The Sioux County journal. (Harrison, Nebraska) 1888-1899, May 02, 1895, Image 1

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The Sioux County Journal.
n m m m m m awv.
It la I'nwlM to Incur Much Debt to
Htock and Toot the Farm-Amount
of Fertiliaer to Be Ueed-Dlrectione
(or Spraying Treea.
Beginning Farming.
It does not seem wise to Incur much
debt to stock and tool the farm. A team
Is a necessity, but a serviceable one
may be purchased very cheap. Certalu
tools are ludlicnsable, but It Is better
to get ouly these at first ami add to
them afterwards, oue at a time.
Home cows way be purchased, and
-others added or raised. It Is most prof
liable sometimes to bcglu small an J
Increase as experience and results
geem to warrant. The same Is true of
poultry, small fruits, etc. The farm
may be gradually Improved, buildings
repaired, and needed Improvements
made without being burdensome.
Warm, comfortable stables are a neces-
alty to profitable dairying, and a silo
la a great help to cheaper feeding. Oil!'
hould 1m! careful about making Invest
ments that do not tend, directly or In-
-directly, to pay for themselves and In
crease the naming capacity of the
farm. Much may be learned by n
tudy of the methods of successful
farmers In the neighborhood.
In selling the products, the middle
man should bp dispensed with so far as
possible, and business done with the
consumer. If the farmer Intends to
cater to a summer hotel or similar
trade, he must have a variety of prod
ucts. What these shall be he must
Judge for himself, and be Influenced
by the demands. All dairy and poultry
product!) will be wanted. Chickens,
fresh and plump, will And a great
market. All choice fruits will spII well
and be profitable to grow, as well as
fresh vegetables. Those maturing dur
ing the season when summer boarders
abound must be chosen. The claim
Is sometimes made that the summer
hotels and boarding-houses get most of
their supplies from the city. This In
often true, but It Is because they are
forced to do so. They must have cer
tain continuous and regular supplies,
and In many nolghlsirhoods these can
not be obtained from the farmers.
There Is good money and genuine sat
isfaction In furnishing these choice
products. Often city people who are
well fed direct from the farm during
"their summer outings, desire a contln
nance of these same products In their
city honies, and thus the market may
bo extended. The summer Imarder Is
a profitable field for cultivation.
Country Gentleman.
Small Drcaalnge of Fertilizer.
A professor In one of the experiment
stations ridicules the farmers who use
ouly XT) to 'JX) pounds of phosphate
per acre, saying that this quantity Is
not enough to give the manure a fair
chance. It all depends upon the crop
to which the fertilizer Is applied. It Is
fair to presume that the farmers who
use this small quantity per acre know
what they are about. One hundred and
fifty to ') pounds of phosphate per
ere, drilled In with wheat, barley or
oats, produces large Increase of the
crops of all these grains. These
amounts are for such crops all that are
needed on good land, and will produce
better results than more would do. We
have known farmers to apply 400 to 500
pounds of phosphate to grain, causing
too rank a growth, giving sometimes a
poorer yield of grain than the smaller
amount. The phosphate with the seed
grain gave It a start and probably
made some of the soil In contact with It
give up more of It plant food than It
otherwise would. But If phosphate Is
own broadcast Instead of being drilled
wltL tli seed a larger amount Is needed
to produce any effect , More mineral
manures should also be applied to po
tato and vegetable crops, but the
mount that can be used In the hill with
potatoes Is not more than MO to "J00
pounds per acre. If broadcasted, 600
to 800 pounds per acre can be used with
profit. Where these large amounts are
used much of the phosphate remains
for dss the second year. The small
dressing of phosphate with grain shows
Its effects In the clover which follows It
Tar for Wounde on Treea.
Some kinds of fruit trees have such
delicate bark that their trunks and In
some cases their branches have their
bark scaled and cracked by exposure
to the sun. The Twenty-ounce apple
Is especially liable to this Injury. It
Is a very valuable and productive va
riety and this Is Its only fault Henry
Iteynolds of North Carolina says that
the application of tar to bark that Is
scalded and cracked enables it to heal
perfectly. lie finds It very valuable
to cure Injuries made by the peach tree
borer, taking care to first kill the borer.
