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About The Sioux County journal. (Harrison, Nebraska) 1888-1899 | View Entire Issue (May 4, 1899)
MAKING BUOAR FROM BEETS.
The Tedlou Process Introduced In
this Country Explained.
Th rnlwrtif sugar beets has a decid
es advantage over the grower of burst
cans. Beets can be shipped In any
quantity to points miles distant. The
cane la so bulky and the juice so liable
to fermentation that lt must be han
dled on the plantation where it Is rais
ed. The Juice Is extracted from sugar
cane by heavy Iron rollers, operated by
team and exerting enormous pressure.
in me extraction of beet Juice no
crushing is done. The beets are topped
before being brought to the factory. On
arriving there they are placed in a large
circular tank, the bottom of which is
fitted with a knife, which Is whirled
around like an auger, slicing the beets
to pieces, and dropping them Into a con
veyer below. The edges of the knife are
wavy, bo that the slices are corrugated,
exposing the greatest possible amount
Of surface. These slices or cnsettes. as
they are called, are then placed in what
Is called the diffusion battery, a circle
of great Iron tanks, each holding about
two and a half tuns. These tanks are
connected by pipes. Hot water is turn
ed Into the first -tank, and after perco
lating through the tank of curettes. Is
turned Into the second tank, and so on,
until it has completed the circuit. This
water extracts almost every particle of
sugar from the sliced beets. When this
water has been the rounds of all the
tanks It Is drawn off and a fresh supply
of water started In. As soon as the
fresh water has passed from the first
tank the pulp remaining Is taken out
and a fresh supply is put In this tank.
Next time the circuit Is made the fresh
water Is started Into tank No. 2, and
the pulp taken out of that tank, and
When the sugar-bearing Juices have
been thus extracted from the beets, it
Is clarified with lime and carbonic acid
gas. The big factories use eighteen to
twenty tons of lime a day.
The clarified Juice, after being filter
ed, Is ready to he boiled. It Is placed
In Immense tanks, usually four them
connected by pipes. The temperature
Is never allowed to go above 170 de
grees. The Juice Is thus converted Into a
syrup of whatever consistency desired.
This syrup is then placed In what are
called strike pans and boiled Into sugiir
grains or crystals. These enormous
pans hold all the way from 90 to ISO
barrels of sugar. The man in cnarge,
called a sug3r boiler, fills his pan about
a fifth full of liquor. He turns on the
steam and bolls It until It begins to
form grain. Then, at Intervals, he
draws In more and more liquor, so reg
ulating1 his heat ns to keep enlarging
the grains already formed Instead of
forming other smaller grains, until the
pan Is full. Then the vacuum pump Is
stopped, the air admitted, the valve In
the bottom of the pan opened and the
sugar, with Just enough syrup to make
It a mushy mass, Is poured into the
The mixer Is a great tank, very like
a churn of modern make, with a dasher
In the bottom. This dasher, consisting
of a series of Iron paddles mounted on
a steel shaft, with a belt and pulley.
They prevent the sugar hardening in
the mixer. The bottom of the mixer Is
fitted with pipes leading to the floor
below, and emptying Into the centrifu
gal machines. Each centrifugal holds
.bout a barrel of dry sugar. The ma
chine consists of a steel cylinder sus
pended In an upright position by a shaft
with a belt and pulley. The cylinder is
a steel frame, supporting a screen of
brass so fine that, while syrup can pass
the meshes, grains of sugar cannot.
The machine la filled with the mass of
sugar and syrup, the machinery Is set
In motion and the cylinder revolves at
the rate of 1,300 times a minute. The
centrifugal motion forces the syrup
through the mesh of the screen and the
ugar Is retained. A spray of water is
then turned Into the machine, which
passes I1-rough the screen after the syr
up, washing out all vestige of the
syrup. In two or three minutes the
sugar Is dry, the cylinder Is stopped, the.
bottom of the centrifugal opened and
the sugar poured Into conveyors below,
whence It Is taken to the granulators,
the drying room or other destination
according to Its grade.
