The Sioux County journal. (Harrison, Nebraska) 1888-1899, January 16, 1896, Image 3

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    CRISP FORMS OF TIloL'GIir.
SOLOMON AND TUPPER TWISTED
TO SUIT A MODERN TRADE.
The WMam of the hra and the Wit
of the Miuci, Even the Work of the
M itHtionarU-a, Are Urikt ia the Mill
Thejr Are Poached UKiii by Authora
and Advertiser.
WhHhfT Kuluiiiun iu rented nil his prov
erbs or giitheri-d theiu fmiu many murn
wsili a ni-er muse uf permanent worth
tlinii Mr. Tapper cxertmcd in his biter
. in m i i i hi it and ever will t an ojm-u
question. S. jli 1 1 ikj ii a cop) right ran out
long before Tupper's time, ami both ""
rmw iM.mlifd iikiu with impunity by ail
iIuhsu'ii, from uuihiim to advertieia. Hut,
taken by tbcmitelvea, proverbs well repay
careful atuIy. Student of ethnology
find in the proverbs of the different race
the leareat proofs of tlieir real character
iatiea. for they are the shrewdest and Jet
moat animate expression of their daily
life.
Judged by the comparison of these
homely saying it will lie found that all
oatiutia are of one kindred, pueiiig
common needs, eoliiinoti aspirations, and
seeking aiunlar relief from toil and labor.
On the diiHtleat shelve of our librariea
may be found collection of all the prov
erb of the different nation, quite a
large proportion of the work having- ru
ulted fruw the interest which iuinioii
ariea have taken in tlieir earueat atudiea
of the uurivilizi d people whom they aeek
to Inatruct. That the ahrewd saying of
the Hootch or the bright hit of the Irish
should be carefully collected give little
cause for surprise; but a collection of
Abyssinian proverbs, of those of the
Tamil language, of Icelandic lore, of the
Haosorit, South Hea Island, Chinese, aud
Hottentot Solomon does excite curiosity.
The missionaries have found it a pleasant
Ha well a a profitable task. It delve
deep into the Idioms of the languuge, tells
with unerring accuracy the mental ten
dency of the people, and by introducing
the foreigner into the inner thought of
both borne and trade shuw him the real
life of those who adopt them aa every
day expressions.
Jt is Impossible to rend the well-collated
proverbs of the Chinese without realizing
that a homo life exists In that flowery
kingdom which rivals that of many more
civilized countries. So Solomon, no de
scendant of Abraham, could eclipse the
trade proverb of the Chinese. They
touch on trade with a keenness and thor
oughness which prove them to be mus
ter In that school. The baser life of 1 1n;
Hottentot, the loose moral of the felkji,
inde ,(.t HI,irii f t,t. Briton, nro
ail crystallized in their national proverbs.
In Ktiglaud and many other countries it
was formerly very usual for a tradesman
to select some proverb as his motto, and
thus post hi principles plainly over his
shop door. It remained. However, for an
American house to appropriate the pro
verbs of the world en iiiasse, and use (hem
for their own advancement. New Yorker
w ho ride on the elevated roads, or people
who In less favored lot-slHic still jog
along in the slow street cars, are familiar
wito lite blue and while proverbs which
proclaim ihe merits of Supolio to the
World. Every omnibus in i.onilon ami al
most every "tram car" in Kugluud is sim
ilarly adorned.
They made their first appearance on the
Kroadway omnibuses, were gathered nut
of over 4,ix pages of the World's collec
tions, and twisted to suit the case. .Many
of them are beyond easy recognition in
their new dress, many are entirely orig
ins!, but these are also printed between in
verted commas, which lends ti glamour of
antiquity to them. To day we are told
that over 2H,"' of these blue cards are
displayed in public conveyances tarrying
over ti.iUKi.iHHi passengers daily.
