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About The farmers' alliance. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1889-1892 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 3, 1891)
THE FAKMKKS AM iTANOE. LINCOLN NEB. THURSDAY, SEPT. H, 189L
ARGUMENT OF C. G. DAWES
DELIVERED AUGUST 13, 1891.
XAnocrapUcallr revolted by Beit S. Bettt.
Mr. Holdrege ef the B. A M. Ry : How about the rate from all the Missouri
towns. The rate from every river towa is the same.
Mr. Dawei: That U for buslnew coming from Chicago to points in the State;
that la the through rate; lam complaining of the disproportion and resulting
discrimination from the difference between the local rates in the state and the
through rates to the State.
Mr. Holdrege of the B. & M. Ry: 1 would like to ask if you think the through
Tates are too low? '
Mr. Dawer I think the through rites are too high. Under all the other rate
systems of this country the rule is reserved with very few exceptions that the
rat decreases proportions tely to the distance because the cost of service decreases
in that proportion. The rate per ton per mile should decrease proportionately
vita the distance of the haul. Now, what is the condition of affairs so far as Ne
braska is concerned? Do they preserve that rule? Do they follow it? Not at
all. They take the through rate per ton per mile to the cities of Lincoln and Om
aha, and then add the local distributing rate, which increases the per ton per
Sue rata after freight leaves the cities of Lincoln and Omaha whether the freight
is shipped directly from Chicago to the interior point or wbetber re-shipped, at
Omaha or Lincoln. Tha theory of decreasing rates per ton per mile Is followed
until they get from Chicago to Lincoln and Omaha and then the local distributing
Tate is added as against the interior portions of the state, making ths through
rate to interior points the sum of the through rate to Lincoln or Omaha plus the
local distributing rate from either of those two cities to the interior point.
Mr. Holdrege: Do you know what the purchaser in Hastings pays for a
farm wagon as compared with the purchaser in Des Moines, Iowa? Or can you
ahow me anything the farmer buys in Hastings and pays more for than in Des
jir. Dawes: When you come to your time for speaking yon can make that
argument if there is anything In it.
Mr. Munroeof the U. P. Ry: Do you thick that a uniform percentage should
govern between first, second, third, fourth and fifth classes, and classes A-B-C-D
and K in all sections of the country? I
Mr. Dawes: Net being acquainted with the conditions which exist in all sec
tions of the country, I certainly should not be foolish enough to attempt to an-
: that question. . ,
Mr. Munroe of the U. F. Ry: Do you think that the man who loans money
in New England ought to get the same rate of interest as the man who loans in
western Nebraska? That Is a parallel case.
Mr. Dawes: I wish you would make that argument to the State Board of
Transportation if you desire. I wish to call the attention of the Board to this
fact: that the argument that we have heard in the past against the lowering of
this class of through rates is this: that the state of Nebraska does a very small
local business and these roads must therefore charge higher on the last end of a
long haul because local business in these districts a so small. Yet I have shown
that this road running through the unsettled portion of the country has a sys
ten of local rates in this state which are practically prohibitive for the sake of
allowing this road a high tariff on the long haul plan on commodities hauled into
the state. They have put such rates In force as prevent the transaction of local
besisess a&4 then claim that because there is no local business, high through rates
most be charged and the rate per ton per mile on the lone haul into the St.te
must be increased as the distanoe increases. I have prepared a set of tables here.
I did not get a notice of this meeting being absent from the city in time to prop
erly prepare this statement for today but I wish to present in a short time to the
Board of Transportation a list of some coo articles taken from the western class!
station tabulated fer Nebraska, into classes 1-2 8-4-5-A-B-C-D E. These com
anodlties whioh I have copied out are those which in my Judgment could be pro
duoed by the citizen of interior Nebraska In competition with the wholesale points
of Chicago, St. Louis and Kansas City. I have also prepared another set of ta
. hies by which the relative discrimination against interior Nebraska in the home
markets of Omaha and Lincoln is shown. These tables show how interior
Nebraska is shut out of the home markets by these unreasonable local rates.