The syrup from the centrifugals, call
ed second liquor, or seconds, Is caught
hv a buki-t of Iron which surrounds
the cylinder and Is conveyed to tanks j
set apart for it. It Is tested by the
chemists, and If found of sufficient (
strength Is used In the pans again In
the manufacture of granulated sugar, j
After being used the second time it
la called third liquor, and is usually ;
too dark and of too little strength to be
used again. Then the liquor Is filtered
and Is mixed with lime and blood fresh
from the slaughter house, and Is again
used. By this time the liquor Is of
uch low grade that It Is Impossible to
use It In the manufacture of commercial
When liquor Is of too low a grade
to be used In the sugars of commerce
It Is boiled to grain and put through
the centrifugals. The grain Is called
raw sugar, and Is melted up and treated
exactly as raw sugar from the planta
tion or liquor from the quadruple boil
ers. The grain Is thus disposed of, but
there remains the liquor, called raw
yrup. This Is boiled to grain as often
s Its strength, as determined by the
chemists, will Justify. When It Is no
longer strong enough to come to grain,
It is boiled Into what Is called tank
ugar, a pasty mass without grain, and
et In huge tanks In the hotroom for
from four to ten days, until It come to
grain. It Is then put through the mixes
and centrifugals as before. If skillfully
handled the syrup Is then ready to be
mad Into molntsen. If not, It must he
helled Into tank sugar again and put
throujrh the same process until the de
sired end Is accomplished.
The last process In the manufacture
of granulated sugar, which Is the form
In which It Is most familiar nowadays.
Is to pass It through the granulator.
This Is a great Iron cylinder, one end of
which Is elevated about ten degree!
from the horizontal. It Is revolved
slowly by machinery and the Inside If
fitted with Iron shelves about three
Inches deep. The sugar Is poured from
these shelves like water from a mill
wheel, and, as the granulator Is kept
very hot by steam colls, every particle
of moisture Is goon obliterated from the
sugar. It Is then ready for the barrel,
Cut loaf sugar. Instead of passing
through the granulator, is moistened by
a fine syray of pure A liquor and it
passed throurh the die machine, which
mllds It Into the little cubes so familiar
to commerce. These are mechanically
deposited on Iron plates and conveyed
by machinery to ovens, where It if
baked for twelve hours. It Is then bar
reled and sent to -the warehouse.
Head hunting, as practiced In Samoa,
Is one of the most cruel practices In
the world. The American and British
seamen who were ambushed by Sa
moans April 1 were beheaded.
The killed Included Lieutenant Philip
V. Iinsdale. Ensign John R. Manas
han. Coxswain James Butler. Ordinary
Seamen Norman K. Edsal, all of the
I'nited States rrulser Philadelphia,
Lieutenant Freeman and two seamen of
the British cruiser Tauranga.
If the heads of the victims had not
been recovered by prlTts of the French
mission and returned to Apia they
would have been dealt with in the
manner peculiar to the bloodthirsty
bead hunters of the islands.
The custom of a Samoan Is to re
move the head of a captured or dead
enemy. He first displays it In triumph,
dancing around It and holdlntr a great
feast. He then prepares It for preser
vation as an article of decoration and
an heirloom In his family. He slulY
the neck with hot stones, repeating the
process several times a day for three
dnys. The ptonos are not hot enough
to roast the flesh, and have the effect
of preserving the en'lre head. The skin
becomes leathery, and the head will
last an Indefinite time. When the head
has been thoroughly cured It Is placed
In a network baf. Through this the
dried and grinning features may be oh.
j )f lnat
they present a very awful appearance,
The netting is red, which heightens the
effect. The Pam"an hangs his trophy
in his principal living room, In order
to remind his children how varorous
and fearless a man he Is.
Head hunting flourishes In the many
of the Pacific Islands, and to a fearful
extent In those Islands which fringe,
the eastern coast of Asia.
It Is by no means certain that th
heads of some of the American and
British sailors arc not now decorating
the huts of head hunters.
Head hunting made Its appearance In
another place during the Samoan trou
bles. The friendly natives, acting on
the side of the British and American
and of King Malletoa, secured the head
of one of the most redoubtble chiefs on
Mataafa's side. With this they march
ed In triumph through the streets of
Samoa. Captain Stuart of the British
Tauranga dispersed the procession and
announced that he would shoot any
man found with a head In his posses
sion. The king then issued a proclama-
tlon forbidding the practice.