The application of the tar to the trun
of peach trees near the ground he finds
t be the cheapest and easiest way to
prevent the deposit of the peach borers'
eggs. i
As to spraying apple trees, all de
pends on what they are to be sprayed
for. If for the Scab, watch of late baa
proved go damaging to the apple crop,
they shoold be prayed twice before
Um tecf bote opto, tad with Bordawn
mixture. If they are to be epi ayes' to
destroy the codling moth, this should
be done soou after the blossoms fall
and with Bordeaux mixture, adding
about two pounds of loudon purple to
300 gallons of the water: mixing the
purple first In a small dish Into a tbin
paBte, lefore putting it Into the tank
of water. Loudon purple Is better
than parls green, for the reason that
when mixed Into the water it does not
settle as parls green does. Once spray-
lug thoroughly for the codling moth,
If well done, will do, except when a
rain follows the spraying very soon,
In which case it should be repeated. A
light spray. Just enough to wet every
part of the tree, Is all sufficient
Country Gentleman.
Horaea in Old Age.
It is a common opinion that a horse
of twelve years Is too old for service,
but I have one at the present time that
Is thirty years old, and good for a ride
of thirty miles a day yet. lie Is doing
his usual work and keeps his level be
side a mule only six years old In the
plow or the wagon.
I once bought a mule that was said
to be forty-live years old, and the evi
dence was certainly trustworthy that
he had been worked in one family
thirty-five years, as I bought him from
the grandson of the man who had him
ail that time. I think I am correct In
saying that the noted trotting mare
Goldsmith Maid went Into the breed
ing stable only when twenty -six years
old, and many of the best of the racers
have lived over thirty years.
There Is a record of a shire horse In
England that reached the nge of fifty
nine years, at which his teeth and eyes
were still good, and he was then pen
sioned off by his owner on a farm. My
forty-fl vp-yen r-old mule did gooil ser
vice drawing empty railroad cars Into
a mine which I whs then working, to
be loaded with iron ore, and I kept him
at it two years, when I gave him to
the person who bought out my Interest
In the property.
lie was still at the same work two
years after that My old horse Is still
able to shell his corn as well as my
young mules can, and how much long
er he will work I suppose depends on
his ability to feed, which Just at pres
ent seems to be assured for several
years, as evidenced by the vigorous
neigh when I go Into the stable at
feeding time. And occasionally he
takes a colt-like frolic with his compan
ions In the pasture.
Now, If It Is possible for a horse, by
means of good feeding and general
care, to live and work to such an age
as this, how much Is the aggregate loss
which occurs through neglect and mis
management on all the farms In the
country ? Country Gentleman.
Heavy Reeding on Rich Land.
The question as to whether thin seed
ing or thick seeding oi grain Is pre
ferable cannot be determined by any
general rule. Sometimes thin seeding
produces a full crop, especially If the
seed be sown parly and the season be
such as to Induce tilling of the plant.
But on very rich land this makes too
luxuriant growth of straw, which falls
down and makes the grain light and
shrunken. If the soil Is very rich It is
better to sow the grain so thickly that
the plants will slightly crowd each
other from the first. About the time
of heading the plants will draw so heav
ily on the soli for moisture that each
will check the growth of the other, and
all will stand up with well-filled heads
of grain. But this heavy seeding will
be hard on clover or grass seed, though
not so much so as will the fallen straw
where the seeding has not been so
Manure for Onlona.
The amount of manure necessary to
bring a good crop of onions depeuds on
previous treatment of the land; In oth
er words, on Its present state of fertil
ity. It Is always safe to be liberal and
to err on the side of generosity, rather
than the opposite. Put on a good coat
of manure If you have It No soil Is
better adapted for the exclusive use of
fertilizers than that which is well pro
vided with organic matter, like muck
and peaty lands, etc. Btlll, we would
prefer the application of good, rotted
stable manure, at least every second or
third year. Nothing In the shape of fer
tilizers for muck lands would be su
perior to wood ashes and bone. On
a good, rich muck, we think 100 bush
els of unleached wood ashes and 100
pounds of fine bone meal an ocro would
be sufficient to give an extra crop.
Weeds in Clover Seed.
The foulest seed sold Is that of red
clover. All sorts of weed seeds may
be found In It and much of the seed It
self Is not sound. It Is not Inferred that
such seed Is sold with the obJct of Im
position, but as much of It comes from
different sources It is difficult to secure
clean seed. The clover seed Is a very
small bean, and is easily distinguished
with a large reading glass of high mag
nifying powers.
Advatange of Warm Feed.
Giving warm feed to young animals
not disposed to be thrifty will very of
ten bar a happy effect These animals
may suffer from weak digestion, which
In tarn produces a poor appetite. The
animal does not eat heartily, and what
It does eat Is not well digested. A hot
mess some cold morning sharpen the
appstito and tones up the digestion. '
Brief Planum at raaelas Feminine, Frlva
loaa. Mayhap, and Yet Offered In the
Hope that the Beading May Pro
Restful to Wearied Womankind.