Condensed thought generally require
padding to make it intelligible to the
masses, just as the stomach of the horse
must be distended with hay to make the
oat digest readily; hut with proverbs it
l qilte otherwise. Tlieir popularity is
only reached because they have passed
muster as being clear to every mind. They
tell Iheir story wilh a directness anil
brtAity which pleases the public, a the
dictionary did the old Hootch woman -"They
air braw stories," she said, "hut
unco' short." Turned to tell the practical
story of Sapolio, they often acquire now
interest Who reads the advice, "He pa
tient and you will have patient children,"
without a n innate respect for the advice
wiiun iollows. not to fret over house
denning, but do it easily with Knpolio?
And who can repress n smile when the
Sapoltonle artist pictures the patient
father and the impatient twins defying the
proverb? Hut the mother will be back
sootier if she follow the advice. Uur fa
miliar "The pot calls the kettle black"
lakes a new interest in it Italian form.
The pot any i to the pan, 'Keep off or
you'll smutch me." The universal toil
of the world finds expression in the Catal
an phrase, "Where wilt thou go. Ox, that
thou wilt not plough '" Almost all na
tion poiaei n proverb which declare
that "If you forbid a fool a thing, that
he will do," and with confidence In the
good will of the public the advertiser of
HajKilio put It In this form;
"Forbid a fool a thing and that he will
do." So we say for variety; "Don't use
Kapolio hut then you're not a fool."
"A touch of nature which make all the
world akin" spring out of the quaint
thought that "A needle; though naked
ilself, clothe other." Who can hear It
once aud ever ee a needle without recall
ing it? Who fall to recngniie the pic
ture it iifget of the aid given to the
poor by the poor, and of the help which 1
everywhere (allied from the humble! of
assistant?
Slang never caa be confounded with
proverbial phraaea. It seems universal,
but It Is merely a local form used to ex
press a transient but popular idea. Years
ago, when general nab t hotel keeping
resulted in many failures, ths slang ran:
"He's a Terr food man, but he can't keep
a hotel." All sock phrases are local and
temporary. The d not survive Indeed,
rarely possess merit enough to reach a
second year wltboat evident decline In
popularity. Ws bavs noticed that none
f the advertisements of Sapolio maie
tee of slang, and probably for this rsason.
Naturally many of the best proverbs
used In this connection relate to Iioui
hold cleanliness, ami all the original uoe
are framed to that end. "Ilirt in tin
house loiu. Is the highway to beggary."
deserve recognition, despite its origin
Household sayings, in the sense of four
walled buildings, full of furniture, are
quite lacking in many Eastern tongue.
We tnlu-ve that no reference to clean
housekeeping tan be found in the Koran
or even in the Bible, except that of the
worn.;; who swept the house to find iter
lost coin. Shakspeare rather slights Ihe
atibji-ot. lint whether because it was not
deemed important in that intellectual i'tit
dirty age ot lieeause he soared lo grateler
thing's, we will not discuss, but the Fug
land of to-day well says of home. "Tlit
cleanei 'tis the cosier 'tis," aud our Auu-ri
can advertiser improves the opportunity
to add that humble homes made bright
with .SajKilio are better than tawdry pal
ace. Ala, for the thoughtlessness of
the miiri who forgot to ask whether his
bride used Sapolio. The Scotch proverb
records his case; "Ye hae tied a knot wT
your tongue ye wimio loost) wi' your
teeth."
Coyotes and ("at lie
A novel scheme for wiving his cattle
from tin? droves of coyotes that Infest
the region has been lilt upon by u
rancher of Clen Hock, Wash. He bus
placed bolls on the neckH of a great
number of cattle In his herds, and the
result luiH lieeii to scare the coyote
away. In the two months since be
belled bis herds he Iiiih not lost a sin
gle iiuliniil, while pruvlously his lo-s
averaged at leant one Bteor u tiny.