I havo taken the fourth an.4 fifth classes in my preceding illustrations because
they are discriminated against the greatest, and because it is the fourth and fifth
filamrt in which the people of this State are mostly interested. These tables in
clude all classes. Let me read them:
aowimaioR naaaAsa is shut out or thb assT boms marksts orias stats btprq
niaiTiva local rath.
Table showtnr the distanoe from Omaha atwhloh aeitlxenof lnterlolr Nebraska ship,
ybur to Omaha, under the local merchandise tariff, purs the tame rate as a Kansas City ship
par pays to Omaha, 100 miles distant from Kansas City:
1st elaas rate, 40e from Button, Neb., 123 miles to Omaha, against 800 m let Kan. City to Omaha
M " 8&o " Button, ' m " .
Table 4 Kbowln- tae distance from Onaba. Xeb,. at which a elttsea ef le'erlor Jfb.
Sblpptfia- btwea two Nebraska point, uairr the local distance lariS of the C B. A Q. Kj,
pays lb tame raie aa a 01. u ssipper pay w mui, vun ,rwia . wwi
tWrom a point In Keblioto Omaha, ajralnjt 4 miles to Omaha from 8t Louis
Tables Rhowlnr the distance from Lincoln. Neb., at which a citizen of Interior Neb.
(hipping- between two Nebraska point, under tbe local distance tariff of the C, B. Q. By.,
pays me same rat aa a sc. kouu snipper pay 10 uuooin, we nines aiaiaui xruui ou vuuit.
, i:t'o Llnooln.against 488 mile to Lincoln fron St. Louis
uu - -
W " -
I -Q "
14(1 " "
m " -
Table flhnwlnr the distance from Beatrice. Neb., at which a cf'.lien of interior Ne.
shipping between two Nebraska point, uodt-r tbe local distance tariff of tbe C . B. a Q. Ky.,
pays the same rate as a St. Louis chipper pays to Beatrice, 4U mile distant from bX Louis:
SO from point In Neb,
25 I S
TO from a point in Neb., IH6 to Beatrice, against 43njiles to Beatrice fromBLIi.
30 1 1
Table T Showing the distanoe from Omaha, Nebraska, at which a citizen of Interior,
Wh shinnln between two Nebraska point, underthe local district tariff of tbe C B. a Q.
By., pays tbe same rate as a Kansas City or Leavenworth shipper pays to Omaha, 200 miles
d islam Irani Kansas liny
very point on the C B. Q. Une between Kansas City and Omaba takes the Kansas
City rate or loss to Omaha.
Table showing the distanoe from Lincoln at which a citizen of Interior Nebraska ship
pint to Ltneoln, under tbe local merchandise tariff, pays the same rate as a St. Louis shipper
pays to Llnooln, 466 miles distant lrom St. Louis:
let elats frelghLSOof rom Atlanta,Neb.,lM mile to Lincoln, against 466 miles St. Louie to Llnooln
Uvery point on the C, B. ft Q. between Bt. Lout and Lincoln takos the St Louis rate to
Xlnoola or lea.
Table showing the distance from Omaha atwhloh a citizen of Interior Nebraska shin
ning to Omaha, under the local merchandise tariff, pays the same rate as a St. Louis shipper
pays to Omaha, 465 miles distant from St. Louis:
3 St class f relgatSSo from Lowell. Neb., 17 miles to Oman a,agftinst 455 miles St. Louis to Omaha
, Kvery point on the C B. ft Q. Une between St, Louts and Omaha, Nebraska, takes the St
Louis rate or teat to Omaha.
Table showing the distanoe from Omaha at whioh a citizen of Interior Nebraska shlo
pln to Omaba, uudor tbe distributing merchandise rate, pays the same rate as aCMoago,
IlUaola, shipper pays to Omaha, 60S miles distant from Chicago:
Istclass fr'ght,T5o from Dunning.Neb.,865 miles to Omaha .against 5CB miles Chicago to Omaha,
Sd " 600 Bertrand. " 223 "
Bvery point on the C. B. ft Q. Une between Chicago and Omaha In Illinois and Iowa takes
the Chicago rate or leas to Omaha.
