The Sioux County journal. (Harrison, Nebraska) 1888-1899, April 25, 1895, Image 1

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V ...n i i i a. ta . in no
The Sioux County Journal
The Need of Irrigated Field on Manr
Small Firau Some Agricultural
Branchaa that Arc Mot Overdone
The Frait Crop Farm Kotael
Irrigation on the Farm.
The Dead of Irrigated fields on many
mall farms Is felt by the owner every
dry season, but where there is no regu
lar organized system It is sometimes
expensive, and In other cases out of
the question to attempt Irrigation. But
where ponds or streams of water are
located on the place, or even some dis
tance off on another property, the water
can be led to the fields by means of
pipes, and then distributed over the
land to suit the Deeds of the crops. The
cost of this would be very little. A
pipe, or even a wooden water-trough,
could be constructed so that the water
would flow In a series of ditches or re
ceiving ponds. Brooks and streams of
water cau be tapped very easily In this
way, so that the running water will
not be entirely wasted while the farm
crops are dying for thirst In each In
stance, however, the farmer must use
bis Judgment as to the best method of
getting his water to the fields.
Then the water cai be spread over
the fields by some of the approved
methods of Irrigation. On fields that
are nearly level the greatest difficulty
will be experienced In getting the water
to run equally throughout the field.
One way to do this Is to construct
ditches on either side of the Hold, and
bunk them up a foot higher than the
field. At right angles from these
ditches parallel rows for the vegetables
should be made. The water should
then be run Into the bunked up ditches
until It overflows. At every row the
water will run down In a stream, aud
secure force enough to carry part of It
at lenst to the middle of the garden.
Similar stream coming from the oppo
site direction will meet In the middle,
and In this way the whole ground will
be flooded with water when needed.
To obtain water In this way It may be
necessary to construct receiving ponds
higher than the level of the field. These
must be filled before the drought and
w hen the spring floods are high. If the
poud Is naturally several feet higher
than the field, the slope will be suffi
cient to dispense with any such artifi
cial reservoirs. Oermantown Tele
graph. Cropa Profitable to Raise.
There are a few brunches of farming
not overdone. There Is so little buck
wheat raised that the flour sells at 6
cents a pound. Then there Is a greater
demand for good sorghum than there Is
a supply. Flax Is very high when you
want to buy; why not raise some to
feed? It will Improve the stock. Fruit
raising Is not overdone and potatoes
will bring a paying price If the crop Is
well tended. Grass seeds and clover
seed bring living prices. Cubbage is
hard to raise, but It pays to raise for
market. There Is money In cheese at
15 to 20 cents per pound. Stock your
farms with cows, build a creamery mid
ell milk. There is more money lu It
than making butter. It pays to raise
weet potatoes. The uavy bean sells
at 5 cents per pound aud Is scarce.
Seed down your farms aud pasture
stock at 75 cents per mouth. Farm bet
ter what you do farm, raising the best
Kead the papers and raise the cropa
that are scarce, for they always com
mand a good price. Vote for the party
that will set the manufactories going,
and my word for It, when all the people
get to working they will take to eating
and they will make way with much of
the surplus and at better price than
now. Farm and Home.
Oar Fruit Crop.
The fruit crops of this country in--crease
with every year's planting, and
yet the supply Is unequal to the de
mand. The quality of the fruit deter
mines the latter. If It Is good, not only
Is the demand for home consumption
greater than In any other country In
th world, but so also Is the foreign
demand. The reasons for this are ap
parent The farms of the Unted States
are In the main owned by those who
occupy them, and they plant for all
time, without any fear of being dis
possessed of their Improvements. The
growth of an orchard Is a work of
time, and only the owners can afford to
plant large orchards. When their fruits
are gathered and placed on the market
ttey preseut attractions to the people,
the consumers, of such a character as
o be perfectly Irresistible, hence more
fruits are purchased for home con
sumption and more consumed every
year. But then the same qualities that
commend and make them popular here
at home, that Is to ssy site, quality,
beauty and cheapness, com mi rid them
to people abroad, make them popular,
and Increase the deuiaud.
Id Great Britain alone the call for
our fruit Increases every year, and this
year, If the crop Is only what the pro
ducers expect It will be greater than
vtr, and many ship loads of apples
and other fruits will go there. Th
great thing to be looked to, however,
to the prevention of Injury by Insects
ad fungi Too many have neglected
this In the put, and hoae had oaky
mail, disfigured and worm fralt, look.
log In character, attractiveness and ap
petizing qualities, for which there' Is
no demand at home or abroad. Col-
man's Rural World.