Coyotes nre becoming; more of n per-t
every season In many part of Wash
ington mid Oregon, despite nil the
efforts of the cuttlomen mid farmers to
exterminate: them. Thousands of dol
lars are spent every year 1,1 waging
war on the beams, but with little re
sult, l'olxim avuiled for a time, but
now tin? coyotes refuse to touch the
polaone.l carcasNes of steers kI.vmii
about for their consumption. Tin; only
way of killing them is by Kimotlnj?
thorn, and Ibis Is u feeble and wholly
Inadequate men ih. Occasionally the
ri'slileiils of a ilislrict combine and have
a grain! round tip bunt, driving the
coyotes toward the center of a circle
ami slaughtering them there, ami this
is the only mi-atiH of Appreciably thin
ning them out occasionally. In some re
gums tin; pni-K.H oi gray wolves are as
numerous ami froubiesomi as the coy
otes. Jin; coyotes are particularly
adept chicken thieves, ami, Indeed, are
a general pent around the farm yards.
A (reot I'itiaiicier.
An obi negro down In (ieorgia was
lately telling something of bis condi
tion as a property holder, and seemed
quite pleased that he wan so well off.
He said; -Ise bought film olo marsler
oil hitch er groun', en lxt got all flat
under cultivation Yep' 'bout -Kl acres,
en I bought tie groun' fori?"."'). Hat's all
paid off. Yep' 'bout .flio. Hen I bought
it mule fur .f."D, eu I gin mail notes
fur ilat. Hut I swapped de mule off for
n steer, en tic ole fool nicer be goes an'
gtl.s snick In er bog an fo" I lines 'im
flat steer he je's up en tiled tlah. sab.
Still en nil, Ie got de notes on tic mule
er ninnln' yet, en tley's iiins'ly paid up
Yep" 'bout $!.", en am glttln' 'long mon
sl'otis well, I thinks, fur tlese yar bard
linn s. Olo liinrse, ho say, cf I keep on
lak ills I Kwtiii to be er rich man fo' do
m'lleiilmum eome-w lintHineVer dat Is,
sail en be nay, furder, bp did, dat am
slcli er motiKt'ous good liamwer dat I
oler be Hiiwtah mix up, some way, w bl
tie naslilnnl debt. Hut den Ihp got er
nuff to ten tor dmit foolln' 'long whl
other folkses depts."
Thought.
Thought of any kind, tu be valuable,
must be conservative Unit Is, It must
hold with a firm grasp all the truth that
the past has handed down. It must
accept humbly ami reverently that
which the wisdom of the ages has
stored up, find so thoroughly Incorpor
ate It that It limy form Its very bone
and miisclu. Only thus, can It acquire
stability or pormniieiioe. At Ihe same
time H must be vxpauslvp, It must have
the power of growth, it must be hos
pllable Vi new trutlm and fresh
thoughts, willing to pursue Inquiries.,
to attack tlitlicultles, to solve knotty
problems. Thus only can It hand dowu
to posterity a ethlng worthy of Its
acceptance, autl pay to the future the
debt It oivci to the past.
Ilia Memory's t'se,
Philadelphia Times tells a iia-
The
tin t lo atory of poor, patient little Xcd,
who hail Ih-pii kept after acliool again
itini ngnln lo learn a simple mania
Vi lilt h all the rest of the class had mas
tered. At last he broke dowu and sobbed, "I
can't do It, Miss tiray; 1 Just can't do
It. l'atber says it's because 1 have such
a poor "
"A poor what, Ned?"
"You know what It Is," a glimmer of
light flickering In his face; "the thing
you forget with,"
No Itoubt About Her Meanlna.
"Cheer up, old man, A woman's 'No
often nieana 'Yes,' you know."
"Rut the didn't say 'No.' When 1
asked ber If aba would marry me shs
Mid, '1 will, I don't think.' I didn't
van get treated with respeot'WaV
dlanafolla Journal,
'
NOTES ON EDUCATION.
MATTERS
Pit
OF INTEREST TO
AND TEACHER.
