The American. (Omaha, Nebraska) 1891-1899, September 09, 1898, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

" - ' r
A W l.t.M.V M.WM'AI'J K,
VoifMt VIII.
!lae Returned To Their
Studies Throughout
the l.anil.
Tfcf Cnt if Maintaining That Army at
ll Hoik (W Ilv,n.1.;s0 a
fear, wr f Ivdi Year
for K h Ptipll.
Nearly fifteen million American chil
dren aro unhappy thl week. The pub
lie ichooli are opening. The first week
or two In September witness the opea
Ing of mot of the school.
It Is all very well to aay with Bacon
that ' Knowledge U power," but to the
Infant mind the author of the book of
Ecclesiastics put it more correctly
when be said: "He that locreaseth
knowledge Increaseth sorrow." How
ever much the youngster may be fend
of learning in seeming, really he dee
not enjoy the school routine. The boy
who really likes to go ti school It to
carce that be li pointed to more in
scorn tt an with pride by his school
mates. Think tf the barrels of tears
that are thed by the fifteen million
school children, the billions of com
plaints that are made, the trillions of
aigbs and objections, the quadrillions
of wishes that the did not
bate to go. Plans are Interfered with,
pleasures anticipated must be post
poned. The period of recreation seems
too short. Yet the modern educators
believe the summer vacation is too
long. The child loses bis habits of
tudy. Vsc ttlon Is a period of lawless
ness. The lake and river are more ter
rible than ever to the parent. Closer
Watch must be kept on the apple or
chards and the melon patches
So, though young America may not
be glad to get back to school, old
America is. That Is, all of old Amer
ica except the teachers. Tbey, poor
mortals, rail at fate just as bitterly as
do their pupil.
There Is guesswork, of course, when
one" gives estimates of tears shed and
wishes expressed. But there is none
about the number of pupil. The com
missioner of education makes careful
Inquiry as to their number. The pub
lic schools lave an enrollment of 14,
465,871. This includes only those of
elementary grades and second grades
not those of higher education, even
when supported by public taxation.
The private schools have an enrollment
of l,531,fr20, msklng a grand total of
15,097,197 students in the common
schools. This vast army Is more than
one-fifth the total population of tue
United States. All of them do not
go to school every day, the average
dally attendance being 0,747,015. chll
dren. Even this latter figure is lm
prenlvo to the person who has not
Stopped to consider. It means that 12
per cent of the people of the United
Stales are at school each day. The
avenge length of the ichoul term in
days is 1404, so tho aggregate numbtr
of days of schooling is 1,369,882,913. To
teach these requires the services of
400 325 Instructor, of whom I30,.'lti0 aie
m&'A unit 'u UM) are female. The
women teachers outnumber tho men
two to ne. There are 240,908 schojl
bouses, and the value of all school
property is t4&5,40,164. The cot of
the pu'illo schools 1 1181,453,780 per
year, or J2.I11 per capita of population
Fur each pupil It cost $18.62.
Everybody knows, of course, that the
Uul ed Scales has more schoolchildren
thau any other country In tho world.
Hut It is not sj generally known that
the United Slates, with but one-twen-tletti
of the population of tho world,
within her conticei has one-third of the
world's school children and spends one
half o( the amount spent by tlie world
for eduoal.on.
Free public schools are almost a dis
tinct! voy American Institution. Until
r- trr- r" y-"- -M-v - : - -jtz yv-. iv"-,?s . ?:jM.
sMiliiM mm ! till
quite recently even in EnUnd until
1870, to be exact there wis no pro
vision lor the educa t n of the masses.
There were foundation schools, richly
endoweJ, which lid to the universities,
and there were some church and char
ity schools, but for the most part the
masses of tbe population were left In
Ignorance. By the act of 1870, which
is generally r cognized as the wisest
ard greatett English law of tbe gener
ation, provision for the school accom
modation of children, was made oblig
atory on all cities and parishes and a -tendance
was made iompulsry on
every child.
Tbe first free school in tbe United
S'ates wa opened in Boston April 13,
1835 a period of only Ave years after
the settlement of that town. But this
was similar to the English charity
schools. Connecticut was the first of
the states to establish a common school
fund. This was done In 1795. New
York followed In 1805 and Massachus
etts in 1834. Tbe federal government
early showed Interest in the public
school?, a national laed ordinance of
1785 dedicating one thirty hlxth part of
the western territory then In possesi n
of the government to common schools.