Ooailp from Gay Gotham.
New York correspondence:
EALLY stylish
skirts depend for
their correctness
more upon their
flare than any
thing else, but thle
can be aceom'
plisbed in various
ways and the ac
companying pic
tures show sev
eral methods of
bringing it about
In all of them it
will be noticed
;h 1 that In spite of
' the skirt's side
flare. It swings
toward the back, so that as the wearer
stands at ease her toes are close to the
hetn In front and a long way from
back and sides. This Is characteristic
of all the best skirts, this matter of
"swing" being as Important as that
of "hang" and cut. Oh, the ambitious
woman who thinks she can be all
right with a hastily selected garment
must consider more things than Its
price and Its being lined throughout
With these points In mind. It will be
well to see that, while skirt and bodice
do uot hiatch In an old-fashioned way,
they are planned with reference to each
other. This, of course, leaves entirely
out of the calculations the faucy waist
that will go with any old skirt and ap
plies exclusively to brand new outllta.
First to be considered Is the Initial pic
ture's gown, which is especially suited
to the combination of solid and all-over-open
goods. It Is equally well
adapted to wash goods, to wool and
perforated cloth or to solid and per
forated silk. The skirt hangs In a
wide front pleat that flares at the foot,
three narrower pleats stand out on
either side, and at the back three
others fall at either side of a top mid
dle pleat that lies flat to correspond
with the front These pleats are all
the result of cut and shape and there
Is not a tape or a "tack" on the under
side. A deep band of the open-work
material Is set along the hem of the
skirt and Is at Its widest at the round
of each pleat It is In the presence of
this band and It shaping that the new
ness and style of the skirt Is expressed.
A modification or elaboration of this
Is a skirt having the front pleat not
quite so wide and three pleats on each
side that swing a little more fully to
the front and round more gently Into
each other. This model appears In the
second picture. At the back are seven
pleats of one sire, three at either side
of a central outstanding one. Like the
first example, this employs lace, per
forated or open-work goods with plain
material. A novel use Is made of the
latter by slashing the front pleat as
ruATS tut coHSTiTtrrt acomphomisi
high as the knw and Inserting a van
dyke, Mt point tip. This la tag touch
to proT that tho skirt It planned to
h amenta with a certain bodies. The
I beauty of the skirts that "go with any
thing Is Dy no means lost forever,
only In an entirely new gown It Is
better to let the skirt proclaim that It
is really made for Just one bodice and
not to do back duty for many.
Every skirt sketched here shows In
some degreebut the third more clear
ly, perhaps, than the others that stif
fened linings are a compromise. Not
long ago -the coming of hoops was her
alded, and womankind gave to the
prophecy a reception that made Its ful
filment hopeless. But the spread of
folds was not to be avoided, even If
the hated wire trellis was downed,
and It brought with It an Item of cost
that makes a serious Inroad upon light
purses. "Haircloth $5" is the item oft
repeated In current dressmaking bills
that shows how dearly women bought
their Independence of lumps. This
third skirt spreads as widely and al
most as stiffly as if hoops filled It out,
but Judged by present standards It
could hardly be improved upon. Of
glace silk, Its skirt has three pleats on
each side of the plain front and four
more in back. At the top there are
small fitted panniers of guipure. The
bodice has an 18,'tO yoke of guipure
with draped fronts that are gathered
Into points at the collar, and the back
is made to match, except that the pieces
are undraped. The full sleeve puffs
end In long lace cuffs.
But little short of a marvel of con
struction Is the skirt that follows In
the artist's depiction. It Is made with
a boxpleat In front with one at either
side, the aiders are In three single pleats,
and the back Is set In boxpleats to cor
respond with the front Each box
pleat is gored to shape, all unnecessary
material is cut away on the under side
and each boxpleat widens towards the
foot to suit the flare of the skirt This
means transcendent skill on the part
of the cutter, and for the wearer that
serenity of mind that only a clear con
science can bring. Such a skirt can
never make over Into any other style
and that Is one thing that lends to the
wearer the lasting peace that a very
long pocketbook devoted to the de
mands of dress permit. What If such
a skirt Is horribly heavy! Will not tho
thought that each boxpleat appears to
be caught under a buckle at the waist
band suffice to give the wearer strength
to bear the weight? Of course It will!
What If yards and yards of material
are necessary! Will not the fact that
the design necessitates the cutting of
priceless lace for a band on the hem
counteract that misery by a greater
one, and the combination create perfect
happiness? To be sure!