PU-
Beneflta of a byateai of Individual In
etruction - bond Teaching tccurc
Good Th akin;-Advice to Thoau
Who Arc Food of tteadiuif.
Itibtructiou In Algebra.
On the firm day of the term the li
class of the high school was informed
that no lesson would be aobigned iu
algebra. Kuch pupil was requested to
study the siioject in bis own individual
interest, begin at the place dicta tetl by
bis best Judgment, ami lie prepared,
when culled upou, tu pass examination
on any part over which he bad gone.
During the recitation period the mem
bers of the class were culled separate
ly to the teacher's desk, their written
work examined, their ability testetl,
ami the page recorded to which each
was found proficient. If one lacked
knowledge In what may be termed
the mechanical part, be was directed
to the principle involved In the ques
tion ami asked to review ami apply
them. If h,. ,n(j uot comprehend tba
meaning of some statement It waa sim
plified. Slany have been able to master
the subject thus far with little assist
ance from the teacher. With such It
was necessary simply to test their
knowledge ami direct their study; wlfh
others additional Unite wus required to
give the neeMed explanation. At the
close of the first month the pupils wera
all studying different parts of the subject-
fractions, simple equations, Invo
lution, evolution, radicals and quad
ratics. What are the bencnis of this system?
First, It compels the pupil to study the
text-lsiok more thoroughly and refer
lo It for assistance, rather than to tbu
teacher or other pupils. In the ordi
nary recitation many things fire ex
plained which the pupil will discover
If encouraged to tlo sn.
Second. This brings each pupil under
the teacher's special attention, reveals
his peculiar tliflicultlPH, ami permits
him to study In harmony with bis own
development. Some may think that
pupils classed together for several
years and Instructed in a similar man
ner would meet the saint! dillleuliies ill
pursuing a new subject. Kxperience
contradicts this. Kven the grades do
uot equalize children's ability. There
are loo many homo, autl outside intlu-
eiicew. Kuch must bo taught as an In
dividual. Personal effort Is an neces
sary for successful Instruction as for
other business.
Third. Class instruction Is saltl to en
gender cntliiisj.-iNiu. It is t ho Judgment
of those who see many kinds of classes
that enthusiasm emanates from the
teacher rather than from class spirit.
Tho truly enthusiastic teacher does not
need the element of competition among
pupils to (irons)) mi Interest and create
a detdre for well-prepared lessons. A
single pupil can be awakened and urg
ed to bis utmost by a lonelier really In
terested. Hy this method the bright
pupil's Interest. Is not diminished by
being compelled to listen to some sim
ple explanation over and over for the
benefit of a few. Ho Is busy mastering
new principles ami bis enthusiasm lias
no opportunity to wane.
Fourth. Do the pupils receive ade
quate drill? If they have mastered the
subject there is no necessity for fur
ther drill so essential In the lower
grades. Kat b must drill himself. lie
is compelled to tlo this of fail. Does
this method allow opportunity for
thorough explanation? Can the teach
er have the knowledge at bis com
mand? This depends upon the teacher
and his previous training. He must; be
familiar with the entire subject. The
effort to accomplish this will render
him a bettor Instructor. Ills mind Is
fresh from constant reference to the
various (II visions of the subject, find lit
is better prepared to furnish clear and
definite explanations than If he bail ren
dered only a small portion. No ambi
tious teacher will long llnd the extra
preparation a burden.
This Is not a new n.ul untried plan.
Fifteen years ago Ir. Harris used It In
St. I.ouls. Supt. Hogers Introduced It
Into the grammar grades of the Mar
shaltown, la., schools last year and
sitvs his teachers would not return to
the former method. In the )'uctlo
schools this plan is followed In all the
grades. Pupils nro t hissllletl for con
venience, but in it obliged to trend
In the same grade. It seems calculated
to produce good results n in! Is certainly
feasible for advanced pupils. Hy It we
shall not expect every pupil to become
scholar, tint cadi may exert nil his
powers un trim led by other m-mbors
of the class. This will produce. In ac
cordaiice with mil nre some nit hundred
fold, some sixty and Home thlrly.-- Iowa
Schools.
t'orrettlnit 8Hln; Papere.