Ooata Paying Bettor than Sheep.
A Missouri farmer writes In the Bt
Louis Journal of Agriculture that he
finds goats profitable for rough land
filled with weeds and bushes. He has
had goats for four years, and they
have destroyed the bushes, sumach and
small persimmon trees. His hogs have
been free from disease, while all
around him farmers who did not keep
goats lost most of thels hogs by cholera.
The writer says that the meat of young
goats Is better than mutton. The wool
of sheep is now worth so little that the
question Is worth thinking of whether
a few goats may not be kept with
profit on rough land unsulted to culti
vation In some of the Eastern States.
Cowe Going Dry too Look.
It pays to take extra pains to get all
the milk from cows. They need plenty
of good food. too. A little carelessness
In milking or in feeding has doomed
the owner of a young cow thus treated
to the penalty of keeping her three or
four mouths for nothing every year
all the remainder of her life. The
young heifer's teats are not large, and
It is young heifers that are most apt
to be neglected. The careless milker
says that their milk does not amount
to enough to pay for clean milking.
That Is where such a man makes a
mistake. It always pays to do the
best work.
The llorac'a Foot.
Rev. W. 11. H. Murray once laid
down a rule In regard to trimming a
horse's foot that every horseman In
the world should cut out and paste In
his hut "Never," he says, "allow the
knife to touch the sole of a horse's
foot nor the least bit of It to be pared
away, because nature needs the full
bulk of It and has amply provided for
Its removal nt the proper time. Sec
ondly, never allow a knife to be put to
the frog, because nature never pro
vides too much of it to answer the
purpose for which the Creator design
ed It and the larger It Is the more
swiftly, easily and surely will the horse
Keeping liens Laying.
No hen will lay an egg every day In
the year. liven those that are non
sitters will not do It at seasons when
they are moultlug, and there Is usually
a rest of a day or two, If not longer,
between the different hatch 39, when
the natural time comes for the hen
to sit The time of moulting may be
shortened by care and good feeding,
giving the hens the kind of food, meat
etc., that Is required to make their new
cont of feathers.
Warm Water for Young Stock.
It may be disputed whether It Is nec
essary to warm water for older ani
mals, but all young stock should have
water with Die chill taken off of It to
drink In winter. The digestion of
young animals Is weak, aud drinking
Ice-cold water makes It worse. It Is
this cold water that makes rough, star
ing coats on calves and colts, no mattei
how well they may be fed.
Roots In Transplanting.
We. had occasion some years ago to
remove a thrifty barterry bush. It
has never recovered from the shock.
It was too old and we destroyed too
many of the roots, In proportion to
the top that was left and It has merely
lived without making growth of any
consequence ever since. It Is a lesson
to be more careful of the roots than
the top in transplanting. Epltomlst
Farm Notes.
When blackberrylng, many a large
fruited sort Is met with, which, If trans
planted to the garden, would be as good
as any of the cultivated sorts. Some of
the best-known ones were Introduced
In this way.
It will now delight the Western fann
ers to learn that a worm has appeared
to attack the Ruslan thistle. The worm
appears In large numbers and suddenly
disappears. Its habits will be studied
at the experiment stations.
Unless the surface Is very uneven
and the soil light and porous but little
fertility Is wasted from manure drawn
upon the field when fresh, even when
the ground Is frozen or heavy rains In
tervene. Thus on many farms, where
the surface Is level or only slightly roll
ing, manure may be spread at almost
any time of the year.
A horseman advises to never allow a
horse to stand on hot, fermenting
manure, as this will soften the hoofs
and bring on diseases of the feet; nor
permit the old litter to lie under the
manger, as the gases will taint his food
and Irritate bis lungs, as well as his
If a horse balks, do not whip blm, but
let him stop and think It over. After a
little reflection and a few tosses of the
head he will often start of his own voli
tion. Talk to blm kindly, pet blm,
loosen a strap op a buckle, and be may
forget bis obstinate spell. An apple or
a bunch of grass from the roadside may
win him.
Reducing the amount of food la not
economy In feeding, as the product may
be reduced correspondingly. The true
war to economise In feeding la to ha to
animals that will yield the greatest
quantity on a certain allowance of food,
and to giro them all the food thoy will
eonsaoM aa loaf as tfcor are glvtag a
Brief Olaaca at Faaetee Feminise, Frtvo
lotu. Mayhap, and Tat Offered la the
Hope that the Hearting May Prove
Boatful to Wearied Womankind.