Now for the prettiest design In the
world for a skirt of soft silk or any
delicate fluffy summer material. It Is
almost wicked to stretch dainty lawn,
Dresden or Japanese silk over stiff
hair cloth and take all the chnracter out
of the goods, and It Is not Always easy
to plan loose drapery. This design
meets the case exactly. You may use
as many yards of material as you like
In this skirt There Is not a core, not
a cut anywhere, and when seamed to
gether the skirt Is as wide at the waist
as It is at the hem, which is saying a
good deal these days. Ten Vandykes
of lace are set point np about the hips.
Copyright, 1X.
The "Trilby" straw hat for women
la rather prematurely advertised.
Vastly Different Mow from the Time
of Decatur.
Tho usual spring war cloud which
hovered over France and Kugland and
the little quarrels of the United Suites
with England and Spain served to re
awaken Interest In naval development
and navy tactics. While it Is not at all
likely that the United States is 'n dan
ger of immediate war, notwithstanding
the blustering and bravado of certain
of our public men, it is not an Idle thing
to consider what such a war would be
Ilka If with any European power but
Great Britain It would be wholly a
naval war and under conditions entire
ly new, for since armored vessels came
Into existence naval warfare has been
revolutionized. That brave and Inter
esting little fight in Hampton Itoads be
tween the Monitor and the Merrlmao
thirty-three years ago revolutionized
modern war. Since that day there have
be-en such vast improvements In sea
fighting machines, for that Is what
men-of-war are, that no oue can fore
tell what the next experience will be,
and It Is this uncertainty, perhaps,
that keeps nations on their good be
havior. If Nelson or Decatur could revisit
this terrestrial globe he would not know
his quarter deck, and all his seaman
ship would be useless. The maneuver
ing for the weather gauge is a lost art
for steam has conquered the winds and
the waves. Nelson used to say, when
they talked to him about Napoleon,
that all he wanted was "to get Bony
on a wind," but that would not suit his
purpose now. He must have a vessel
that can carry tons and tons' of coal,
besides its armament, and steam at
the rate of twenty or twenty-five miles
an hour.
Nelson brought the art of naval war
to perfection with the means he had.
A battle In his days depended upon
the wind, and to obtain the weather
gauge was the first maneuver. The
vessel were made of heart of oak,
with huge masts covered with thou
sands of yards of canvas, that had to
be handled while in action. A ship
was manned by hundreds of sailors, and
carried sixty, seventy, eighty or a hun
dred guns. In a battle of fleets the ves
sels were laid close together, yardarms
were locked, boarders dashing from
one ship to the other, and hundreds of
men were slain. But the ships were
not Injured greatly, and were often
carried off as prizes and refitted for
the victor's navy.
No such warfare Is possible now, for,
though fleets would undoubtedly give
battle to each other, there could be no
band-to-hand conflict The arms they
carry would be apt to settle the mat
ter, and the best and most accurate
gunnery would win. From the acci
dents that have occurred, like the sink
ing of the Victoria, It Is known that
an armored vessel Injured below the
water line sinks like an iron pot with
but little chance for the crew.
The changes made under the Influenoo
of modern science make naval war
fare an unknown field for the sea war
rior. Naval strategy, of course, re
mains unchanged, for that has relation
only to the movement of fleets and ves
sels of war. But naval tactics which
have to elo with the actual fighting of
fleets will have to bp greatly changed.
All that Nelson asked or ordered was to
be laid alongside of one of the enemy's
ships. In the war of the future that
order will not be made, for it cauuot be
Fighting a Gander.
There are few better fighters than a
goose, or a gander, Bore particularly.
Those ragged white Russian geese bite
like bulldogs. It is no mere peck with
them; they bite and hang on. The
common old farmyard gander Is a capi
tal fighter when he is driven to it At
a certain place In Scotland there used
to be a caged golden eagle. He pre
ferred to kill his own dinner, and It
used to be a cruel sport to watch him
dispose of any unfortunate hen or
guinea fowl that was put Into his cage.
They tried blm with every sort of do
mestic poultry. Ducks, pea-fowl, tur
keysthe eagle was master of them all.
He had no trouble in finishing them off
no trouble even with the "bubbly
Jock." At length they tried him with a
gander; but he could make nothing of
It The gander crouched Into a corner,
drew back bis head, presenting but a
broad, spade-like bill, from whichever
quarter the eagle tried to attack him.
The eaglo fumed and fretted, and grew
very angry; he made desperate attempts
to take the gander In the flank, but the
wise old bird defeated them all. In
the end they had to give the gander his
liberty as the reward of his courage,
and to satisfy the eagle with the much
more succulent dainty of a young tur
The Klectrio Crater.