Table showing the distanoe from Llnooln at whioh a citizen of Interior Nebraska ship
ping to Lincoln, under tbe distributing merchandise rates, pays the same rate as a Cbioago
shipper pays to Lincoln, 642 miles distant from Cbioago:
1 st elaas rate, 80e from H yannts, Neb., 808 ir.iles to Ltnool n, against MS miles Chicago to Llnooln
th " 810 "
Mh -' stic -
B " SHO
C " 230 "
" D 8040"
" B " ISO "
Bvery point .on the C..B. ft Q. Une between Chicago and Llnooln, Nebraska. In Illinois and
Iowa takes the Chicago rate or less to Llnooln.
STABLBS SROWIBO TBI TJRBBASOHABLBRCRS OF THB LOCAL MISTARCB TARITV RATI8 WHI
OOMPABBD W1TB TBB THROUOB BATBS TO TBB STATE FROM OUT81BB POIRT.
Table 1 Showing the distance from Omaha, tt wMh ,uu.n n .-i. v.v..l.
hipping between two Nebraska points, under the local distance tariff of the C, B. ft O. Hy ,
pays tbe same rate as a Chicago, Illinois, shipper pays to Omaha, 606 miles distant from
Frelrht. Cts. Miles.
Jt class 76 from a point In Neb., 220 to Omaha, against 60S miles to Omaha from Chicago
3d " 42 "110 "
4th " 80 " 75
6th " 25 " 75 '
ClassA 80 165
" B 25 1M0 "
" C 20 " 170 "
" D 17 " 840
" B 16 " 380 u ., ..
Table S-Sbowlng the distanoe from Lincoln. Neb at which a citizen of interior Neb.
Shipping between two Nebraska points, under the local distance tariff nf tha r Bin u.
J?? tb me nta M a Cbioago, IlUnoia, shipper pays to Llnooln, 648 miles distant from
- - C "
80 from a point in Neb., 870 to Lincoln,agalnst 512 miles to Llnooln from Chicago
TleB Shewing the distanoe from Beatrice, Neb., at which a citizen of interior Neb.
eMpptotr t.Hween two Nebraska points, ander the local distanoe tariffl of the C B. ft Q. Ry.,
fWithiSjM rate as a Caloage, lUlnols, shipper pays to Beatrice, 588. miles distant frorn
Su from a point ia Neb., 860 te Beatrice, against 582 miles to Beatrice from Chi'go
64 " 170 "
tt : - ire -
at - 160 ,
SS " 840 " .
81 860 " " "
Jt " 8M0 , " " m
8814 " 86) " "
Q W aW M M
sight. Cts . . Miles. .. . . .
istclass 40 f tm a point in Neo., in to umana against zoo miles Kansas city to umana.
2d 85 - " 5
3d 26 " 66 .. ...
4th 23 65 "
6th "19 " 60 "
ClassA 17 " 65 " " "
B 13 " u
C II 70 " " "
D S ' 90 " " "
E 1 " .140 ...
The rates from Kansas City and Leavenworth to Omaha are the same as the rate from
Kansas City and Leavenworth to Llnooln (237 mile from Kansas City) and Beatrioe.
Just think of the abstract unreasonableness of these fourth and fifth class rates.
From Crete to Hastings is about 77 miles, and tbe shipper from Crete to Hastings
under the fifth class rate would pay as high a fourth or fifth class rate as the ship
per from Chicago to Omaha, 608 miles.
Auditor Benton: Hew would it be on brick shipped in Nebraska as compared
with brick shipped in Iowa?
Mr. Dawes: I can not tell you, sir; I have made no comparison on brick. I
am speaking of local distance tariff rates. .
Auditor Benton: How is it with hay .'and straw f
Mr. Dawes: Those are shipped under the commodity tariff.
Auditor Benton: They are shipped locally are they notr
Mr. Dawes: Not to any large extent. There is hay in this state shipped from
one point to another occasionally.
Auditor Benton: Don't you know that there were over 600 cars of stone ship
ped from Weeping Water to Lincoln.