Bright Girl Won Easily.
"Cholly," remarked Mrs. Fltznoodle
Flushlngton, with something that might
have been taken for a bleam of Intel
ligence tinting his vacuous face, "If you
want to meet clevah girls go down and
spend a month at one of those Southern
"Ah they great, old chap?" Inquired
Cholly as he flecked the ash from his
"Kawthah. I met a girl down at one
of 'tin that beat any girl I evah met
befoah. What that girl didn't know
wasn't worth knowing, old man; deuced
"How did she show It, me boy?"
"Well, theahs a pier down there with
a lathing float attached to the end of
It. The float, ye knaw, lay about six
feet telow the end of the pier, quite a
drop, ye knaw. One night I was talk
ing to the girl on the varanda, and I
BUK(r,.8ted that the pier offerd a good
,,nance for a bicycle ride If It weren't
for the dangr.r f dropping off the end
and lHi(ng a tumble of six feet to the
Hat below. The girl looked at me and
la(1 that evcn lf one did Htrike the
,liat lt wouldn't mattah. 'Why, I'll
rll)e (jown heah and out on the raft.'
Bne a(1 .You daren't,' I replied. She
turned up her nose and aBked me what
I'd bet. I bet her $23 and a box of
flowers. She told me to be out theuli In
the morning and I'd ace her do It. I
was theah bright and eahly. And blow
my eyes, old man, she did do It."
'Why, wasn't she hurt, me boy?"
"Not a bit. The tide had raised the
float to a level with the pier and at the
end she Just rolled out upon it on her
wheel. Deuced clevah, wasn't H?"
By Dr. C. H. Johnson: A sure remedy
for "car sickness," a form of nausea re.
sembllng lea sickness, which affecti
many travelers, la to take a sheet ol
common writing paper, large enough tc
cover both the chest and stomach, and
put It on under the clothing next to th
person. If one sheet la not large enough
paste the edge of two or three to
gether, a the cheat and stomach must
bt well protected. Wear the paper thui
aa long aa you are traveling, an
change It dally If your journey Is long
Those who have tried It lay that It li
a perfect defense.
WILDCAT SMITH OF CALDWBLt
Said to Be the Bravest Man In th
btate of Texa.
When h makes one of his infrequent
visit! from his log cabin In the woodl
to the town of Caldwell, ex., men leek
after him with Interest and murmur In
respectful undertones the name of
"Why do they call him that?"
"Oh, ; that's Jes' a nickname;
that's nothln'; that wildcat foolishness
warn't the story at all. This yer Smith
one time he played the nerviest game o'
cyards a man ever sal into In Texas."
After certain preliminaries Brazos
Pete wiped his tawny trailing mustache
with the back of a Hcarred and brawny
hand and went on:
"This yer Smith he come to Texas in
'36 he did, an' he fit anythin" Injun,
b'ar. Greaser, white man tried to fight
Sam Houston once, an' th' ol' man tol'
'm he wuz the fortieth on his list.
W'en he'd killed the other thirty-nine,
says he-, 'twould be Smith's turn.
"Smith, he fit Injn more'n anythin'
else o' course. Kep' tab on a notched
stick and had notched It down all one
side and turned It over dead Injun fur
ever' notch w'en the Comanches cor
ralled him one time.
" 'We take urn w'ite man our village
by Devil river burn urn up,' said the
Comanche chief. He was the one they
called Big Laugh, 'cause had a kin' o'
hairlip grin, fit to make a man dream o"
snakes an' centipedes.
" 'W'ite man urn say "Wow, wow,
wow!" In fire. Heap plenty fun um burn
up,' says this yer Big Laugh, grinnin'
Jes' that a-way; 'w'ite man cry, "Wah,
wah, wah1." like squaw."
"'Oh, mebbe not,' says Smith; 'have
"So they made love to the big bottle
In Smith'H pocket until Big Laugh felt
good an' happy, this yer Smith all
the time thlnkin' an' thinkin', and no
ticin' out o' the corner o' his eye a
white gal tied on one o' the ponies,
moanin' In fear an' pain; somebody
they'd captured an' carrlid off. Purtiest
gal in Texas, she was, fmlth says, an'
slender as a young peenn tree.
