a sysiem ui ieBti ra
tion undoubtedly can be -widely - -extended.
Tbere tire, of course, places where the writ
trn competitive examination cannot be ap
plied, and oilier where it offers by no means
an ideal solutlon.'-'vbut where under existing
political coTidiiions it is, though an Imperfect
means, yet the,. best present means of get
ting satisfactory resujts.
"It is important to have this system ob
tain at home, but it Is even more Important
to have It applied rigidly in our insular pos
sessions. The administration of these island
should be as -wholly free from the suspicion
of partisan politic as the administration .of
the army and Davy. AU that we ask from
the public servant In the Philippines or Porto
Rico is that he reflect honor on his country
by tho way in which he makes that coun
try's rule a benefit to the peoples who have
come under it. 1 nis is an mat we mmum
ask, and wo cannot afford to be content with,
less." ... V. ' , '
Treatment of Indiana
The mpsK.isre noints out the defect In our
present consular service, and recommends. the
passage of bill now oetoi-e oougra
will Increase its efficiency. Of the Indian
problem tt says-
In my Judgment toe time bub mieru
niion n eiioiiid definitely make un our mindB
to recognize the Indian as an individual and
not as a member 01 a trioe. rue u
Allotment Act is a mighty pulverizing engine
to break up the tribal mass. It acts direct
ly upon the family of the individual. Under
its provisions uomo sixty thousand Indians .
have already become citizens of the United
States. We should now break up the tribal
'funds, doing for them what allotment does
for the tribal lands: that is, they should be
divided into Individual holdings. A stop
should be put upon tha indiscriminate per
mission to Indians to lease tueir aiiuimrm.
The effort ubould be steadily to make the
Indian work like any other man on his own
ground. Tho' marriage laws of the. Indiana
should be mado the same .as those of the
white. ' " . ' '
"In dealing with the aDorigmai races
things are more important than to preserve
them from the terrible physical and .moral
degradation resulting from the liquor traf
fic We are doing all we can to save our own .
Indian tribes from this evil. Wherever by
International agreement tuis same euu u
attained as regards races where we do not
possess exclusive control, every, eaort should
be made to bring it ahout.
"I bespeak the most cordial support from
the Congress and tho people for the St. Louis
Exposition to Commemorate the One Hun
dredth Anniversary of tho Louisiana Pur
chase. This purchase was the greatest -Id- . ,
stance of expansion in our history It dol-
initely decided ttat wo were, tu -groat
continental republic, by far the fore
most power in the Western Hemisphere The
rational government should be represented1
at the exposition by a full and complete set
f"The'bpeoplo of Charleston, with great en
ergy and civic spirit, aro carrying on an ex
position which will continue throughout most .
of the prosont session of -toe Congress. I
heartily commend this exposition to the good
will of the people. It deserves all the en- .
courageinent that can be given It. :
"For the sake of good administration, sound ,
economy, and the advancement of science tho
Census Office as, now constituted should be
made a permanent government bureau. Till
would insure better, cheaper and more sat
isfactory work, iu the interest not only ol
our business but of statistic, economic and
social science. . .
Growth of Postal gervlco. ,
"The remarkable growth of the postal ser
vice is shown in the fact tbat Its revenue
have doubled and Its expenditures have near
ly doubled within twelve years. Its progres
sive development compels constantly, increas
ing outlav, but in this period of business en
ergy and "prosperity its receipts grow so much
faster than its expenses that the annual de
ficit bos been steadily reduced from $11,411,
779 in 1807 to $3,923,727 -In. 1901. Among-recent
postal advances ' the success of rural free
delivery wherever established has been so
marked, and actual experience has made its
benefits so plain, that tho demand for its ex
tension is general and urgent. '
"It is just that the great agricultural popu
lation should share in the improvement ot the
service The number of rural routes now In
operation' is -6,009. practically all established
within three years, and there are 6,000 appli
cations awaiting action. It is expected that
the number in operation at the close of the.
" . i wilt reach 8.600. The mail
will then be daily carried to the doors ot
1 700 000 of our people who have heretofore
been' dependent upon distant offices, and one
third of all that portion of the country which
is adapted to it will be covered by this kind
of service.' .
Sccond-Clas Mall Matter.
"The full measure of postal progress which
might be realized has long been hampered
and obstructed by the heavy, burden Imposed
on the government through the intrenched
and well-understood abuses which have
grown up in connection with second-class
mall matter. The extent of this burden ap
pears when.it is stated that while the second-clans
matter make's nearly three-fifths of
tho weight of all. theimall, it paid for the
last fiscal year only .'$4, 2:14,445 of the aggre
gate postal revenue of $111, 631, 193. If the
pound rate of postage, which produce the
large loss thus entailed, and which was fixed
by the Congress with the purpose of encour
aging the dissemination of public Informa
tion, were limited to tho legitimate news
papers and periodicals actually contemplated
by the law, no Just exception could bo taken.
That expense would be the recognized and
accepted cost of a liberal public policy de
liberately adopted for a justifiable end. But
much of the matter which eujoys the -privileged
rate is wholly outside of the Intent ot
the law, and has secured admission y.only
through an evasion of it requirement or
through lax construction.: Tho 'proportion of
such wrongly Included matter is estimated
by postal experts to he one-half of the whole
volume of second-class mall. If tt be only
one-third or one-quarter, the magnitude of
tho burden Is apparent. Tho Postoffioo De
partment, has now undertaken to -remove tha
abuses so fur a I possible by a stricter ap
plication of the law; and it should be sus
tained In Its effort." .
"We view 'with lively Interest and keen
hope of beneficial result the preceding of
the Pan-American Congress, convoked at the
Invitation of Mexico, and now sitting at tb
Mexican capital. The delegates of the United
Stale At-C .tinder the most liberal instruction
to co-operale with their collengue In all
matters promising advantage to the great-,
fnmlfy of American commonwealths, a well
in their relation among themselves as . in
their domestic advancement and in their
Intercourse with tho world at Inrge.
The occurrences arising from the "Boxer"
outbreak in China are reviewed In detail, and
'the atop taken lo ecure lo the I'nlted State
It bnre of iHie trade of thn Orient are ex
plained. The message' concludes:
"The death of Queen Y'r'for,s caused thn
people of the United State deep and heart
felt aorrow, to which the government gavo
full expression. When President McKlnley
died, our nation In turn received from every
quarter of the British empire expression of
grief and sympathy n les slnctra. The
death of the Empress Dowager Frederick of
(lermnny lso aroused the genuine sympathy
of the American people; and thl Bympathy
wa cordially reciprocated by Germany when
the Preident wa assassinated. Indeed, from
every quarter of the civilized world we re
ceived, at the time of tin President' death,
nBsurnnce of auch grief end regard a to
loueh the heart of our people. In the midst
of our affliction we reverently thank the Al
mighty that we Rre nt pence with the nation
of mankind; and we firmly Intend that our
policy shall be ucb a to continue unbroken
these International relation ol mutual r
rpeot and good will.
White House, December 9, 1901,
... &
.. .. f V
' I
aholo lilatory of in wunu suun .ni