It is to this rl. h provision that the
edlolency of the schools in the western
states is largely due. The government
has granted for oommon schools 07 893,
010 acres, valued at $250,000,000. A
national department of education was
established In 18(17, reduced the follow
ing year to the bureau of education,
which still exists and Is of inestimable
There being no system controlled by
the na'Ionnl government, diversity ob
tains lb the different states, and yet
there is a remarkable similarity. Tbe
funds are primarily raised by local tax
ation, and when there is a state educa
tional fund It is divided among tho
communities in proportion to their
needs as a supplement, never as a sub
stitute Each town or city chooses Its
own school board, to which it Intrusts
the organization and management of
the schools.
The progrese cf the schools cannot be
pictured by statistics. Buttheadvar.ce
is evident. The fact that population is
being concentrated in cities and towns
leads to progress. They are able to
thus secure better teachers and graded
classes may be employed. In the small
rural schools there are no classes.
Each pupil la taught by himself. In
the old district school, with whloh
many a Cblcagoian of village ancestry
is familiar, progress depended upon the
pupil. Some did well, but the rank
and tile of the -school learned a lltt'e
reading, writing and "ciphering," and
probably studied the same book for sev
eral winters, beginning at the first page
on the first day of each school yrar.
Those who needed no help from the
teacher learned to help themselves and
enjoyed a delightful freodom. Those
who were slow and dull did not get
much aid.
Turing the past generation the pro
gress has been most rapid. In 1870 tbe
average total amount of schooling per
Inhabitant in elementary and second
ary schools was 2.91 years, while in
1886 this bad risen to 4.28 years. Tbe
progress In such directions as high
schools, normal schools, manual train
ing and free state universities Is so
marked as to need no comraont. D. S.
Richardson In Chicago Times-Herald.
Fort Marlon's Dungeons.
The most Interesting sight In St.
Augustine Is Fort Marlon, as the old
structure was rechrlst ned after the
Florid purchase, In honor of our revo
lutionary general, Marion.
Sergeant Brown of the regular army
is In charge of this historic pile. He
will show you through tbe old cuse
mates, each of them curious enough,
and will reach bis culmination of hor
ror in tbe dungeons beneath the north
west bastion, nere, opening by a nar
row passage from the central place of
arms, is the place of punishment for
prisoners. The walls still sho the
recesses Into which were let six crosses.
Before one of the crosses the hapless
prisoner was hanged in chains, so ar
ranged that be could neither sit nor
stand, while every movement was an
agony, and while the cros, emblem of
peace and love, bung above him until
he was ready to confess or die. It must
have been a sacrilegious trave.-ty of the
Until the J ear 1835 this large prison
cbambor of comparatively puhllo Im
prisonment and torture was supposed
to be the most thrilling rollc of Span
ish medieval barbarity. But in thai
year the moving of a heavy cannon on
the outside parapet above broke
through a roof, and then were revealed
two inner chambers. Investigation
the Tide of Immigration.
showed that these Inner dungeons
were connected with the larger prison
chamber by a low, narrow tunnel, run
ning through the walls four feet thick.
This tunnel, before the transfer of tbe
old fort, had been blocked with mas
onryperhaps to conceal from the new
owners the testimony of atrocious cru
elty, or perhaps the tunnel was blocked
at a far earlier period.
The first of these dungeou, which
you examine by lantern light, Is about
seven feet by twenty and fifteen high.
Its length fitted it for the use of the
rack and Its seclusion prevented tbe
groans and shrieks of the tortured
from being heard, except, perhaps, as
they might faintly reach through the
tunnel the chalnod prisoners in the
outer chamber, to strlice further terror
to their fainting souls. There Is a
small passage for ventilation In the
roof, and It was that after many years
caused the break that led to the dis
covery of the t jrturo chamber.
It is with a shuddering realization of
the possibilities of Spanish ferocity
when in unhrldlcd power that one
emerges from these dark, stone-walled
dungeons and greets the outer sun
shine with a gaspof rellof. New York
Mall and Express.
i:il I'flVrU of War I'pon the Pope's
Pocket Money.
The UlDpano-American war has had
a considerable ir fluence on the finances
of the Vatican, ai.d especially on that
brunch known as ' Peters Fence."