"'Yes,' says this Big Laugh, 'w'ite
man um say "Wah. wah!" like w'ite
iqunw there. Play seven-up?' Fer Big
Laugh be thought he was some on
"Then this yer Smith sees his chance,
fer Big Laugh was feelin' pretty good
with the w'isky an' all, an' grinnin"
wlder'n ever; but Smith he on'y says,
kin' o' cureless like: 'Oh, y-a-a-s, I kin
beat any man in Texas; y-a-a-s, I play
even-up Jes' a little."
" 'W'ite man um play me?"
" 'Nawthln' to play fer now, 'cept my
cussed ol' life.' says Smith, an' he
made 's If he'd go to sleep.
"Big Laugh was mad clean through.
'Play um w'ite man fer life,' says he.
" 'Oh, well. If I got ter play, trot out
yer cyards,' says Smith. So they played,
puttiri' down the cards on a blankit,
the other Injuns a-scrowgin' 'round an
a-tookln' on. An' pretty soon Big
Laugh an' Smith they stood 6 to 6, an'
It was Smith's deal. He run th' cards
an' turned up a jack from the bottom
"'Waugh!' grunted this yer Big
Laugh; 'w'ite man play seven-up plen
ty! Heap git out' Mosey! Make up
track! Um go home!'
"But Smith he didn't want ter go
lone. 'I'm glad ter git shet o' yez,
ays he. slow like. 'I never did like ter
play seven-up with no dern amatoors
" 'W'ite man play more?' says Big
Laugh, grumpy, 'cause he didn't know
what 'amatoor meant.
" 'Oh, wa-al,' aya Smith, lookln all
round slow like, 'let's play fer don't
want blankit, don't want pony e's play
fer th gal,' an' he p'lnted to the poor
critter, cryln" on the pony; an' she
looked at Smith with her big round
eyes, an' he felt white all th' way thro",
staying there ter git burnt alive fer a
pair of blue eyej.
'"Good!" Bays this yer Big aLugh.
'Play um game. You win me let squaw
go; you lose, we keep squaw, put w'iti;
man on fire, hear um cry "Wah, wah!' "
"So they played cyards on the blankit,
tb' Injuns lookln' on an' not hardlp
breathln', they was so Interested. An
purt soon It stud 6 to- 6 agin, an' 'twai
Big Laugh's deal.
"Big Laugh he grinned worse than
ever as he come ter th' las' cyards, an'
the Injuns begun to yell. Smith says he
could feel the fire already a-slzzlln'
round his legs, an' the gal Jes' klvers
her eyes with the whitest pair o' little
hands in Texas. An' then with a yell
Big Laugh he turned the trump.
"'Twas the queen o' hearts, an' Fmlth
held an ace an' deuce. Well' the Injun
couldn't give, o'course, an' Smith won.
"Big Laugh, his gun an" two ponies,
an' Smith an' th' gal jes' lit out fer th'
settlements, a-rldln' day an' night.
'Smith marry th' gal? Who's a-tell-
ln" this yarn? She married Colonel Sam
Janes, that was killed at Shlloh. Beat
how dry talkln' makes a feller."
"But why do they call him Wildcat?"
"Oh, that wasn't nothln," Bald Bra
zos Pete, with visible annoyance "Onct
a tool wildcat jumped him w'en he had.
n't no gun, Nachly Smith he busted the
critter's slats in with his flat and got
It ear In his teeth an' unjinted Us
neck, an' then tuk. It home an' skinned
The handsomest of the new satin
foulards are striped with a line of heav
ier satin and polka-dotted between the
tripes. These are very fine In quality
but the designs lack novelty under the
present craze for spotted fabrics, and
purchasers of these toft, clinging ma.
terlali, who look for something uncom
mon In style, pars they by for the
quaint weave figured with small Per
sian device showing a fine but bright
melang of rich Oriental colors, on
round of black, blue, grn or brown.
Some Odd Phrases Used by Un
Telegraph editors and copy readers Of
lewepupers run across a great many re
markable statements In the copy re
vived from couniry correspondents and
even from the press association. Trite
expressions become a habit with cor
respondents, and it is one of the duties
of the copy reader to eliminate these
when he comes across them. A "desk
man" on the Kansas City Star took
the trouble to Jot down such of these
as he came across from day to day.