Mr. Dawes-. I am very glad to hear it, and I came here to argue the import
ance of the local distance tariff rates in the State of Nebraska. I think with you
that Ihe local business done is much larger in proportion to the through business
than has been stated by these gentlemen. They have said it is 10 per cent and
my belief is that the local business of this state bears a proportion of at least 30
to 85 per cent of the total business done in the State oti through rates. If that is
not the case, these roads here are great exceptions to the general rule. The
larger tho local shipments in the State, the more important it is for us to get fair
and equitable local rates In the state.
Auditor Benton: Isn't the local rate in Nebraska lower than it is in Iowa?
Mr. Dawes: I wish you would make your argument to your colleagues on
the State Board of Transportation and show that, i would be glad to hear about
it from you.
In this matter of distributing rates, the through rates to interior Nebraska
points which Chicago, Omaha and Lincoln enjoy are the same. Now, if a man
wants to start in the wholesale business in interior Nebraska, in order to compete
with the Chicago, Omaha and Lincoln wholesalers, he must ship under something
else than the local distance tariff for the reason that the sum of the through rate
from Chicago or St. Louis to whatever point it is in Nebraska in which he desires
to start a wholesale business plus the local distance tariff rate to the point in
which he desires to sell his goods would be more than the through rates from
Chicago to that point direct, or more than the sum of the rates from Chicago to
Omana or Lincoln plus the distributing rates to that point. Therefore, in ad
dition to these general discriminations against points in Interior Nebraska
in home markets, we see another discrimination against these points in the mat
ter of distributing business. We see that the rate system we hnve in Nebraska is
Interfering with the natural growth and development of the State. For not only
ls.lt impossible to ship from the interior portions of Nebraska to the home mark,
ets of the State becanse of the unjust proportion existing between through' and
local rates, but it is Impossible for the most of the smaller towns to do any whole
saling to any point west. Take a great many ot the towns in the State, such as
York, for instance. York can have no wholesale business, and it has practically
no home market in the State to which to ship its products.
And this general discrimination against the State of Nebraska is something
in which the citizens of Omaha imd Lincoln are just as much interested as the
people in the interior of the State. For it is a very short-sighted policy which
holds that a policy of rate charging detrimental to the best interests of Nebraska,
is beneficial to its two largest cities. This long haul theory is an old theory.
Yet I have never heard the long haul theory urged against rates of Nebraska be
fore. The object of these discriminations however is plainly to carry out the long
haul plan. Why should the local fourth and fifth class rates be raised so far out
of proportion to first class rates if it is not that the railroad companies do not de
sire business done between local points on these classes? The people look to you
gentlemen, as servants of the people employed to protect their interests for such
protection ia these local rates as will give them a chance to do business in the
home markets of the State. I trust, gentlemen, that you are willing to do your
duty and act on your best judgment for the interests of the people in this section
of God's country. I ask you not to make up your judgment solely by a compari
son of the rates of this State with the rates of Colorado, Dakota, Kansas or Iowa,
and decide that because Iowa has so many people to the square mile, so many
miles of railroad and is in those regards ahead of Nebraska, therefore you should
not change the Nebraska rates. Is that the basis upon which these rates schedu
les are formed and upon which which these rates are figured? Not at all; and in
no way can the absurdity of that style of argument which we have heard so much
before this State Board of Transportation and before the railroad committees in
charge of railroad legislation in no way can the absurdity of it be better illus
trated than to take the State of South Dakota, which is as far behind the State of
Nebraska as Nebraska is behind Iowa, and find that in Dakota the local rates are
better to-day than the local rates of Nebraska.
Mr. Munroe: How do you account for the fact that Dakota is so much be
hind Nebraska in prosperity if she has the local rates very much better than the
Statu of Nebraska; and would not that dispute your statement that the reduction
of rates is the only thing necessary for greater prosperity?
