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About The Alliance-independent. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1892-1894 | View Entire Issue (April 6, 1893)
THE A L L I A N CK-1 X I) E V E X I) E X T.
Tha Feniterti&ry Convict Lease Sjstea of
THE BABBAEITT OF BAEBAEITHS
Extracts From the Report of a Legisla.
tive Investigating Committee A Sy
tea a Thousand Times Worse Than
It is Generally Believed to Be.
Now, that attention is being called to
the evils of the convict lease system Leie
in our own state, it may be of interest to
see its workings in other states to order
that we mhy see to what brutal depths
men's greed will descend, and what the
natural tendency of the system is under
favoriug circumstances. The following
extracts are given from the penitentiary
investigation committee to the Tennet-see
general assembly, March 4, 1893. The
convicts of the state (Tenn.) are held un
der a lease made by the state to the
Tennessee Coal, Inn and Railroad com
pany, and by this company and, its sub
lesses are held and distributed at six dif
ferent mining stations, as follows; Coal
Creek, Oliver Pprlng, Inman, Tracy
City, Main Prison, Morrow Farm. The
report made by tLii committee should
cause an Immediate cessation of illustrated
magazine articles and lectures on the
miseries of Siberian exiles and the hor
rors of foreign prisons, for if any state of
affairs worse than here depicted exists it
can only be in hell itself.
At Coal Cretk, the committee found:
"The location badly located for sanitary
reasons," its .location being lu close prox
imity to the mines to obtain the mobt
work from the convicts.
"The bedding was fitting to a degree;
changes were made every three or four
months, most of it once or twice a year
the look of things indicated the latter
figure the convicts had no change of
clothing but slept two in a bed naked or
in the clothes they woiked In; , the beds
were without sheets or pillows and were
covered with grease, grime and coal dust.
The convicts were furnished with the
usual suits and shoes, but no drawer,
night shirts or socks, as required by law,
notwithstanding the bitter cold weather
we have bad this winter. The clothing
was waBl'id once a week and then given
out Indiscriminately, no man getting the
clothing he had worn before; many of the
prisoners were afflicted with running,
syphilitic sores, and the medical report
on this custom is that it is a most dan
gerou, disgusting and outrageous prac
tice. The sane methods, we regret to say,
prevail in all the prisons.
"Our conclusions as to their feed were
Domed from what we saw, the convicts'
ttiiuony and the testimony of the stew
ard and his bowks. From this we figured
that tfnvtfta u-Ara faA ait a ttnut
Mr. Ctiumbly of lO, or 11 cents per day,
or, say to 4 cents per meal. We wish
to condfmn as a petty meanness and cru
elty, probubly originating in grasping
: greed, the compelling of prisoners to
carry in their bauds through the dirt, grit,
water and emoke of the mines their sod
den piece of corn bread and fat meat
which constitutes their only dinner. The
committee was informed by the Inspector
that the mine was in a dangerous condi
tion from gss and water, and he predicts
a terrible loss of life if it continues to be
worked in its present condition."
The committee found that the method
of punishment In use In this institution
as in the other prisons, was to lay the
convict flat on his stomach and whip him
on his naked back with a heavy leathern
strap attached to a stick handle, the num
ber of licks varies from ten to sixty, aud
those were given sometimes with one
hand and sometimes with both hands of
a stalwurt guard. This punishment is in
flicted for all breaches of rules and for
failure to do the tatk assigned, which at
this mine is a limit four tons of coal a dny.
We believe that the diet furnished them
is lasulllcleut to keep up the strength to
do the work. The committee found
many brutal and degrading vices and
practlct s, and recommend some positive
action be taken to stop the open vlolutlon
of the laws and cure the evils complained
of or remove the convicts from this phce.
This, the Coal Creek prison, where our
readers will recollect the union w tiers,
driven dpi-rnte at the attempt to C0!3
pete with convict labor producing under
th InoIi four ton of cohI per day at a cot
of attout 4 cents per ton for iubor, ht
forlii'; nt'ttrkfd the stockade and r elf ait d
And to en through the dreary tur "f !
all the prison, w hero lie miscalled Jus
tice of the state turned over Its unfortu
nates to be Mtured In the living hell of
oipoi aV greed. At the rUk of sickening
our render we mk on extract more
from th report touching the women's
"Whll lh" woram arf, of cur, of
th luit lyp a a rul,k(id is ihwtr IdU
tie and rroJ I tan 'lilon ar bard to
ttiaaig, v iuut Condi-tun the method
i f pubUliu.ntt u l t ii dim. Thy '
compelled by th urd, In the prtu"t
f Umm th r women and inUiiiM of
tnu, to It dn the 11. r, their cloth.