The examination of spelling papers
Is a alow and tedious process and most
teachers allow the pupils to exchange
papers and correct each other's exer
cises. A belter way. where the sense
of honor la strong enough, would be
to let the pupils correct their own pa
pers. In most cases, however, this plan
Is not advisable as It lay a heavy
temptation on a boy or girl who stands
well In the class but has neglected to
study a particular lesson; and we
should always carefully avoid giving
the children a chance, fo cheat or de
ceive, A thoughtless person might ny
I that the teacher could look over the pa-
peri arterwards to see ir they were
correctly marked. This, however, would
be a very bad plan, aa it would abow
the children that you suspected tbem
and they would be likely to reason that
It waa not wrong to cheat If they could
do It without detection.
In almost every class tbere are a few
bad apellers; bad spellers not from the
constitution of their minds, hut lie-
coua they are careless and do uot
study their lesson. This Is a dUtlm
Uoii lu poor ticholars which should sl
waya btt borne lu mind, and the hard
working, but dull, pupils ebould not lie
punished for their failures, but bright,
though lazy or thoughtless pupils must
be u.uiltj to tee the error of their wujs.
JiotT'e tor KeaderH.
Don't read In railway trains or iu ve
hicles In motion,
l'oii't read lying down or in a con-
SliulUetl position.
Hoii't iiiiil by firelight, moonlight or
IWillglil.
llt.li't read by a flickering gaslight 01
candlelight.
Don't read books printed on thin
paper.
Don't read books which have no space
between the lines.
Don't read for more than fifty min
utes without stopping whether the
eyes are tired or not.
Don't hulil the reading close to the
eyes.
Don't study at night, nut In the morn
lug when you are fresh.
Don't sehrct your own glasses at the
outset.
It would almost seem as though some
of these rules were too obvious to re
quire mention, but practical experience
shows that myopes abuse their eyes
Just In the ways stated. Heading by
firelight or by moonlight are favorite
sins. Heading lying down tends to In
crease the strain on the accommoda
tion, ami while traveling tires the cil
iary muscle because of the too frequent
adjustment of fix-us. in short, any
thing which tends to Increase the quan
tity of bhsitl In the organ favors the
Increase of the defect, leading In ex
treme cases to detachment of the retina
and blindness. Tlio Canada Lancet.
Bloomer Glrla Weep.
The Professor's Hecltatlon Made
Them Cry, anil They Had No Hand
kerchiefs. Twenty-live girls tu the
Northwestern University, members of
the junior class In oratory, appeared
In tin? class room In bloomers. With
out exception they belonged to wealthy
families. Many of thorn are preparing
for the stage. Prof. Ouinmock was In
the class room when the girls appeared.
Their suits were black or dark blue ami
were trimmed In yellow. The bloomers
were gathered just below the knee and
black stockings completed tho outfit.
After he had recovered from the
shock Prof. Cumnock took the stage
anil proceeded as thovigh bloomer girls
In the class room were un every-diiy
affair. After calling the roll lie called
upon Miss Dewey to take the platform.
Miss Dewey was clad In a bloomer cos
tume that came dangerously near be
ing plain knickerbockers. She was
embarrassed and finally stammered out
an excuse that hIid was not prepared to
recite. He called upon several other
blooiiioriles. but all pleaded the same
excuse. The professor said lie would
occupy the hour himself. lie deliver
ed a pathetic recitation, which brought
tears to the eyes of vno girls, but un
fortunately lliev had no handkerchiefs
and were forced to allow the tears to
trickle down their faces. The reason
given for the bloomer display was that
It was the gymnast hour and the girls
did not expect to bo called for elocu
tion.