Ooasla from Oar GoOiul
OR several months
the women who
don low-necked
dresses have been
sticking closely to
the off-shoulder cut,
and many examples
ef this kind have
been seen that have
Impressed observ
ers as being very
daring. But despite
this the style has
retained favor and
there has been little
If any abatement of
the generous dis
play of shoulders and neck. Now there
has been devised a dress that leaves
the shoulder bare from neck to wrist
In it a band of ribbon clasps the throat,
from which two delicate chains thread
ed with pearl or gold extend on each
side and are attached to the top of the
bodice on either side of the shoulder.
The whole list of off-shoulder bodices
has demanded handsome shoulders of
the wearers, but many an ambitious
woman to whose make-up the fashion
was poorly adapted has boldlv attempt
ed It, and this latest trick Is no doubt
devised by some one whose lines are
almost perfect and who Is anxious to
prove It openly. Such exaggerative
treatment of an accepted style by wom
en whose taste Is generally good Is a
sure forerunner of a general change.
So, almost simultaneously with the ap
pearance of this eccentricity, designers
are carefully feeling their way to A
shift In evening dress that will hide
the shoulders altogether. One of these
designs Is shown In the first picture In
this column, aud a glance will show
that Its maker did not get a great way
from the present style. While the
shoulders are covered, their outline re
mains sharply defined and the remain
der of the bodice Is closely like what is
now worn. As sketched It Is carried out
In black satin duchesse trimmed with
black Jet passementerie, lace and ce
rise velvet draped with mousscline de
sole, and finished with rosettes of red
satin ribbon. The Jet passementeries
are placed down the front and outline
the darts descending to the bottom of
the skirt, the edge of which Is finished
with a putting of velvet under lace
tulle, with a Jet heading.
Yards and yards of material go Into
the new reception skirts. The pleated
folds He heavily one upon the other at
the back, and open, shut and change
place like a great fan aa the wearer
moves. While In this motion there is
much grace, still the spectacle of sev
eral layers of folds one on the other re
minds one too much of the dry goods
counter, and suggests great weight too
forcibly to bo either graceful or In good
taste. A bettor result la reached by
using loai of the dross fabric and even
than, hi such an eminently tasteful
skirt as that next shown, therell be a
lot of the goods required. The stuff
needed In this case for the skirt Is black
silk cropon, and black satin to required
for the bodies, which to dratted with
spatjgled black tulle. The sleeves are
made of puffed plain tulle and a large
bow of black satin ribbon is placed on
the left shoulder with a much larger
one In the center of the skirt Draped
velours finishes the yoke, and narrow
jet passementerie borders the lower
hem. A large spangled Jet butterfly Is
put in the center. Black suede gloves
meet the elbow sleeves.
All sorts of remarkable effects are
produced in bodices by cutting one ma
terial Into straps which are applied on
the under material. Sometimes these
are set from collar to belt and are cut
to points at both places. They do not
touch each other there, but they widen
at the bust line till their edges meet
Other designs show a radiation of lines
from the collar, and still others produce
strange spiral curves that blend Into
each other. The edges of the straps
are followed with gimp or beads and
the material showing between must be
of color strongly contrasting. This sort
of ornamentation is one outcome of a
current craw? for a snipping. The rural
paring bee Is nowadays transformed In
to a wholesale slicing up of new fabrics
by the employes of the stylish city
dressmakers. The next costume that
the artist contributes replies to this
fad, though rather faintly, because the
odd garniture of loops at shoulders,
bust and snsh are of ribbon, rather than
Mm dress goods. The goods here is
white satin, left untrlmmed In the
skirt, while the bodice Is draped diagon
ally with bios white satin, and topped
by a deep yoke of corn-colored chiffon.
That is the shade, too, of the ribbons
mentioned and of the undressed kid
elbow gloves.
In the next sketch there Is an ornate
Jacket made of the same material as the
skirt which it accompanies, which Is
olive green cheviot The Jacket Is tight
fitting back and front and fastens with
hooks and eyes, which are covered by
a band of moss trimming. The high
medlcl collar Is embroidered with black
Jet and finished with a piping of the
moss trimming, and the sleeves are
large and full, with epaulettes of cream
guipure lace. Two straps of the em
broidered Jet hang from each shoulder.
Below this comes a plain godet skirt
with slight train.
Two swagger maids in exceedingly
picturesque get-ups look out at you
from the final picture. The left-hand
one displays a style of shoulder finish
that Is offered to the possessor of fine
shoulders as a sop for the outgoing
off-shouldercutof evening dress. When
sleeves start thus below the shoulder
and end at the elbow, It gives the puffs
an odd look that Is now considered
very correct Pale-blue silk figured
with sprays of wild roses Is the chief
fabric, but the skirt bos a full panel
of plain blue silk on the right side.