Ul4tlinup,au4 Uli jMl thus thy
r Wpped & w, o Uitr ild
tutn lii, an I ttitlm, as the .r.a
guatd, VIr. IV, diultt.l, oo fvt of
IU 'iirl It pl rd vpoata wi or at at
of tU ffl'f " Bul' fcff M ,B
w iMt.r vadrt th Uh.
Thieur f.k-r tllr(tlnit ralMra
a w ! I of a aud arw Mm U i U th
jdf n, a dUifMtful svldfttte f Urn
guard's perfidy ii admitting his favorite.
Jt is consoling to know that the wicked
gusrd was discharged, but the wicked
The committee aids: "But to add to
this inhuman treatment by neglect or
overt act can but brutalize and emllf-ei
eveu a man of good character and impi'i-
es. The simple statement of facts con
tained in this report will hardly convey
to the unreftectire mind the enormity of
6ome of the wrongs endured by the pris
oners. Many men are poor, hunger Is
known outside prison walls, dirty house
holds are too common; men have slept in
the gutter, and many of our citizens have
endured with heroic fortitude privations
even for months during the war between
the states and were glad at times for
even a piece of Bidden corn bread, but
conceive of the 1 opeless desecration of
the man who for ten, fifteen, or twenty
years has to biing himself every day but
Sunday In a coal mine, with IU at ten!
ant dangers and discomforts, toll to the
possible limits of his strength, carry his
Indigestible and asutainnlng food in his
dirty hands to return at night to a sapper
whose unvarying monotony causes bis
stomach to revolt, is cabined and driven
into a room where fifty others are driven
in and packed like cattle fixed for ship
ment, to sleep In his dirty working
clothes with another person, and so
cramped that he cannot turn or stretch,
and in a bed that from three to six months
reeks and stinks with filthlness, and in an
air devitalized by fifty pairs of lungs and
made noisome by the exhalations from
fifty dirty bodies; a man whose spirit of
manhood is broken and who is made to
writhe under the lash for failure to com
plete his task, who has not a single foot
of space nor a single thing he can call his
own, nor a moment of privacy, an almost
de-individualized unit of a suffering bru
tal throng; conceive of an unvarying
daily round of such iile for five, ton, fif
teen or twenty years, and you have a par
tlal idea of the fate of some of the poor
wretches at Coal Creek." The committee
tecom mends that the state abrogate the
contract and work the prisoners on i:s
own account. They t&y "The controlling
motive of those in charge under the con
tract system will elwsys necessarily be
to make the last possible cent out of the
flesh and blood bought with their money
and never to reform."
"We order those things better In
France." Here in Nebraska our condi
tions are such that we have not been able
to reach the bad eminence of Coal Creek,
but in our own feebla manner we bae
given proof that opportunity alone was
lacking to reach that point. It may be
that strangulation is more merciful than
the lash, and that if the coal Creek cr
vlct , who found that ten cents worth of
food per day did sot give him strengtn
mine lour tons or coal r er day, deserved
the lash, it follows that the Nebraskacon
vlct who lacked the strength and mechan
ical kna k to wield a seven and a half
pound adz all day, and probably 'tighten"
Home fifteen casks per day a fair da)'s
work for a trained workman deserved,
as he received, death. The system is
wronjr In every respect; wrong In its effect
upon the tree workman, upon the con
vlct, and even upon the contractor who
seeks to benefit by it. Abolish it.
What is technically known as profit-
sharing or Industrial partnership Is de
signed to unite the industries ot the own
ers of capital and the workmen. The
control rests in the capital and Us owners
but those who do the ' work are given a
share in the profits, when there are any.
Customary wages and salaries are paid,
interest is paid on capital, and whatever
profit then remains is divided by some
previously agreed plan between the two.
