The American. (Omaha, Nebraska) 1891-1899, September 09, 1898, Image 1
1 THE AMERICAN " - ' r 1 (1) A W l.t.M.V M.WM'AI'J K, VoifMt VIII. FIFTEEN MILLION SCHOOL CHILDREN !lae Returned To Their Studies Throughout the l.anil. Tfcf Cnt if Maintaining That Army at ll Hoik (W Ilv,n.1.;s0 a fear, wr f Ivdi Year for K h Ptipll. Nearly fifteen million American chil dren aro unhappy thl week. The pub lie ichooli are opening. The first week or two In September witness the opea Ing of mot of the school. It Is all very well to aay with Bacon that ' Knowledge U power," but to the Infant mind the author of the book of Ecclesiastics put it more correctly when be said: "He that locreaseth knowledge Increaseth sorrow." How ever much the youngster may be fend of learning in seeming, really he dee not enjoy the school routine. The boy who really likes to go ti school It to carce that be li pointed to more in scorn tt an with pride by his school mates. Think tf the barrels of tears that are thed by the fifteen million school children, the billions of com plaints that are made, the trillions of aigbs and objections, the quadrillions of wishes that the did not bate to go. Plans are Interfered with, pleasures anticipated must be post poned. The period of recreation seems too short. Yet the modern educators believe the summer vacation is too long. The child loses bis habits of tudy. Vsc ttlon Is a period of lawless ness. The lake and river are more ter rible than ever to the parent. Closer Watch must be kept on the apple or chards and the melon patches So, though young America may not be glad to get back to school, old America is. That Is, all of old Amer ica except the teachers. Tbey, poor mortals, rail at fate just as bitterly as do their pupil. There Is guesswork, of course, when one" gives estimates of tears shed and wishes expressed. But there is none about the number of pupil. The com missioner of education makes careful Inquiry as to their number. The pub lic schools lave an enrollment of 14, 465,871. This includes only those of elementary grades and second grades not those of higher education, even when supported by public taxation. The private schools have an enrollment of l,531,fr20, msklng a grand total of 15,097,197 students in the common schools. This vast army Is more than one-fifth the total population of tue United States. All of them do not go to school every day, the average dally attendance being 0,747,015. chll dren. Even this latter figure is lm prenlvo to the person who has not Stopped to consider. It means that 12 per cent of the people of the United Stales are at school each day. The avenge length of the ichoul term in days is 1404, so tho aggregate numbtr of days of schooling is 1,369,882,913. To teach these requires the services of 400 325 Instructor, of whom I30,.'lti0 aie m&'A unit 'u UM) are female. The women teachers outnumber tho men two to ne. There are 240,908 schojl bouses, and the value of all school property is t4&5,40,164. The cot of the pu'illo schools 1 1181,453,780 per year, or J2.I11 per capita of population Fur each pupil It cost $18.62. Everybody knows, of course, that the Uul ed Scales has more schoolchildren thau any other country In tho world. Hut It is not sj generally known that the United Slates, with but one-twen-tletti of the population of tho world, within her conticei has one-third of the world's school children and spends one half o( the amount spent by tlie world for eduoal.on. Free public schools are almost a dis tinct! voy American Institution. Until r- trr- r" y-"- -M-v - : - -jtz yv-. iv"-,?s . ?:jM. sMiliiM mm ! till quite recently even in EnUnd until 1870, to be exact there wis no pro vision lor the educa t n of the masses. There were foundation schools, richly endoweJ, which lid to the universities, and there were some church and char ity schools, but for the most part the masses of tbe population were left In Ignorance. By the act of 1870, which is generally r cognized as the wisest ard greatett English law of tbe gener ation, provision for the school accom modation of children, was made oblig atory on all cities and parishes and a -tendance was made iompulsry on every child. Tbe first free school in tbe United S'ates wa opened in Boston April 13, 1835 a period of only Ave years after the settlement of that town. But this was similar to the English charity schools. Connecticut was the first of the states to establish a common school fund. This was done In 1795. New York followed In 1805 and Massachus etts in 1834. Tbe federal government early showed Interest in the public school?, a national laed ordinance of 1785 dedicating one thirty hlxth part of the western territory then In possesi n of the government to common schools. It is to this rl. h provision that the edlolency of the schools in the western states