Some of them are actually weird, as
"He was overcome by smoke In the
"The man was fatally wounded. He
"The supposed to be dead Jones stab
bed the alleged murderer twice, Inflict
ing fatal wounds which he cannot sur
vive." "Jerrel was blown about thirty feet.
He leaves a family."
"Smith was shot twice by the alleed
slayer, one ball entering the Intestines,
the other penetrating his right lung.
The coroner is Investigating. Blood
hounds have been put on the trail."
Writers often have things occur la
the most remarkable places. The fol
lowing instances have actually appear
ed in newspapers or have been dragged
out of copy by editors before they got
"The man was shot twice In the sa
loon." "He fell upon his being shot."
"He was shot In the suburbs"
"lie was injured in the fracas."
"Hhe whipped htm upon his return."
"He kissed her passionately on her
"He kissed her back."
"He walked in upon her Invitation."
"She seated heiself upon his enter
ing." "She fainted upon his departure."
"He clung to her weeping."
"They gossiped upon his downfall."
Dead persons oflen do stranger things
than one would suppose. Witness the
following: "The suicide on reviving said"
"Before he died the deceased said"
TriteneFs however, is the besetting
9in of untrained correspondents. The
following are old friends and will be
readily recognized by newspaper read
ers: "It is reported on the highest author
ity by one who has the ear of the pres
dent, but whose name is suppressed
'or obvious reasons, that" The in
tormatlon that usually follows a state
ment of that kind Is as valuable as its
ntroduction is authoritative.
The corn spondent who concludes his
story by saying: "It said the stotv can
oe supported by facts." seldom sees the
tory in print.
Some of the most common examples
3f triteness ore:
It was a gala day," or red letter
.say, as the case may tie.
"The police are in suspense."
"He broke down and confessed."
"The distracted husband," or wife.
"A well known citizen." On one oc
;asln the correspondent put It: "A well
itnown citizen, who is also a well-to-do
"There Is general alarm here owing
to indications of a recurrence of the
"Everybody Is of the opinion to the
"He spoke in part as follows:'"
"Our little town was thrown intn a
ferment of excitement this morning
"The citizens are free to say that the
law will never take Its course."
"Deceased was a Mason If high de
"John Jones the erstwhile senior
member of the cash grocers, Jone
Bros., has "
"Tour correspondent has learned"
"The expression is used advisedly."
"Mr. Gibson was a highly respected
citizen and known to almost every man
woman and child in the city."
"A general denial was entered."
"Henry Smith was the first white
child born on the townslte."
"The Ryan college with all Its con
tents was burned today. There was over
200 pupils In the building at the time."
"No one was hurt, though Proprietor
Barker was slightly Injured."
The captain was rescued In a precar
Sometimes men write what they do
not mean. For Instance, here Is a tele
gram from New York: "John Kropf,
who made a fortune and lost it laying
tone sidewalks, committed suicide last
night." Mr. Kropf made his fortune
In laying sidewalks, but probaDly lost
The possessive case Is sometimes
written In strange fashion. The follow
ing Instance was detected In a letter
from a country correspondent: "The
man whose wife dled's house "
The prefixing of a man's occupation
or office often produces queer results In
"United States Deputy Marshal Smith
," etc. But the most remarkable
actual case of this kind is the follow
ing: Secretary of the German Central
committee for the Erection of Hospitals
for the Cure of Fereons With Diseased
Lungs Eltenhaupt said:
The country corrtepondent views In.
cal events through powerful binoculars.
Every fire Is a coi.f!upf alien or a hoi"
caut and every accident has "horrlb'a
details." The following Is an actual
it-port sent by a local correspondent
In Mistourl: "A honor second only
the Johnstown flood is upon us. The
Missouri Pacific dyke was undrmln-d,
giving way last night Anon? the losses
were alxty-flv hogs, which were
Paragraph Selected Prom the
Writing of Wlee Men.
Plough deep while
Comtrn sense is instinct, and enough
of lt is genius. H W. Shaw.
Caution, though very often wasted, la
a great risk to take H. W Shaw
Be true, and thou Bhait fetter time
with everlasting chain. Schiller.