The business or economic logic assigned
for this arrangement is that Interested la
bor will be more caietul and efficient
than the labor which has no contingent
Interest. It Is a familiar fact that slave
labor is inefficient, and it is also well
known that men working for
wages aim to do ouly a mini
mum day's work. If the slave converted
into a freeman, educated and well fed be
comes a better producer; if the wage
earner turned Into a small proprietor be
comes more energetic and more careful
then the samo lojlc will make the
wage-earner who has an Interest in the
profit.", more industrious and lass dUposed
to carelessly waste material or to do bad
work. There b'-lny; thus a larger profit,
the proflt-sh'triii t """Hands on waip?i!s
In reality i!;j Increased, effi
ciency of th- i lvt". The div
idend may I . ... !y a portion of
this extra yu ! . i be the whole of
It, or It may e I it a id be partly
drawn frort the r ln ry proffts. Hut
whtitver additional product tetulu is
clear economic g.tlu. St. l.ouii Puai Hit
Itevlew of Hevleue.
Tho "I'rogrcs t f th'J world" stim
mltijf up the recent movement, politi
cal ftiul otlu rwU), t f the jt month
U practical, itroritf and lull in lh
April iiun.lK'rof.iho ILrvivwof Uk-vls.
This editorial dcpartim-nt I unlvir.
ally r tl. d oh i f the bnt f atur
of Itio ioot rciioukalHi iimtt'airwtit tlm
dty, Th American ulur ct!cu-
thn full rritoialiou l Uu Ih-iut itkitt'
pry, tl Hawaiian qucttton, ami a
tai U ty o othr l', wUWi Mr, iticad
c-otUriiHih uuMt brtUinut and cai U o
dUcu on of ttui rinijlUft political i.lwa
Vow. and thw erU and it lirtrll i f
ttm .:.!lcii" Hi tin' U il bill. Th Ui
pa 1 1 omit of turn ul UUt'ry U rrtov
turw blmi rny,jii t, U'i .l' d ti i.rf
vr tUttti u.ual tUU mobtti, wlf.Inig tt
It U ftilhd arl.-tj and rprl.
It coi)i a wltW raiip, quotli tf front
twlaa, rt). tortuan, Arl',
CanaU Ian and tigUli. a wc II at fiviu
Aiuci lcao carkaturUU.
An Alliance Kefiriner.
Iajourlsfue of February i'Jrd, ia a
very serious article upon '"Our Social
System." You enumerate some of the
frightful social inequalities exlstiDff in
medt rn society, which result in sorrow
fully blighting the souls of the upper
and lower classes alike; the rich capita
lists become hardened, selfish and
cruel, all the natural fountains of their
souls become dried up and obliterated;
while the unwilling poor are year by
year becoming physically, mentally
and morally dwarfed.
Does not such an appalling social
situation take one's breath away? Let
any reader sit down and try to realize
the awfulness of such an unnatural aud
demoralizing situation and the very
best that he can do will only be to get a
faint glimmer of tho sorrowful and
blighting reality of it.
That cla s who have by lying sophis
tries, briberv and the corruptlcg of the
press continually brought over a ma
jorlty of the voters and lcglslatlors of
this republic to tbelr abject service in
enacting laws to enable them to absorb
to themselves all the cream of the pro
fits of manufacturing, transportation
and agriculture will they ever be
awakened or quickened in conscience?
Let us not lose any sleep over such a
visionary and chimerical Idea.
In your editorial you said: "There
must be a generul resolve on the part
of the people to right wroags, to estab
lish justice and to make the world what
it ought to be."
These words deserve to be emblazon
ed upon a monument so high as to
pierce the very clouds of heaven. But
how can voters 1m aroused and quicken
ed into a "resolve to right wrongs, to
establish justice and to make the world
what it ought to be?"
The last paragraph of your edltorlul
answers the question thus' "It is not
impossible to right existing wrongs,
but it can never be done till the people
generally see these wrongs, and resolve
in their hearts that . they shall be
righted. To this end let us work."
In response to this last sentance let
the combined voices of all Humanita
rian workers reverberate into one
gracd swelling, deafening chorus of
Now Brother Thornton, I crave your
forbearance and sufficient space to lay
before the readers of The Alliance
Independent a plan which is the re
sult of many months of serious thought
and sorrowing anxiety;
First in importance and the main
foundation upon which to achieve all
political success is the Influence of an
ably edited newspaper press. Its influ
ence Is constant, unceasing and insidi
ous (either for good or evil as tho cose
may be. The plutocrats 'have under
stood this for many long years and
tbelr satanlc editors have been the mala
instruments in bringing the laborers
and producers under tho iron beol of
soulless and capitalistic taskmasters.