Everybody knows that an arc light
Is formed by causing an electric cur
rent to pass between the points of two
carbon rodB. Oue of these Is called the
positive and the other the negative
electrode, and Die current passes from
the former to the latter. Particles of
carbon are carried off from the positive
electrode ntil Its end becomes cup-:
To the little cup thus formed the
nam of crater is applied, and from
this crater four-fifths of the light Is
emitted. The negative electrode does
not become as hot as the other.
Between the two a little cloud of
vaporized carbon is formed, rising from
the crater, and this vapor gives forth
a golden yellow light But it is over
powered by the light of tho crater it
self, which has a violet tinge due to th
incandescence of solid particles of car
bon. The arc of light extending from on
electrode to the other also has an axis
of a violet color which Is Its most bril
liant part.
The fact that most of the luminosity
comes from the crater explains the rea
son why the light does not appear equal
in all directions. It Is brightest from
that point of view which shows the
largest portion of the crater.
A very Interesting effect is often no
ticed when Hies, or other Insects, flutter
about au arc light Their shadows
cast on a neighboring wall appear gi
gantic. The reason is that the light
of the crater is concentrated in a point
smaller than the bodies of the Insects,
and the boundaries of the shadows
consequently widen with increase of
Splitting Heoonda.
The measurement of minute Inter
vals of time is one of the most difficult
subjects met with in the laboratory,
and this is more especially the case as
the apparatus employed is often little
adapted for the use of those who lack
experience in the precision gained by
years of experimental work in physics.
A Frenchman has recently devised a
photochronograph which comprises a
metallic disk, turning freely on an axis
passing through Its center.
The free end of a spring carries a
needle point which bears against the
disk; this spring Is timed to give five
hundred vibrations per second. This
rate is determined by timing the spring
so that it vibrates between known vi
brations of four hundred and ninety
three and five hundred and twenty-two
periods per second.
Any want of extreme accuracy In the
determination of the Intermediate point
is uot of great Importance, as it can be
shown that the difference only affects
the fifth place of decimals of a single
second. Of course, any variation In
speed of the disk does not Influence the
number of vibrations of the spring. By
means of a magnesium light traces of
the path of the spring are left upon a
sensitive plate mounted upon the disk.
The apparatus is certainly not. new In
principle, but the arrangement Is one
which has not been described In this
particular form.
The End of a Flying Machine.
A sad accident has happened to a
flying machine at Sydaey, New South
Wales. The inventor did not accom
pany the machine on its trial trip, and
as no one volunteered the machine waa
allowed to go alone. The following ac
count of Its performance has been sent
over: "Hissing and snorting, It slid
along the tram for a distance of 100
feet whep, having reached the end of
the rails, instead of lifting Its wings
and floating gracefully across the har
bor, It bumped against the rocks and
toppled over onto the beach, part of it
becoming submerged by the waves.
Some of the hot cinders from the fur
naere came In contact with the light ma
terials of which it was constructed and
set them on fire, and In a few moments
a portion of the framework and the
machinery were all that remained of
this production of inventive genius.
The manager explained that the trial
was a failure because there was not
sufficient wind to fill the sails, and no
one had been placed inside to sail It" ,
A Hard Name.
An unknown term or an unusual
word often has great weight with the
Ignorant Every one knows the story
of the learned professor who silenced
the Billingsgate fishwife by calling her
a "parallelopipedon." Here Is a story
of similar Import. It Is of a little color
ed boy who recently ran home from
school to his mother sobbing aa though
his heart would break. ,
"What's the matter, boy?" asked tho
sympathetic mother, clasping the child,
to her breast "Has any one hurt you?"
"Mike Flynn'sbeen calling me names,"
cried the boy.
"Deary me! What did he call you?
Lasses stick ?"
"Wuss 'en that"
"Blackle? Ink bottler
"Soot bag?" , '
"Oh, no!"
"What was It then?"
"He called me he called me Ethlo
pean," the boy sobbed.
Announcing the Engagement.
An engagement should be announced
first by the family of the bride-elect,
writes Mrs. Burton Harrison, In tho
Ladles' Home Journal. This Is dona
either verbally or Informally to
friends or done by note to those whom
It is desired shall receive early Informa
tion. The man may at the same time
write to those of his friends whom ho
desires to have a share in his happi
ness and whom the girl's family could
not so well reach. Churlish, Indeed,
would be the spirit to withhold Interest
In a new engagement and the telling of
it by the principals almost always In
spires a kindly feeling for them In thong
told. Lovers have, perhaps, Um best
founded claim to thinking therasolveg
of tho first Interwt to a ootnstimlty of
any clam of people, and are Quit antl
tled to assume all the hoaora gad privi
leges of the situation.
U .