The bodice Is seamless and is made of
bias material, hooking Invariably on
the side. Plain silk gives the sleeves,
the shirred stock collar, and a drapery
that runs diagonally across the front
The other poser for the dames of strik
ing apparel are ever caught '.n self
conscious attitudes la clad In a prin
cess gown of silver-gray cloth. Her
skirt Is tight at the hips and extends
Into a corselet, the top consisting of a
very deep yoke of gray and white silk
passementerie laid over a white silk
foundation. The collar consists of a
band of the same with bows of gray
satin ribbon on the sides, and two long
bows of the same ornament the front
Klbow sleeves are mot by long suede
gloves, exactly matching the stuff la
"Tie never night la lore's domain.
Inetrnctor Should Be Thoroughly
Equipped Before Entering Upon the
Work of the Class Room How to
Keep the Children Occupied.
Thorough Preparation.
No one need expect to make a com
plete success of teaching without thor
ough preparation. This does not mean
that you must be a paragon of knowl
edge before you enter ujwu the work
of the class room. That would be ex
tremely difficult and If you thought you
"knew It all" you would doubtless be
a very uncomfortable person to work
with and a most unpopular one in your
It Is a trite but very true saying that
we all learn something new, or see
something lu a new light every day.
Hut however well equipped you may
be with knowledge of facts aud things,
you must be prepared to give them to
j our pupils In n form that they can as
similate to preseut each subject In a
light that will enable thein to see
through and through It You may
assign a lesson on any subject, to a
class, have them learn it, bear them
recite It, find that they know all that
the text-book says on the subject and
send them to their seats satisfied with
the work of the class. But you have
not taught them anything. They may
remember a few of the most striking
01 Interesting facts of the lesson, but
the most of It will probably be gone
next week.
To give a class a lesson on any sub
ject you must first prepare the lesson
yourself. Go over the ground covered
by the text-book used, then bring to
bear on the subject everything you
know that relates to It; and the more
you know the better the lesson you can
give to your class.
Then, when the class Is called let the
pupils tell you what they know, then
you tell them what you know.
Discuss the subject with them. Don't
do all the talking yourself or the lesson
wnl degenerate into a lecture and the
pupils will lose Interest
Haven't you time for all this? .You
have forged your own chains. So long
as teachers submit to having so many
classes placed in their charge that they
cannot do their work properly, Just so
long will the learning and recitation
routine constitute the "work of educa
tion" done lu our schools a work that
might be done just as well In the homes
of the pupils. The only difference
would be In the absence of the emula
tion that arises almost Inevitably
where there are a number working to
gether, aud the envy and Ill-feeling
and spite It always engenders. Or the
work of "making them learn their les
sons" might devolve upon the parents,
who probably prefer sending them to
a teacher, who "is paid" to do It for
them and who Is supposed to have
some magic receipt whereby sixty chil
dren can be coaxed, driven, persuaded
or "trained" to do the same things,
think the same thoughts, and sit In the
same positions at the same time for five
hours a day. But perhaps you say you
have not time out of school to bunt up
supplementary Information on each
day's work. Of course you have not
There Is where the need of preparation
comes In. You must have a stock of
knowledge to begin with, the larger the
better, but some there must be.
You will find In every subject that
the more you know the better you can
teach even the most elementary parts
of it
As you go through the year's work,
jou will see where you need more
knowledge where your weak points
are and you can study up on those
points and the next year do better
work In the same line. You will find
your ideas of things in general are ex
panding and you will keep on working
and broadening your horizon.
There Is, of course, no limit to your
advancement and you may perhaps
think "thorough preparation" a mis
nomer, for what you would at first
have thought the complete mastery of
a subject will seem by and by but the
most meager cropplngs on the edge of
the field of knowledge. Educational
Occupation for Primary Room.
Each recitation or class exercise
where the child comes In direct contact
with the teacher should be followed by
some occupation which Is the direct
outgrowth of that lesson; an opportu
nity to give expression to the thought
gained in the class. Too many teachers
are satisfied If this thought is express
ed In written language, and often the
children spend more time In writing
than Is really good for them.
The child, like the adult, needs to ob
jectify his thought; much of his think
ing needs more than the oral or writ
ten form to make It complete. In the
primary school we may give to the
child this opportunity for expression
through drawing upon the blackboard,
modelling In clay, constructing with
blocks and splints, cutting forms from
paper, using number by measuring and
comparing, and outlining forms with
sticks or lentils.