Mr. Dawes: I have never claimed that low railroad rates are the only basis
of prosperity. I am willing to concede this point however: That very often the
abstract rate charged does not make so much difference. Take, foi instance, the
case of Lincoln here and what a great commotion was raised when the differen
tial from Chicago on first class rates between Lincoln and Omaha was 10 cents,
when that rate was 65 cents to Omaha and 75 cents to Lincoln. What was the
reason? That was because there was a discriminatory rate against Lincoln; be
cause she could not get into the interior portions of the State with a wholesale
business on a par with Omaha upon a ten cent differential. You gentlemen of
Nebraska railroads have seen fit within the last year to make a general advance
on rates and you have raised the first class rate to Lincoln and Omaha both 10
cents, and yet you do not hear any complaint from Lincoln and Omaha? Now
it is because of an outrageous discrimination that these complaints are largely
made against the local rate system of the State. I do not for a moment admit
and I expressly deny, that these local rates are reasonable in themselves, consid,
ered abstractly, but I do say that in addition to being unreasonably high, they
are outrageous because they discriminate against the interior development of the
State in favor of eastern Iowa, Chicago and other outside points.
Mr. Munroe: I understand you to say that the roads were doing what they
could to crush the inf-nt industries of Nebraska?
Mr. Dawes: I simply stated that the local rates of this State were so formed
that infant industries had no chanco to develop as against outside competition
Mr. Munroe : Do you knew that one of the most prominent industries started
i n this State in the last few years is the manufacture of beet sugar?
Mr. Dawes: I have no doubt that you have given commodity rates, and are
willing to give commodity rates to such an establishment as a beet sugar factory,
but yl)u are singling out one location in the state, and my point is this: Taking
the general system of rates as a whole you are rendering impossible the proper
development ef interior Nebraska, and I say that such a general system is wrong
and unjust and unreasonable. The fact that you have dealt justly with one com
modity is no reason why you shall not deal justly with all.
There is just one other matter which I want to call the attention of the Board
to and that is an important matter. The State Board of Transportation an
nounced that the Chicago, Burlington and Qulncy Railroad, which it took as a
fair representative of the Nebraska roads, was earning only about 5.09 per cent
upon its cost What does that 5.09 per cent represent? They report it as the
percentage formed by dividing the net earnings by the cost of the road. Does
that represent their measure of prof ts? Not at all. It represents the measure
of profits not even on the watered stock. How then do we determine the ability
of the road to stand ft reduction in rates unless we determine what its rates of
profits are. Admitting merely for the sake of argument that a reduction of rates
means a reduction In earnings yon have found that the Chicago, Burlington and
Quincy Railroad company's earnings for three years, which include the "strike
year" when tbe earnings were cut down to about one-half tbe usual amount, aver
aged 5.09 per cent. Now, just so tong as this Board confuses and mingles the :
very low earnings which the railroad bond holder has upon his Investment with !
the very high earnings which the railroad stockholder has upon the intrinsic value
of his investment, so long as this Board refuses to look into the relation of the
bond issue of tbe road to the cost of the road, and the relation of the interest paid
upon bonds to the earnings made from the proceeds of those bonds, just so long
will this Board cut itself out of the right to act in these premises or ever make a
reduction of local rates in this State.
Now. as n"t be admitted. betwfo the rights of innocent stockholders and
the citizens of Nebraska, also innocent, the rights of the citizens of Nebraska msst
prevail. Yet we claim that in assuming that a reduction of the local rates in this
State would reduce the earnings of tbe road, the railway officials beg the ques
tion. It is very doubtful if the increase ia the local business of the stato, which
would result from fair and equitable living rates, would not increase the tonnage
ot the road so much as to mike that reduction in the long run profitable. Rela
tive to this long haul theory, I will say that before I came west I lived in a coun
try where we had the opportunity of seeing the full benefits to be received from
its application. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad proceeded on that plan to
make the most they could for the time being without regard to the future of the
country in which they operated, and the result is the Baltimore and Ohio rail
road for a long distance on its line runs to-day through a wilderness. Contrast
the condition of tbe Baltimore and Ohio with the Pennsylvania road which has
developed tbe local business along its system, and see bow much better the con
dition of the latter road is, which runs through a country not very much better,
so far a natural resources are concerned, than that of the Baltimore and Ohio.
I talked with a gentleman in New York the other day who had some Nebras
ka four percent extension bonds of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad
which he had purchased at eighty cents. What is the re a? on be was able to get
those bonds so cheap? It is because the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad
is being operated to-day on the long haul theory, and has built away up in the
northwestern portion of this state a line of road along which there is little ccun
try which can do a local business, with the sole idea of getting through business.