This voluntary contribution of tbe
faithful toward tho support of tbe
head of the church renched Its maxi
mum on tbe occasion of the first jubilee
of the present popo, In which year
about Ai.000,000 was gathered In. This
considerable sum was not only not sur
passed or reached afterward, but tho
contributions gradually diminished,
principally in lUly, which, being near
Vatican, feels less the fascination and
sense of power of that institution. In
France, where the republican policy of
Leo XIII, did net meet with Catholic
favor, the samo dtmunitlon Is to be
noted. The cau-c at work In Austria
and Relghtar to the Bamo end is the
withdtawal at the holy seo's support of
the Catholic aocla lsU aHer creating
thepattj ; in Spain and Portugal the
falling away Is due to the ever Increas
ing poverty there. A considerable blow
was given to Peter's penoe by the Instl
tution of the Propagation of the Faith
of Lyons, whloh refused to pay the an
nual tribute of 10,000, which has been1
given from time Immemorial, alleging
that as the Vatican bears no longer the
expense of protecting French missions
in the Levant, they consider themselves
free from obligation, Tbi Vatican,
however, did not allow the matter to
rest here. Negotiations wt re entered
into and tbe lnstltuto agreed to pay
But the war stands pre-eminently
above tho other oausos that make for
a falling aay In papal Income. From
Spain and America alone in the first
six months of this year Peter's pence
was 12,000 less than last year. This
shrinkage directly affecU Ljo's per
sonal Income, which amout.ti to 20,
000 a year, partially taken from Peter's
ponco. Of this sum the pontiff keeps
for himself only 20,000, not only for
his small expenses, but also fjr the
presents which he no and thun makes
to sovereigns and heads of s tat as, and
the charity which he wishes to dis
pense privately. The remainder of tho
280,000 is spent as fellows: 28,003
for the so-called Cardinall dl Curia,
who rocolves a yearly sum, known as
tbe platto cardinally of 1,000; 18,
400 to the poor dlooesus; 72,000 to the
prefecture of the pa'ace, which, out of
that sum pays the expenses of tho court
palace and museum. This is not a
very extravagant outlay when one con
siders that tbe vatlcan Includes 11,000
rooms. The tflloe of the secretary of
state, whloh Is the foreign ofiloe of the
holy see, absorbs 40,000, the Vatican
employes 60,000 and the free church
schools 41,600, Pall Mail Gazette.
The Papist's (Jrlppe.
Where the papists have Influence
the people have religious la grippe.
They are good for nothing but the
papal blessing, which any nation
might well be afraid of. They boast
that tho protesUnt denominations will
not be able to accomplish anything In
their attempt to make Roman Catholics
in Cuba student. of tho Bib'e and think
for themselves. They suggest, why
not try to convert some of the Roman
Catholics about Washington? I think
this is a good suggestion. Let every
Christian protestant try to convert
Nt i k .17.
very single Roman Cathollo in the
United States. ' That Is the proper
place to commence, st home. Get
them to think for themselves, and
study the Bible for themselvos , and not
do their thinking by proxy, anb there
by have a continuation of the confidence
game la religious matters. If we want
to make Cuba and the rest of the Is
lands taken from Spain, protestant, at
tack their base of eooletlastlcal supply
from the United States. Tbe protes
tanta have not been half awake to this
question. Make a list of the Itoroan
Catholics which you want to help, and
give them things to read and bolptbom
to reason. Dj tome of this work every
day and they will be captured as well
as the Spanish fleet was. W.T. P.
Send Pnupen to the I'tilted Hlnles.
London, Aug. 24. The arrival of
many pauper immigrants and stowa
ways in New York recently is explained
by tbe arrest today in London of
Michael Winter, wboclalmod to be a
mantlamaker. Winter Is aocused of
being In a scheme with others to ob
tain money by false pretenses from
msny poor foreign Jews by offering to
send them to the United Stales for $12.
Evidence was given in court that two
Jews had been smuggled aboard the
steamer Harry more while lying at the
London docks, They were secreted in
tho bunkers and kept there without
food for forty-eight hours. Their cries
were heard by the crew after sailing.
They were compelled to wck their
passage and were arrested as stowaways
on their arrival la Boston.
Ia another case two men were smug
gled aboard the steamer Massachus
etts, only to bo sent back by the New
York authorities.
Winter was committed for trial.
Chicago Tribune.
Out of town Americans when visiting
Omaha can save money and get a pleas
ant room by applying at this office,
lioom can be secured in advanco by de
posit of II.
Henry F. Bowers, Clinton, la., Is tho
head of the A. P. A. In this country.
Write him about your council and sk
him for Information.
The subscription price of Tue Amf.r-
ICAX Is 12 00 per year.