is largely due. The government has granted for oommon schools 07 893, 010 acres, valued at $250,000,000. A national department of education was established In 18(17, reduced the follow ing year to the bureau of education, which still exists and Is of inestimable benefit. There being no system controlled by the na'Ionnl government, diversity ob tains lb the different states, and yet there is a remarkable similarity. Tbe funds are primarily raised by local tax ation, and when there is a state educa tional fund It is divided among tho communities in proportion to their needs as a supplement, never as a sub stitute Each town or city chooses Its own school board, to which it Intrusts the organization and management of the schools. The progrese cf the schools cannot be pictured by statistics. Buttheadvar.ce is evident. The fact that population is being concentrated in cities and towns leads to progress. They are able to thus secure better teachers and graded classes may be employed. In the small rural schools there are no classes. OMAHA, M UKASKA, nnn.w. M;N T.MIMU i Stem Each pupil la taught by himself. In the old district school, with whloh many a Cblcagoian of village ancestry is familiar, progress depended upon the pupil. Some did well, but the rank and tile of the -school learned a lltt'e reading, writing and "ciphering," and probably studied the same book for sev eral winters, beginning at the first page on the first day of each school yrar. Those who needed no help from the teacher learned to help themselves and enjoyed a delightful freodom. Those who were slow and dull did not get much aid. Turing the past generation the pro gress has been most rapid. In 1870 tbe average total amount of schooling per Inhabitant in elementary and second ary schools was 2.91 years, while in 1886 this bad risen to 4.28 years. Tbe progress In such directions as high schools, normal schools, manual train ing and free state universities Is so marked as to need no comraont. D. S. Richardson In Chicago Times-Herald. Fort Marlon's Dungeons. The most Interesting sight In St. Augustine Is Fort Marlon, as the old structure was rechrlst ned after the Florid purchase, In honor of our revo lutionary general, Marion. Sergeant Brown of the regular army is In charge of this historic pile. He will show you through tbe old cuse mates, each of them curious enough, and will reach bis culmination of hor ror in tbe dungeons beneath the north west bastion, nere, opening by a nar row passage from the central place of arms, is the place of punishment for prisoners. The walls still sho the recesses Into which were let six crosses. Before one of the crosses the hapless prisoner was hanged in chains, so ar ranged that be could neither sit nor stand, while every movement was an agony, and while the cros, emblem of peace and love, bung above him until he was ready to confess or die. It must have been a sacrilegious trave.-ty of the crucifixion. Until the J ear 1835 this large prison cbambor of comparatively puhllo Im prisonment and torture was supposed to be the most thrilling rollc of Span ish medieval barbarity. But in thai year the moving of a heavy cannon on the outside parapet above broke through a roof, and then were revealed two inner chambers. Investigation the Tide of Immigration. showed that these Inner dungeons were connected with the larger prison chamber by a low, narrow tunnel, run ning through the walls four feet thick. This tunnel, before the transfer of tbe old fort, had been blocked with mas onryperhaps to conceal from the new owners the testimony of atrocious cru elty, or perhaps the tunnel was blocked at a far earlier period. The first of these dungeou, which you examine by lantern light, Is about seven feet by twenty and fifteen high. Its length fitted it for the use of the rack and Its seclusion prevented tbe groans and shrieks of the tortured from being heard, except, perhaps, as they might faintly reach through the tunnel the chalnod prisoners in the outer chamber, to strlice further terror to their fainting souls. There Is a small passage for ventilation In the roof, and It was that after many years caused the break that led to the dis covery of the t jrturo chamber. It is with a shuddering realization of the possibilities of Spanish ferocity when in unhrldlcd power that one emerges from these dark, stone-walled dungeons and greets the outer sun shine with a gaspof rellof. New York Mall and Express. I) Kl LINK OK rETKK'H 1'ENCE. i:il I'flVrU of War I'pon the Pope's Pocket Money. The UlDpano-American war has had a considerable ir fluence on the finances of the Vatican, ai.d especially on that brunch known as ' Peters Fence." This voluntary contribution of tbe faithful toward tho support of tbe head of the church renched Its maxi mum on tbe occasion of the first