Another phase of desk occupation la
that which to done In preparation for
the class exercise; an Important ele
ment In this part of tbs work to Imme
diate use; the feeling on his part that
tne piece of work in baud Is being dono
because it Is to help In the lesson
farther on. adds an element of Interest
which soon rises to enthusiasm. If
properly directed by the teacher.
Suppose the class is studying crystal
lization: for such study sugar, salt and
alum will tie observed and measured;
for this, small boxes of definite size
will be needed. If the children make
these boxes themselves there Is an add
ed interest because of the responsibil
ity placed upon each child in making
ready for the lesson.
For these boxes he will need a lead
pencil, foot rule, pair of scissors, mauil
la paper (medium weight), and a few
drops of mucilage or paste.
Directions for box holding a cubic
Inch: Draw and r uta three-inch square;
one Inch from each corner make a
point; connect each point to one on
opposite edge with a line. Fold each
side toward the center, on this line;
crease well. On each side cut through
the line to point where two lines cross;
lay the corner squares and paste. Shal
low boxes previously made by the chil
dren will serve for paste cups. A
toothpick answers for the brush. '
Four or six Inch squares may be;
drawn and cut by the children, and
then folded Into envelopes; these will
be found useful In preserving material
which they use In observation lessons
In science. '
The telling of stories from history
and choice literature has come to be
an important part of the work In every
good primary school; but this story
telling falls short of its purpose if we
fail to give the child an opportunity to
tell it back to us. Oue of his best
means of expression for the story work
is the blackboard drawing. This gives
him a chance to do and dare such as
he could not feel If he were to attempt
expression with a pencil or through
speech even. His pictures may look
crude aud meaningless to the casual
observer, but the sympathetic teacher
Is able to interpret each stroke of his
crayon. To vary this drawing, give
each child the privilege of picturing a
story of his own choosing. Note the
excellent oral language work that is
sure to come as each one explains to
his schoolmates what his picture stands
Children love to work; their enthusi
asm and intellect are easily aroused,
and it must be some fault of ours when
we are obliged to hire or punish in
order to keep tbem legitimately occu
pied. Primary Education.
Going to Rchool.
Among the crowding cares of the
farmer's wife, the needs of the little
schoolgirl cannot be forgotten. While
the rough spring weather keeps her
from the long walk to the school-house,
her wardrobe may be put in order; ging
ham dresses rcsleeved, new aprons
made several of them neatly trimmed
with soft crocheted twine braid or un
bleached lace and various things at
tended to which may add to the com
fort and pleasure of the small maiden.
Provide a snug Jacket or cape for
windy chill mornings, and rubber shoes
for muddy walking. A 10-cent straw
hat with crown lowered and trimmed
with a pinked and pleated ruche of red
or blue, edge bound with the same and
strings outside to tie down the wide
brim, makes a nicer head covering than
a sunbonnet Don't forget the neat,
clean ruffle or collar for the neck of her
frock, and plenty of pocket handker
chiefs. She may hem a dozen muslin
ones during the cold, stormy days. Give
the young student a pretty bag cro
cheted of brown or white twine, lined
with red or blue calico; also a small tin
dinner pail, with lunch hyglenlcally pre
pared, no indigestible pastry nor rich
cake. Give her, too, a kiss when she
goes, aud when she comes home at
night. Don't have a number of dis
agreeable tasks waiting for her. Let
her run and play or make doll's dresses
as she chooses. Make home more at
tractive to her than school. And above
all send her early to bed. Gussle M.
Waterman in Farm and Home.
A Device to Promote Reading.
A school superintendent was asked
how he managed to advance his pupils
In all their studies so much more rapid
ly than his predecessor had done. His
reply is worthy of special note: "I
make it a point to bring them along as
rapidly as possible In reading. In the
primary grades I give more time to this
exercise than is customary In other
schools, and I persuade or entice the
pupils of the higher grades to read
books, newspapers and magazines, any
thing wholesome that will give tbem
practice, and at the same time Instruct
them. Every day we spend from fif
teen to twenty minutes asking and an
swering questions about what we bars
read. To exlte curiosity, we post tho
most Important caption lines from tho
columns of the newspapers. The next
morning nearly every one of the older
scholars Is prepared to give particulars
on the subject of the previous day's
bulletins. If I can get our scholars
to read It Is easy to Induce tbem to
study; by as much as they become
more expert In reading, so much to tho
labor of pursuing their other studios
reduced, and their enjoyment height
ened." Chicago Inter Ocean.
Helno'i nervous system was a oonv
plete wreck. For seven years as was
confined to bod br disease of th spinal