I'd ucutlonn) Notea.
Normal t'lilversily at Normal, 111.,
will have a new $-10.01X1 building for
physical training and society purposes.
There lire -10.000 women attending the
colleges of the United States. Thirty
years ago not a college In the country
was open to women.
The ladles of Lexington. Ky., have
elected four members of the City Hoard
of Education. In Newport ami In Cov
ington the women were defeated.
Eight thousand, three hundred and
forty-three are entitled to lecture priv
ileges at the I'liivernlty of Herlin. The
largest attendance of eny similar Insti
tution In Uio world.
There are 5.IHH) students In the nor
mal schools (intl their attached model
schools In Pennsylvania. Those schools
hare had a total of 120,(HK students,
and noaHy 10.(hi0 profcsHiou.il teach
ers have graduated.
Twenty-four Ynssnr graduates write,
for magazines, only six for newspapers,
five nre professional Journalists, four
are professional editors, while only j
four nre novelists. Twenty-live havej
taken the degree of M. I),, ami are most- i
ly practicing physicians.
The Hoard of Education of Stockton, I
Cal., has re-elected .las. A. Harr as'
superintendent of selusds ami Increased ,
bis salary by $.'00. The figure Itself Is I
mil startling. $2,000 being, If anything,
below the average for a city of HO.O(K)
poople. The slgnlllcant fact lies In the!
voluntary action of the board. ;
Miss Etlllh Oa key graduated from
the Yetcrlnnr.v College of Toronto, Cnn-I
atla, being the llrst woman to win aj
diploma. She has hung out her shingle
at Sandoval. Ohio, In the center of a
rich grazing country. Diseases of milch
cows have been Miss Onkey's special
study. She has done well and employs '
three male assistants, who relieve her
of much of the manual labor.
It Is a strange commentary that in
our ungraded schools throughout the
country children attending school from
four to six months per year for a period
of from six tq eight years are better
educated and prepared to enter upon
the ordinary duties of life than the ma
jority of children after taking the full
course of eight years of ten months per
year. President Felkel, flrand Rnp!dn.
Mich., School Board.
One of the worst festures of our
American life la Its Invasion of prt
Tacy. There Is frequent complaint that
Individuals with ua have bo security,
and that the pencil of the reporter and
the camera of the photographer may re
cord with Impunity tbe doings of Indi
viduals without possibility of redress
for those who suffer. Indiana polls
Xewa.
WHAT Uii) IT'
CHEAP DOLLAR IDEA CHECKED.
Rlrat of Property AttacloMi b)r SIHrr
tie FsUmcIm aod Fale Statement ol
silver Mine Dwd, rit Expueetl.
Various causes have been given for
the rapid decline in the free fcilver sen
timent, which le.-s than a year ago
teemed destined to sweep everything be
fore it. The masterly expoi-itiun of the
f untlameiilal principles of the currency
quest iou by Secretary of the Treasury
Carlisle in a series of speeches has
doubt less done much to check the fre
coinage idea. In the southern states an
advance of over 60 per oent iu the price
of cotton destroyed the sole argument
of cheap cotton on which the silverites
relied for their support by farmers atid
planters. Throughout the whole country
the educational work of sound currency
clubs aud similar organizations, aided
by the sound money pre-s, has exposed
the fallacies and fah-e statements
through which the agents of the silver
mine owners had secured a following
for the cheap dollar scheme.
These different agencies have all con
tributed to the rout of the 16 to 1 sil
erites, but a more potent influence
than auy or all of them was the recog
nition by the American people of the
right of property and the hope of every
citisen to be some day a property own
er. In tbe progress of the currency dis
enssion it soon became evident that the
free coinage agitators were really at
tacking the right to hold property, and
that thair arguments against the gold
Standard and the "creditor class" were
directed against the natural right of
lenders to receive back from their debt
or as much property m was loaned.