However the wasting of words to prove
a self-evident proposition ought never
to be necessary, and now with more in
tense anxiety and earnestness than I
ever felt at any previous hour of my Gl
years of life T beg and plead with every
and all antimonopolists of every shade
and degree to reorganize, reorganize,
reobqani.e! Let those who love tha
old Farmers' Alliance proceed at onco
and reorganize It being euro to amend
Article H of the constitution which
reads as follows:
"Tho Farmers' County Alliance shall
meet in December, March, June and
September, and oftener if deemed
necessary, and the delegates to the same
shall bo elected by Subordinate Alli
ances at their first meeting in Novem
ber, February, May and August, or as
soon thereafter as practicable."
Let the constitution be amended so
as to do away with all county meetings
except one in each year for the purpose
of electing county officers who shall
hold thoir respective offices for the
term of one year. Now Mr. Editor in
all seriousness have I watched the work
ings of this dear old organization, and
in sorrow I have to say that by and
through the frequency of theso recur
ring county meet ings have the blighting
seeds of distentions, divisions. Indiffer
ence and weariness in well doing crept
Into thU one of tbij most beloved Insti
tution tUt ever existed.
There ar always rno indiscreet
delegate at every meeting who are o
hhort sighted as to want to out the In's
aud Install now unn. When an utllwr
ban tried faithfully and conscientiously
to servct tho alliance for throe months
and a minority or a majority how Inuti
lity tawards him his feeUn, are wound
rd and ho and his frkud r member U
with mure or !o bittern, itad at
ewry recurring wunty uniting thero
it more or Km blltrm added to
nullify that bto hcriy feeding which
should prevail. Om year U a hort
enough time for any a'lUtieo oflUcr to
cn d ti fc'ct i ilvmo in lh
ihtll. i f hot IVioh. U it there? ri two
other and greater objt etUnu tho fltt
of wMeh I thfttdulegal fit mow aid
ni0 reluctant to m-glccl Un iri rew
lug work t J attend a county inert turf
U.at partak largely i f !h naUio of
ritual rutittnw. Tb Ul ami sret.'t
t.l.jct Utu l tha a.Mvg'..' ui i f iiiout y
which b !ca toted th Ulft -r
nt auUirUinato alllaneo irraiuiht a
py th ieiM 4 of Ji U tfaU i fvf !
W faro aud b'Ard whl'. atU itdliiif
lst MMiy itieeliaga. Mom than
lUi.WM.OM hav beh 'ldvd la thU
way which la my opinion U one of the
principal causea cl th disbauding ot
such a large per cent of the, nulwrdinate
aliiarceft. Tho oft recurring county
meeting's and their attnJant exr-ue of
time and money has had a harassing
and discouraging effect vkd tho mem
bers. If 6,"o.u)0.00 of that money could
have been invested in a mammoth
printing plant at Lincoln or Omaha and
the other $."0,000 could have been
loaned out upon real estate security
and tho annual Interest expended in
hiring a couple of first class short hand
reiwrter to tako down th speeches
of such sjieakers as Weaver, Mrs. Leae
V an N yck, l owers, W U Greene. U ck
Trevell ck and other distinguished
speakers, and those speeches furnished
free of charge (except postage) to all
independent editors, tho plutocrats
might have been driven out of Nebraska
horse and foot.
The Industrial Legion contains the
same blighting, disintegrating, and
blundering fatality that I have been
discussing, and will go into .the same
collapse that the alliance organization
baa unless the constitution is forthwith
amended. I would be the most intensely
happy man living If the Industrial
Legion organization could bo pushed
into every hamlet in the Unitefl States
wtln this ohjectloial leaturo (thai 1
have been discussing) eliminated' and
expurgated from it. the quarterly dues
to bo :t0 cents, and 10 cents of it to be
sent direct to a state Industrial Legion
committee who should give bonds bind
ing them to keep as sacred the fund
aggregating from that fora grand fund
from which to erect a mammoth new J
paper plunt, a Bohemian paper, a Ger
man paper, and of curoso an American
one; with a couple of first class reporters
connected therewith. Then trie old
(ioddess of reason and liberty would no
longer look upon us sorrowing from
afar oft fearing rude treatment but
would come lovingly to minglo with
and become our constant companion
forever and ever.