They have encumbered their road since Dec. 13, 1885, with a bonded indebted
enss of about $35,000,000 with a consequent increase in fixed charges, yet the net
earnings are less with all this increase in mileage and fixed charges to-day than
they vrere in 1885. The reason is because trusting to the long haul theory and striv
ing simply for a through businees, they have built in a country where they have
little local business even agriculturally. And following out the theory upon
which these lines were built and discriminating against all local business in the
State to-day, they are making the same mistake on the rest of the lines that they
made on the Cheyenne and New Castle line when they built them.
Mr. Kelley cf the U. P. Ry.: Your argument is that no road ought to ex
tend its line into or through a western country?
Mr. Dawes: I simply use these facts as illustrating that the C.B. &Q. Ry.
is operated ou the long haul theory. If you want me to pass upon a railway
prospectus running some three or four hundred miles into the western states,
with but a few minutes thought on the subject, I will not attempt to answer such
a question in so short a time certainly not until you told me the nature of the
western country into which you would build.
Mr. Kelley : Do you believe that it is right for the State Board of Transpor
tation to adopt the policy which you have been arguing and shut out railroad
building in western Nebraska?
Mr. Dawes: You beg the question and assume that the reduction of local
.rates in this state would deorease the earnings of the r?ad. I say that that is an
assumption which you have yet to prove, and I tell you now that my belief is that
tho next local rate agitation will be from the bond holders as well as from tne
farmers of Nebraska. bond holders who discover that the road is being opera
ted on a short sighted policy based upon the idea evidently that the road will
prosper whether the country through which it runs prospers or not
Secretary Allen: Do I understand you to say that It is your opinion that the
the bond holders of the C. B. & Q , are dissatisfied with the earnings of the road
at this time?
Mr. Dawes: Very greatly, yes, sir, as well as the stock holders of the road.
And they are largely dissatisfied with the earnings, not so much because of the
reduction in gross earnings, but because of reduction in net earnings caused by
increase in the fixed charges.
Mr. Holdrege: Is there no reduction of gross earnings?
Mr. Dawes: Yes sir, there has been, but they attribute that to natural caus
es, and the other reductiton they attribute to bad management. (Laughter.) I
mean nothing personal at all, Mr. Holdrege.
Auditor Benton: If there is so much complaint as you seem to think there
is in regard to the rate question, why is it that some of these parties have not
filed a complaint with this Board, as they have the right to do. During my mem
bership of the Board during the past three years there has never been a com
Mr. Dawes: If they have had as much experience with railroad men in this
Stato as I have, they know they are pretty sharp, well equipped men, and they
know just as well as I know that they will have to meet statistics drawn from
sources to which they have no access. They know how how it affects them like
ly, but what can the farmer of Nebraska get up and tell you about the financial
conditional these railroads. It is out of the question to suppose that the man
who has a greviance at a particular place, in order to convice you of this griev
ance and obtain relief has got to come up here and go into a scientific dissertation
on the relation of the government to railway corporations.
Auditor Benton: He don't have to come up here. Hew was it with the
Stromsberg elevator case? It was not necessary for them to come. They simp
ly filed a complain, and found relief. What do we find here to-day? Do we
find a farmer? No, we find an attorney fron Lincoln.
Mr. Dawes: I am free to say that the members of this State Board of Trans
portation, the most of them, hare been elected upon platforms demanding the
reduction of local rates in this state, and it is a duty they owe the people which
they have outrageously neglected.
Mr. Holdrege: Where are the people?
Mr. Dawes: I think you will find out where the people are in the course cf
time. I tell you gentlemen of the Board of Transportation that the refusal of
this Board to regulate rates is a refusal on their part to uphold the interests of
the people of Nebraska, and when I urge upon you the necessity of a reduction
of rates with due attention to the interests of the people of interior Nebraska,
as against outside competing points I simply urge upon you a duty as apparent
as the Sun is in day time. If this State Board of Transportation will do its duty
in this matter, and make its investigation as it ought to make it, it would be sat
isfied as every investigating man has been satisfied that our local rates are too
I will say to you Mr. Auditor Benton that it is a good deal better for you to
make this investigation right here at home than it is riding in special cars to the
Pacific coast at the expense of the railroads. (Laughter.)