The Popnlist papers and the (speeches
pni pamphlets of tbe more rabid silver
ites were filled with denunciations of
capital, rich men and bankers so that
the iiwue between gold and silver was
generally dropped for the wider ques
tion of the poorer classes against the
wealthy.
Fortunately for the cause of sound
money, the great majority of the people
of this country own property or hope at
some time in the near future to be prop
erty owners. When they were asked to
support a financial policy which would
enable all the debtors of the country to
repudiate one-half of their obligations,
thus practically taking by law half of
the property of all creditors, they
promptly answered "No. " Those who
had a little money loaned out, to a bank
or to individuals; all who hold pre
miums in a life or Are insurance compa
ny or were in any other way creditors,
Baw that they could ouly be injured by
the adoption of GO cent dollars.
On the other hand, those whoso busi
ness was carried on by borrowed money
knew that although they might be tem
porarily benefited by financial repudia
tion, yet when they again wished to
borrow no one would leud, while all
who look forward, as every American
should, to being themselves owners of
property were convinced that their best
interests would be served by maintain
ing a current system which recognizes
the rights of every man to all his pos
sessions. They argued that if the pres
ent silverite and Populist demand for
the confiscation of half of the property
of creditors should be granted, it would
not be long before there would be an
other socialist agitation for the confisca
tion of all property, aud they therefore
refused to favor a scheme which threat
ened to destroy all their hopes of a pros
perous future. It is for this reason
above all others that schemes of repu
diation and attacks on property owners
can never secure a permanent rootiug
in this country.
Would Benefit the Wealthy Only. j
St une of our states and very many
cities and comities and nearly all rail
road and manufacturing corporations
who have outstanding bonds, together
with many individuals, have borrowed
money, agreeing to pay principal aud
interest in gold. All of them who sur- j
vived the panic which would ensue
(from a drop to the silver standard)
would have to buy gold at a premium to
pay their debts. , 1
Question,, Why did these states,
cities, corporations and persons agree to
pay in gold?
Answer. Because by so doing they
got money at a lower rate of interest, i
ud in some oases could obtain the loan
in no other way. t
Question. Would the free coinage of
silver help those in debt? j
Answer. It is certain that the great
majority of persons who owed debts
Would be ruined because of an immedi-
lite demand of their creditors for the
money due. A national bankrupt law
Would speedily be passed. If any debtor
could hold on until values were read
justed, be would pay off his debts in
lilver.
Question. What classes of persona
would be injured least aud what classes
injured most?
Answer. The persons of independent
fortsne owing no debts would be injured
least. The persons owing debts and per
sons who work for wages and fixed sal
aries would be injured most. R. Weis
linger in "What Is Money?"
Ilorkalir bear
Oa the tree-lop;
When the wind blows
The eradle wtll reek ;
Wbea the boegk break
The cradle wttl tall,
Dewa will eea baby,
lead) sad en.
Bat II Woa't Break.
"MONEY AND BANKING."
Aa EEcelieat Treat! aa th S1-m as
Money br Horace Wail.
One of tie most complete works of its
kind ever published iu this country is
"ilnney and Banking," by Horace
White. It is Villi historical and philo
sophical, aud because of logical arrange
ment of subjects and topic, incidental
definitions and explanations of words
and terms used, and wide scope em
bracing discussions of nearly every kind
of money cud banking system tried or
proposed it is as well adapted fur the
use of college students aud general read
ers interested iu economic subjects as
fur professors and exjjerts on financial
questions. A quotation from Mr. White's
preface will give an idea of this latest
and very timely work on money:
"On the 25th of February, 1S62, the
government of the United States made
its paper evidences of debt legal tender
between individuals. The cation was
thus sent upou the wrong road, aud has
been toiling iu a wilderness ever since.