Gko. II. Hammond.
Rigid Economy and Hard Labor,
"It would ha well for the young men
of to-day to taka my reclpo for becom
ing prosperous," ik Id Mr. Jobs Shep
ard the other day as he sat b. fore his
little desk in an upper story of hit great
dry goods house on Winter street. "I
began life at the very bottom rung of
the ladder, but with a determination
that I would succeed if such a thing
wore posoible with the talent I pos
sessed. Early in life I came to the con
clusion that economy was the first great
essential in establishing a fortune, and
that labor was second. I banished from
my mind all other consideration! when
I began to work upon the road that I
felt sure wou'd load to the goal of which
I was in search. ,
"I remember verv distinctly going
down Marshall street one day and hav
ing my attontlon'attractcd by a most
tempting display in a confectioner's
window, I had what is known as a very
sweet toeth, and;I brought up standing
before the sweet collection as if sud
denly arrested by some irresistible
force, My hand immediately found Us
way to tho pocket that carried my
meager hordings, and before I really
knew what I was doing;! had invested 2
cents in butterscotch. When I got back
into the street I began to have a full
realization of what I had done, and It
is safe to say that no candy ever en
tered a boy's mouth'.that was to little
relished as was my butterscotch. I
regrotted that Investment for years,
and whenever tho t, temptation again
cauio upon mo whlle.'passlng the store I
put it away instantly.
' Keeping oioso to this line of strict
economy, T found myself at last In a
position to go into business. Then,
however, I commenced to feel that
capital alone was po verless in the at
tainment of success unless it was sec
onded by untiring labor. D Here also I
met all the necessary requirements,
frequently devoting 20 hours of the 24
to my business. Gradually I found that
I was amassing a fortuce, and fiaally
established the house which now bears
my name. After I had accomplished
what I started out to do, there came
over me an entire change. I had no
aspirations to become abnormally
"All that I wanted was a safe guar
antee against possible disaster in the
future. I devoted a portion of my time
to the BDjtyiDcnt of life, believing that
I bad earned my rlghi to do so. JNo,
sir, there 1 no use In tilling a boy's
head with ail lh new fangled ideas of
getting rich a they are not practical.
Economy nnd labor are the only ele
ments that enter Into the great plan of
successful business lifo." iloston Her
ald. Home lm!utriM.
Fat cattle wanted at tha Alliance
market, 327 So, ilth St., Lincoln Neb.
Are Vou Oolnji Hast?
Now just tako a word of advice: Ixt
your noxt trip U by tho North-West-crn
Un. IM you think it a louder
rou to to Chicago than tho othr? It la
not. It I shorter, Its equipment in
ferior'? No, theru'a nothing butter.
Truck )e amiHith? Hy n nirn; It U
tticU .t. Tim' longer, and m'i In
eonvt'iit nt alio hu !"litld say
tint, h it Ju-t tUt contrary, if you do
lt'l nt lu h ave a eariv 1 ' p Mi.,
iut tty our "ll iin- Mau's t'hu an
Traltt." having p m , ai rUin
In l'hlci'k'i H,M in- t iiiumina" -In U
Wn lutuia. Ahythlvg wmr with
Dial liuio Uarltfht 'U to M toolf
yxi mutt In hry-n hour front Un
c In; N w Vi forty fmo; l'titi4e.
p i ,i, f 1 1 1 t w i ; W h I o t n, i 'i y t h rv.
I t,eixi ' I'lothlnc h't" ' "t. lns
and li A. X I MIN,
Wit. JIIUI'M N, fit U V t Agt
i:. in rl Aft, HIM! hi.
h xit ! otr H and Kib'tith n t.
hi. Ji iH lUtifl ('. t'arriaiftiuJ
Ilikfltiiaat ! I irtc, t'auligi
aiuf in-lm Uit (r, 1th and ,MtnU
M Jo Mo.