Auditor Benton : I guess you would ride too if you had the chance.
Mr. Dawes: Not if I was drawing a salary as a State officer and a member
of the Board of Transportation and was paid by the people to stay at home and
protect their interests, and do my duty.
Kentucky Once More.
We are of the opinion that August 3
is the most important date since recon
struction times. Upon that day it
adopted a constitution which makes the
Australian ballot system the law of that
commonwealth. It also cast over 25,-
000 votes for tbe peoples party and
elected a farmers' legislature. This
marks an epoch in the history of the
state. It must be classed among th
sensations of the day that a southern
state should so far break its democratic
phalanx as to give a new party a place
in the great contest that is nowfp.iily
under way in this republic.
No one not acquainted with the situa
tion can appreciate what it means to be
a political reformer in Kentucky. A
member of the national committee of
the people's party from the East remain
ed in Kentucky on election in order to
better understand the situation there.
In order to avoid a riot the people's par
ty contingent of the city which he visited
went to the polls at six a. m. in a body,
and were the first to deposit their bal
lots, after which they hastened to their
homes. Think of a state where voters
must resort to sich expedients to avoid
After all hai been said about a light
vote and a solid democracy, it appears
that the total vote wrs heaviest ever cast
in the stale except for president in 1888.
The democratic vote is lighter than any
vote except in 1887. The prohibition
vote has dropped from 8,394 In 1887 to
about 4.300 this yar. The people's
party, as the Louisvillo Courier-Journal
admits, "ia the onlv third party that has
polled a respectable vote since the war."
Houses to rent or sell on monthly
payments by J. Stevenson with J. H.
MeMurtry, corner ot Eleventh and M.
It is not generally realized that there
are in this country literally millions of
lakes which are available for water
f Arming; in size all the way from
mere ponds to the great inland seas
of fresh water. In Illinois alone there
are tens of thousands of lakes, and
hundreds of thousands moie can be
There are in Illinois many extinct
lakes, which can easily be transformed
into sheets of water by the simplest
means. All the enormous "Lake
Plan," as it is known to geologists,
comprising Wisconsin, Minnesota, and
Michigan, north of the Ohio River, is
dotted with countless sheets of water,
conditions beingfavorable forcreating
many more by sucli inexpensive
artifices as the damming of streams
iJy damming at intervals, every
creek and rivulet can be made to form
artificial lakes. Even the vast arid
region, the, "Great Desert" of the
West, is specked all over with mul
titudes of extinct lakes which can be
filled once more and made to teem
with life, as they once did.
Why Jenny Llnd Left tha Stage.
Once an English friend found her
sitting on the steps of a bathing
machine on the sands with a Lutheran
Bible open on her knee, and looking
out into the glory of a sunset that
was shining over the waters. They
talked, and the talk drew near to the
inevitable question, "Oh, Madame
Goldschmidt, how was it that you
ever came to adandon tbe stage at
the very height of your success?
"When, every day," was the quiet
answer, "it made me think less of this"
(layina a finger on the Bible) "and
nothing at all of that" (pointing out
to tbe sunset), "wnateisecouia ldor
A "TEH THIRTY." ,.
A Te!eraDhwsi Story of How He
Won a Husband for a Sweet Girt
After "30" comes and the "early
morning" is in tbe press, operators
gather at one of the all-night resorts
and t-lk 'speriences.
The other morning they were joined
by an old timer, who after listeningto
episodes in the careers of the young
knights of the keys, was asked to re
late the most interesting event in his
experience as a telegrapher.
"It was a good many years ago,
he said, after a moment's reflection.
when I was not so old as I am now,
and perhaps more sentimental, that
won a husband for a girl. I was an
operator then in a town out in Ohio.
I hadn't much to do, and I used to sit
in the window a good deal to watch
the people on the station platform of
the railroad. One day I caught sight
of a young man and a young woman
who were in earnest conversation.
He was dressed for traveling and was
evidently waiting for the next train.
As the time for the arrival of the
train drew near the young man seemed
to become desperate, for he paced up
and down the platform, nervously,
talking very rapidly.