Excellence Is never granted to a man
but as the reward of labor. Sir Joshua
Attention is the staff that memory Is
made of, and memory Is accumulated
In the power of fixing the attention
lies the most precious of the intellectual
habits. Robert Hall.
Take time to deliberate; but when the
time for action arrives, stop thinking
and go on. Andrew Jackson.
No man is bound to be rich or great;
no, nor to be wise; but every man is
bound to be honest. Sir Benjamin Rud
yard. The art of using moderate abilities to
advantage wins praise and often ac
quires more reputation than actual
Good taste may not be necessary to
salvation or to success in life, but it is
one of the most powerful factors of civ
ilization. James Russell Lowell.
Style in painting is the same as in
writing, a power over materials wheth
er words or colors, by which concep
tions or sentiments are conveyed. Sir
I reverence the individual who un
derstands distinctly what he wishes;
who unweariedly advances; who knows
the means conducive to his object, and
can seize and use them. Goethe.
Literature Is full of coincidents which
some love to believe are plagiarisms,
and there are thoughts always abroad
In the air which lt takes more wit to
avoid than to hit upon. Oliver Wendell
Common sense in one view is the most
uncommon sense While it is extremely
rare in possession, the recognition of It
is universal. AM men feel it, though
few men have it. H. N. Hudson.
The commerce of intellect loves dis
tant shores. The small retail dealer
trades only with his neighbor; when the
great merchant trades he links the foui
quarters of the globe. Bulwer Lytton.
We grow strong and firm to resist
and to do; we gain the mastery of our
selves which brings superiority, by a
patient use of the incidents of daily
To rule one's own spirit on the petty
theater of a private sphere creates
power which goes with
fields of action. Geikle.
us to wider
If he could doubt on his triumphant
How much more I,ln the defeat and loss
Of seeing all my selfish dreams fulfilled,
Of having lived the very life I willed,
Of being all that I desired to be?
My God, my God, why hast thou for
aken me! W. D. Howells.
I am not sure but we shall have to
go back to the old idea of considering
the churches places of worship and not
opportunities for sewing societies and
the cultivation of social equality.
I remember that when I was a child
I used to think that a stick of pepper
mint candy must burn with the con
sciousness of Its own deliciousness.
For did a woman ever live who would
not give all the years of tasteless se
renity for one year, for one month,
for one hour of the uncalculating de
lirium of love, poured out upon a mail
who returned It?
The world seemed In a vesper mood
In truth nature herself, at the moment,
suggested that talk was an imperti
nence. I heard the other day that Boston,
getting a little tired of the Vedas, was
beginning to take up the new testa
ment. All Americans expect to go to Eu
rope. I have a friend who says she
would be mortified if she reached heav
en and there had to confess that she
had never seen Europe.
Why Is it that to do the right thing
Is often to make the mistake of a life?
In fact, however, I doubt lf there are
any episodes In our lives, any asides
that do not permanently affect our en
tire career. Are not the episodes, the
casual thoughts, the fortuitous un
planned meetings, the brief and maybe,
at the moment, unnoted events, those
which exercise the most Influence on
But often the Implanting In the mind
of an idea Is more potent than , the
frustration of a plan, or the gratifica
tion of a desire, so hidden are the
causes that make (or mar) character
Unnoted the desire so swiftly follow!
the thought and Juggles with the will
Is there a particular moment when
we choose our path In life, when we
take the right or the left?
It Is such a pity that for most people
there Is only one chance In life.
Good-bye, I shall see you tomorrow
or next year, or In the next world. Hall
and farewell! that la the common ex
perience. But, oh, the bltternes of H
to many a soul. Charles Dudley War
ner. A Little Journey Into the World
YET TO BE EXPLORED;
Portions ot th- Earth That Still Re
main Unknown Land.
Many people suppose the whole world
except the extreme arctic and antarc
tic regions, to have been explored and
mapped already; but, in fact, there if
no lack of unknown lands to which out
modern Nasamonians can turn theii
In Africa Wadal has been visited by
only three travelers, and, although II
would be very difficult to penetrate
into the territory itself, useful explor
ing work might be done in gome of the
outlying districts, approachable from
the upper Benue of the Ubongl wells.
The region between Lake Rudolf and
Abyssinia and the valley of the So
bata, a tributary of the White Nile, ar
believed to be of great interest, but
are entirely unknown.