OBTAIN CHICAGO PRICES FOR ALL YOUR
The way to do this is ta ship your Butter, Poultry, Egga, Veal. May, Craln,
Wool, Hides, Beans, Broom Corn, Creen and Dried Fruits, Vegetables, er
anything rou have to us. The fact that rou may save been telling; tbesa articles at Soma
for ears is do rraaon that yon should continue to do to If you can Bud a tatter market. W
make a specialty of receiving ihitiueDis direct from FARMERS AND PRODUCERS,
and probably bave the !ar?cit trad in this way ot aay bouse in this market. Whilst yoa
are looking- around for the cheapest market In which to buy your foods, and thus eoonomla
in in that way, It mil', certainly pay vou to five some attention to the best and most profit
able way of dlipeelog- of your produce. We Invite oorrespor dence from INDIVIDUALS.
ALLIANCES, CLUBS, and all enranizailons who d tire to ship their preduce direct ta
this market. If requested, we will send you free vf charge our daily market report, shipping-
directions and such information as will be of service to you. If yea contemplate shipping-.
When so requested proceeds for shipments will be deposited to the credit of the ship
per with any wholesale bouse ta Cbloag-o, Lot at hear from you, tT-St ,
Summers Morrison & Co.,
COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 174 South Water Street Chicago.
Reference: Metropolitan National Bank, Chicago.
J. W. CASTQR, Othl
i. P. mviif, Vloe-Prea.
THE FARMERS MUTUAL INSURANCE GO.
INBUIIEIS ONIaY FARM PROPEIITY
PARMERS, we invite your attention to the Farmers' Mutual Insurance
Company of Nebraska, If you are In want of Insurance you can not
afford to Insure In any other company, and If you do not want Insurance
now, write and get a copy of our By-laws and Constitution and learn what we
ar doing any way,
Itomomber we are for Farmert only,
Kooiu 4V1 Urace limitllng.
NORTH BEND NURSERIES.
Largs Stock of Best Old
roreat Tree for Clwlma at Low Prlcet.
tablinbed in Wi. Send (or price llat to
ALI EN ROOT, Stock Agent, Nebranka State
rarmert Alliance, uoice ana financial argr.
LIYE SfOCK COMMISSION IBRCHA11IS,
South Omaha, Neb., Room 220 Exchange Building.
Before You Ship Send for the Krket.
p. Iflr.t NatlniiHl llank of Omaha! Packer National Bank. Omaha: Commercial
NaUonnl Bank, Omahai NaUoual Bavlugxaud
17 snippers can a raw iiKniarkii pu ui mr
WESTFALL COM. CO.
State Alliance and well known In Nebraska. Our specialty Car Load Of
Potatoes, Onions, Apples, Cabbage, Hay and Oats. W also
have a heavy game trade In Nebraska and Wyoming. We have an established
trade for all the above mentioned artioes, and by shipping direct to us you will
get all the value there la la the goods. Write for prices and shipping instruc
tions. Reference: Metropolitan National Bank, Kansas City, Mo.
WEST FALL COMMISSION CO.
423 Walnut St., Kansas Cltv Mo.
Will buy a
TWELVE YARD PATTERN
In the New Spring Shades of
Cafe au Lait,
ORDER : SAMPLES.
3S inch Subline Silk Wait, nil Horn, , , , , jj QQ
38 inch All Wool Whip Cord in Change- Ofl
able Colors 0U
-1 inch All Wool Suiting Spring Styles . . JjQ
4i inch All Wool Satin Finish (lorman Hen- Qg
riftta in nil colors
4 inch KnglUh StTjps ChangeaMo Hon..
Saroplfs clii t'i fully wut to out-of-town customor (
H AY D E N BR OS. "" .
CORNER" 7HIRTFENTM AND M STREETS, tINCOlN. NEB.
Thr h'.mht Inw Cai'llol buUdlnf. Li aosil a avatoat m
lWi hui-L l !hjf mw
w. h. LINcS, Seer.
LARGE SUPPLY OF
and New aorta of Strawberry Plants.
Writ for SPtCIAL price on large orders. H
HUM I It liunil nuiHtHIED,
Ninth Kiait. IIimIw Coiatf, BtbiMka.
J. W. Willia,
GKO. g. BROWN,
Kxubanae Bank, Omaha; Central City Bank, Central
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Legal representatives of Kansas
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