In addition to the injustice which it
wrought, the legal tender act filled the
public mind with misconceptions and
delusions on the subject of money. 8o it
came to pass that although we adopted
irredeemable paper with tbe greatest re
luctance we were willing to flounder in
it 14 years after the supposed necessity
for it had passed away. Then, partly by
design, partly by chance, we resumed
specie payments, but the people had to
large extent lost sight of the funda
mental principles of money. The mia
souceptions and delusions remained, the
most dangerous and widely prevalent
'jeing the Dotiou that mere quantity is
desirable thing and that the govern
neutcan produce quantity and ought to.
"It is the aim of this work to recall
attention to first principles. For this
purpose it has been deemed best to be
gin at the beginning of civilized life on
this continent aud to treat the subject
historically. The science of money is
much in need of something to enliven
it. If anything can make it attractive,
it must be the story of the struggles of
our ancestors with the same problems
that vex us. The reader will find an
abundance of these in the following
pages. Indeed a complete and correct
theory of money might be constructed
from the events and experienced that
have taken place on the American con
tinent, even if we had no other sources
of knowledge. This may be said of the
science of banking also. All the wisdom
and all the folly of the ages, as to those
two related subjects, have been exploit
ed on our shores within the space of less
than 300 years."
Mr. White believes that it was a great
mistake for the government to engage
in the banking business and that the
normal and proper business of the treas
ury is the collecting and disbursing of
public revenue. He sees but little pros
pect of banking and other reforms or
even for clear thiuking on currency
questions until we retire and cancel
the legal tender notes and restrict the
treasury to the duties for which it was
originally and solely designed.
HOW RATIOS WERE FIXED IN 1792.
Proportion of Values Between Gold and
Hllver I a Mercantile I'robleiu.
When our mint was established in
1792 and was about to be opened to the
free coinage of both metals, the main
question was, What shall Ihe ratio be?
All agreed that if must, be the commer
cial ratio. Hamilton, in his celebrated
report on the establishment of the mint,
said, "There can hardly be a better rule
in any country for the legal than the
market proportion. " Thomas Jefferson
said: "Just principles will lead us to
disregard legal proportions altogether;
to inquire into market prices of gold in
the several countries with which we
shall be connected in commerce, and to
take advantage of them. The proportion
between the values of gold aud silver is
a mercantile problem altogether." And
so they made the mint ratio 15 to 1,
which at that time was the commercial
ratio. Besides, certain powerful commer
cial nations, among them England and
France, were at that time coining both
metals free at practically the same ratio.
How different the situation now, when
the commercial ratio is 82 to 1, and the
mints of all the commercial nations aru
closed against the free, coinage of silver.
Certainly there is no precedent of any
country, or of any combination of coun
tries, by mere acts of legislation dou
bling the value of the world's entire
stock of silver bullion and coin. Yet to
raise the ratio from 82 to 1 to 16 to 1
would be to double the value of the
world's eutire silver stock, for the price
of silver is fixed in the markets of tbe
world and is practically the same in all
countries. Firman Smith in New Or
leans Picayune.
Coiry's "i.ood Road" Scheme.
General Jacob S. Coxey of the late
army of weary walkers was the badly
defeated Populist candidate for gov
ernor of Ohio. His platform was
"Greenbacks and Good Roads," and
he would have been content witb a
mftdest $000,000,000 of fiat currency for
a starter, the money to be expended in
building good roads throughout tbe
country.
Has Statesman Coxey reflected on the
certain result of better roads? Will not
improved facilities for getting to mar
ket mean cheaper transportation? Will
that not mean cheaper farm products?
And can it be fossible that any true
Populist favon, a scheme which will
make things cheaper?
It must be a ajUtake. What the late
general really wants to do is to tear np
all the roads now existing. This will
make things scene and dear. Everything
will go np. Kven the chickena will
roost high when the army of the ooa-'
moawealth is on tbe march. Tba Idea
that Coxey wants thinga cheap must be
goldbng lander, for tbe burden of hid
plea for free sliver aad greenbacka ia
tbe complsiat that prloea re now lot
L-i
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