"Then the train came gliding in. I
saw the girl shake her head, and he
said something which made her turn
pale. The train had again started
and he climbed up the car steps with
out turning to look back. She gave a
little cry, but he did not hear it; his
train was gone.
"It was two days after this that the
young woman came into the telegraph
office with a white face and red-tinged
eyelids. She came up to me and spoke
rapidly in a frightened whisper.
" 'I want you to send a telegram,'
she said. 'You must send it right
away. It's to New York, and it must
be delivered before 4 o'clock this after
noon.' "She was trying to write, but her
fingers trembled so that she could not
guide the pencil.
" 'Let me write it,' I said.
"'O, thank you,' she anwered, and
then she gave me the address. There
were just two words in the message:
'"Can you get it there before 4
o'clock?' she asked breathlessly. 'You
must. He will leave, his hotel then to
catch a steamer.' Her voice faltered
"I'm afraid not,' I said. 'The dif
ference in time, you know, makes it
hard work to do that.'
' 'Oh,' she cried, 'I forgot about the
difference in time. What shall I do?'
'"Send two,' I said, all the while
working on my key to get my wire.
'Send one to the hotel and one to the
"She was cryin2 now so that I
could not hear her answer, but I knew
what she wanted. I never worked so
hard before or since to get messages
through. And all the while that poor
girl watched my fingers with a look in
her eyes that made me vow I'd get
them through if work could do it.
" 'When I turned around finally she
drew a long breath.
" 'Well.yi said, 'they are gone,' and
I looked at the clock. This made her
"She would not leave the office, and
as the minutes slipped away I began
to feel the dread that was reflected in
her eyes. I knew that the steamer
must have started now. I felt as if I
had committed murder, but was silent
and pale. Only her look was re
proachful as if I had failed her.
"Finally it came. There was a click
and a flash of color was in her cheeks.
"What is it?' she said. 'Quick!
what is it?'
" 'It is for youI'Ishouted.like a boy
that I was; 'hurrah! he's coming,' for
I was so excited that I forgot to give
her the message. 1
"Then I wrote it out for her: 'I'm
coming. God bless you. I was on the
steamer.' She cried over that bit of
yellow paper, and I think that the
hulking country boy who gave it to
her had a choking in the throat, too.
"Well, there was a wedding a short
while after that. The only one I
knew in the party was the bride. You
know how I met her. But thecountry
operator was at that wedding, and
when the bridegroom grasped my hand
he shook it in a way that hurt. He
sent me a letter from the East after
ward asking me to come on and go
into a big telegraph office, where lie
had secured a place for me." Star
LIFE IN NEW ZEALAND.
There Is Not a More Highly Favored
Land on the Earth.
Professor George M. Grant, writing
of New Zealand in the August number
of Harper's Magazine sa-s:
"One is tempted to ask, for what
other spot has the Almighty done so
much? For nowhere is there a fairer
land. Nowhere is labor more sweet,
or recreation more shared in by all
classes. Every township has its park,
race course, and play ground; the
cities have these and everything else
that can be imagined. Picnics are
universal. The long summers and
bracing winters make open air amuse
ments delightful. Sports are taken
up eagerly, from coursing matches
oyer rough ground and pig stalking to
cricket, foot ball and volunteering.
From the beginning generous pro
visions was made for schools and
colleges, the people in the South
Islands especially having the spirit
of the men who colonized New Eng
land. No one with eyes in his head
can fail to see that the New Zealand
er of today is laying the foundations
of a mighty state though he may not
be able to believe that one of his
decendants is likely to sit on abroken
arch of London Bridge and sketch the
ruins of St. Paul's."
A Scientific' Deduction.
" 'Dr. Dowd,' read Mr. Weary Wat
kins, 'has found that each cubic incb
of soil contains from 69,000 to 2,
250,000 my-noot o-r, or, g-a-n, gan,
i-s-m-s, organisms, - Wat's a organ
"A organism," replied Mr. Hungry
Higeins, in an aggravating tone of
intellectual superiority, "is a livin'
critter, of course."
"If them figgers is right, what a
travelin' menagerie you must be!"
replied Mr. Watkins. Indianapolis
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