Outside these three regions there Is a
fair knowledge of the general geogra
phical features of Africa, but much de
tail remains to be filled in and much
Indifferent work requires to be done
over again. There are also region '
which have indeed been traversed, buf
which will well repay further detailed
examination. So that Africa still offers
a wide and interesting field of research
to the young explorer.
In Asia there are unexplored tracts
in various directions. In spite of recent
Journeys in Oman and the Hadramut'
there is still an unknown region in
Arabia upward of 400 miles square and
there is also much yet to be done in
In Persia, parts of Lurlstan, and tha
country of the Pe :ian Kurd still re
main unexplored. Further east, Dr.
Sven Hedin, extensive as his travels
have been, has left a great deal ol
work for the future explorer. There are
the passes from Thibet into Nepal, much
unknown country in southwestern Thib.
et, the mighty range which bounds the
Tsanpu valley on the north, and ex
tensive tracts of the northern plateau
while Lhasa, the capital, has never bees
visited since the days of Hue and Ga
bet, who were there upward of fifty
The great river Tsanpu, from latitude
94 degrees and 10 seconds east to its
entrance into the valley of Assam, un
der the name of Dihong, is wholly un
known. The whole region of complicated
mountain and river systems between
India and China urgently calls for bold
and hardy explorers to disentangle it
There is also much to be done in the
mountain ranges of western China.
Passing to the mass of islands lying
to the south of Asia, there is a great
field for exploration in the Dutch por
tion of New Guinea. Its interior is a
complete blank, with Its chain of moun
tains believed to be 16,000 feet high.
It Is, however, in South Amc.ica that
the most extensive unexplored regions
still await the visits of scientific explor
ers. Although this continent is much
richer and of far more beautiful scen
ery than Africa, and, although it hag
attracted the ablest and most accom
plished travelers, such as Condamine,
Humboldt, D'Orbigny, Schomburgh,
Martins, and Bates, it has received, on
the whole, much less attention than
Africa and much less than it deserves.
Many parts of the Colombian Cordil
leras still need exploration, as well aa
the basins of several affluents of the
Amazon; while there is an enormous
tract to the eastward which is still
practically unknown. It is that wild,
forest-covered region which was the
scene of the adventurous searches foi
El Dorado In the sixteenth century.
Farther south, although the region of
the eastward of Cuzco, the ancient cap
ital of the Incas, Is now attracting at
tention, much remains to be done.
There are also many undescribed
parts of the Andes of Peru which ar
of great Interest, especially in the little-known
districts around the lake of
Parinacochas. The mountain peaks ol
the range above Tarapaca are still vir
gin, and those of Sajama and Palahuarl
have not yet been measured. Indeed,
the whole orography of western South
America is very Imperfectly understood,
and offers a most tempting and inter
esting field of research for young ex
plorers. Equally unexplored is the southern
part of the dividing ranges between
Chill and Argentina, which incloses
within its unknown regions several ge
ographical problems of great Interest,
The wild mountain ranges still farther
south and the numerous Intricate rocky
channels up the gulf of Trinidad also
invite exploration These narrow, vjlnd
ing channels, full of rocks and islands,
look as if the cordillera of the Andes
had here dipped Itself Into the sea.
On the whole, the unknown or unex
plored parts of South America offer the
most extensive, and certainly not the
least Interesting, field for research thai
remains on the earth's surface, apart
from the polar regions. Sir Clement!
Markham In the Youth'B Companion.
Chicago Chronicle: In these days ol
progressive pulpit methods it Is nol
surprising to learn that a New York
Methodist mlnlste'r named Baylla wore
the costume of a cowboy last Sunday
while preaching at the Bowery mis
sion. Mr. Baylls' remarks to his audi
ence, Judging from the published re
ports, seem to have been about as sen
sational as his costume. These mod
ern Innovators have already Introduced
racks of cards, sleight-of-hand per
formances and other realistic exhibi
tions Into the pulpit, and there is n
tell!ng where they will stop. Perhnpt
with the aid of an assistant they will
yet put on four-ounce gloves and en
gage In a, realistic pantomimic repr
renlatlon of the new Imperialistic doc
trine of pommeling religion Into rvluct
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