jubilee of the present popo, In which year about Ai.000,000 was gathered In. This considerable sum was not only not sur passed or reached afterward, but tho contributions gradually diminished, principally in lUly, which, being near Vatican, feels less the fascination and sense of power of that institution. In France, where the republican policy of Leo XIII, did net meet with Catholic favor, the samo dtmunitlon Is to be noted. The cau-c at work In Austria and Relghtar to the Bamo end is the withdtawal at the holy seo's support of the Catholic aocla lsU aHer creating thepattj ; in Spain and Portugal the falling away Is due to the ever Increas v. ing poverty there. A considerable blow was given to Peter's penoe by the Instl tution of the Propagation of the Faith of Lyons, whloh refused to pay the an nual tribute of 10,000, which has been1 given from time Immemorial, alleging that as the Vatican bears no longer the expense of protecting French missions in the Levant, they consider themselves free from obligation, Tbi Vatican, however, did not allow the matter to rest here. Negotiations wt re entered into and tbe lnstltuto agreed to pay 8,000. But the war stands pre-eminently above tho other oausos that make for a falling aay In papal Income. From Spain and America alone in the first six months of this year Peter's pence was 12,000 less than last year. This shrinkage directly affecU Ljo's per sonal Income, which amout.ti to 20, 000 a year, partially taken from Peter's ponco. Of this sum the pontiff keeps for himself only 20,000, not only for his small expenses, but also fjr the presents which he no and thun makes to sovereigns and heads of s tat as, and the charity which he wishes to dis pense privately. The remainder of tho 280,000 is spent as fellows: 28,003 for the so-called Cardinall dl Curia, who rocolves a yearly sum, known as tbe platto cardinally of 1,000; 18, 400 to the poor dlooesus; 72,000 to the prefecture of the pa'ace, which, out of that sum pays the expenses of tho court palace and museum. This is not a very extravagant outlay when one con siders that tbe vatlcan Includes 11,000 rooms. The tflloe of the secretary of state, whloh Is the foreign ofiloe of the holy see, absorbs 40,000, the Vatican employes 60,000 and the free church schools 41,600, Pall Mail Gazette. The Papist's (Jrlppe. Where the papists have Influence the people have religious la grippe. They are good for nothing but the papal blessing, which any nation might well be afraid of. They boast that tho protesUnt denominations will not be able to accomplish anything In their attempt to make Roman Catholics in Cuba student. of tho Bib'e and think for themselves. They suggest, why not try to convert some of the Roman Catholics about Washington? I think this is a good suggestion. Let every Christian protestant try to convert Nt i k .17. very single Roman Cathollo in the United States. ' That Is the proper place to commence, st home. Get them to think for themselves, and study the Bible for themselvos , and not do their thinking by proxy, anb there by have a continuation of the confidence game la religious matters. If we want to make Cuba and the rest of the Is lands taken from Spain, protestant, at tack their base of eooletlastlcal supply from the United States. Tbe protes tanta have not been half awake to this question. Make a list of the Itoroan Catholics which you want to help, and give them things to read and bolptbom to reason. Dj tome of this work every day and they will be captured as well as the Spanish fleet was. W.T. P. Send Pnupen to the I'tilted Hlnles. London, Aug. 24. The arrival of many pauper immigrants and stowa ways in New York recently is explained by tbe arrest today in London of Michael Winter, wboclalmod to be a mantlamaker. Winter Is aocused of being In a scheme with others to ob tain money by false pretenses from msny poor foreign Jews by offering to send them to the United Stales for $12. Evidence was given in court that two Jews had been smuggled aboard the steamer Harry more while lying at the London docks, They were secreted in tho bunkers and kept there without food for forty-eight hours. Their cries were heard by the crew after sailing. They were compelled to wck their passage and were arrested as stowaways on their arrival la Boston. Ia another case two men were smug gled aboard the steamer Massachus etts, only to bo sent back by the New York authorities. Winter was committed for trial. Chicago Tribune. Out of town Americans when visiting Omaha can save money and get a pleas ant room by applying at this office, lioom can be secured in advanco by de posit of II. Henry F. Bowers, Clinton, la., Is tho head of the A. P. A. In this country. Write him about your council and sk him for Information. The subscription price of Tue Amf.r- ICAX Is 12 00 per year.