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About The farmers' alliance. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1889-1892 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 27, 1891)
THE FAIlMElfiS ALLIANCE, LINCOLN, NEB., THURSDAY , AUGUST 27, 1891.
C. G. DAWES
DELIVERED AUGUST 13, 1891.
etcBCfrsphictllr reponri ty Bert K. Betu.
Tkt Hoard of Transoortation of Xtbrasla met at the Slate Capital n the after
aam ot Juoust 13. 1891, to gain information upon the local rates ofXebraika, Mr.
rknmat H. Rtni. Auditor of State being
had been transacted by the
I appear before you to-day in response to the general Invitation requesting
any one believing that the local rates charged by the railroads in this State are to j
Vnrh u, DDear and state the reasons for his belief. I am one of those citizens of
KabntsVa who believe that the present
rating to prevent the internal development of the resources of the 6tate, and to
the great Injury of the business which the Interior portion 01 me Diaie is bow en
deavoring to transact in the home markets of the state.
Mr. Deireese, attorney of the B- f M.
lo the Mirer of the board to hear argument
uroumeni they intend to male a finding of
the F. E-4 M. V. By., and Mr. Beley, attorney for the V. P. By., also spoke upon
this question. After consultation the Board notified Mr. Dawes to proceed with his
In the annual report for 1890 of the
port on maximum freight rates, I find it
in Nebraska extend over so wide a stretch of territory, reaching into inose sec
tions supplying a very small traffic, as well as into sections supplying a very con
siderable traffic, that a tariff of rates
basis declared just in the resolution of the Board, would answer fully as well for all
other lines in the State." I think that this statement of the State Board of Trans
portation is correct, and therefore in pursuing the investigations which I have
made, I have taken the C. B. 4c Q. railroad rates (which are practically the same,
so far as the local rates and their relation to the through rates throughout the
State are concerned, as those of other roads) and will make my argument upon
the tariff sheets of that road as a basis, the local distance tariff sheet and the
through tariff schedules.
Now, I state to the Board as a matter of opinion, for which I will show the
reasons, that the rates of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad are mode
for two purposes: First: To foster and encourage such. internal industries in the
State as produce commodities for a distant market upon which they can get the
long haul, at the highest tariff which the traffic will bear. Second: To prohibit or
render imposible such internal industries in the State as have a tendency to pro
duce commodities for home markets, which the railroads are now hauling in
from outside markets at high rates for the long haul.
I will endeavor to show you that the local rates of this state, which have not
been changed since November 1st, 1887, are not rates made to do business upon,
but they are rates made by which to prevent business. In all through tariff rates
made to the eastern portions of the State of Nebraska and in the tariffs made by
railroads all over the United States-the different classes of freight bear a regu'ar
proportion to each other, the second class rate being such a proportion of the
first class rate, and third, fourth and fifth class rates also bearing a uniform
proportion to the first class rate, Now, I shall show you that under the local
schedule of the C. B. & Q. railroad company they proceed to take the classes of
freight, under which I shall show you the most of the commodities of this State
are shipped, and arbitrarily raise these classes. In other words, I shall show
you, not only a general discrimination against the internal development of Ne
braska on all classes of freight by means of high local rates, but I shall show you
a discrimination against those classes of freight under the local distance tariff in
Nebraska in which the people of this State as producers are most interested.
c In order that I may answer this argument, that because the State of Nebras
ka is not Interested la local rates to the extent that it is in through rates, and
that therefore It does not make any difference to the people of this State what
rates we have for our products from one point in the State to another point in
the state, provided we have a living through rate an argument which so many
of these railroad gentlemen have urged in the past to the effect we are interested
only la through rates I wish to read you a list of articles which I have collated
from the western classification, the majority of which the interior portion of
this State is fitted to produce as against outside competition. The interior portion
of the State of Nebraska is qualified to produce these articles, which I ahull read,
for the home markets of the eastern part of the State as against r''ir.iA &
r nt. t i .ti . vnicago, as
be fate, to them into the home markets of H Sfate 2nd In reading
long list I shall Answer the objection that the people of this State are not inte.
J!tCu in the local rates except upon the articles shipped under commodity rates.
I will now read a list of commodities shipped under (mirth and fifth class
which could be produced for home markets by Interior Nebraska with fair local
rates, but which are now discriminated against by lecal ntes to an extont prac
WESTERN CLASSIFICATION EXHIBIT "A."
Commodities shipped under fourth and fifth clasnes of freight which could
Tor nome mavaeis ny interior NeDraska with fair local rates, But which are
ated against by local rates which are praotloally prohibitive:
Flax meal. Peas,
Flour paste in barrels, Pickled bladders
Animal food in boxes, Glue In barrels,
Glucose, grape and glucose Roneatth,
syrup. Bone dust.
Glucose refuse and eugarmeal Common brick,
Glue stock in bbls. or uhds. Pressed brink.
Grease in barrels. Building paper,
Handles (wood) N.O.S. orated Butter crocks and
nnraiwB uu soap,
Harrow teeth in parrels,
Butter tubs and
1 MMr maie,
Earthenware chimneys in see- Paper bottles,
tions. Baking powder,
Egg box stuff In bundles or Sausage,
racks, Meat sausage.
Egg carrier filling. K. D. Leather scraps,
Felt paper. Shoe blacking,
Felt pipe covering, Stamped ware,
oiraw paper lor carpel lining, w aste.
Catsup in tin cans boxed,
Window and fixtures boxed,
maewaik uie cement,
Cracklings in packages,
Crockery in crates, casks
Axle rrease In boxes.
Beans In barrels.
Dried beef in crates,
Cabbages in orates.
Potatoes in sacks.
Turnips in sacks,
Hogs dressed. "
Hoofs and horns,
Horse aud mule shoes,
Jelly In tin cans,
Lard In cans boxed or crated. Blue grass seed,
Lettuce in bulk,
Oil cake meal.
Meats, N. O. 6.
Meat. N. O. B.
Canned meats. -
Printed wrapping paper,
Meat preserving salt,
Scouring materials, "
Vegetables, dried or dessi-
Eggs, condensed in cans,
Felt pipe eo ering,
Glucose, grape and glucose
Harness oil soap,
Heirs' hair and plastering,
Horse and mule shoes,
1 win net. weary tne uoaru py reading mem au over, cut here are some
150 commodeties which this Statu is fitted naturally to produce for the
home markets of the eastern portion of
shut out of by unjust and discriminatory
velopment of interior Nebraska to the
I wish to show you how these classes of
rested, the fourth and fifth classes, are
tance tariff as compared with fourth and fifth classes under the through tariffs
from outside points to the 3tate. In order to get at this comparison I have takea
about thirteen Nebraska points and the
go, and ascertained the percentage which
class rate, and which the fifth class rate
I will read the tables:
chairman of the meeting. After tome pre-
Board Mr, Datret said:
schedule of local rat s in this 6lat is ope
By., here interposed and quoted law relative
not given under oath if after hearing such
fact as to rates. Mr. Havley, attorney for
State Board of Transportation, in its re
stated, "The Burlington system of lines
adjusted for its lines in Nebraska, on the
Pickled nigs' feet,
Planter N. O.
Potatoes N O. 8.
jars boxed. Potted meat.
Leather scrap in boxes or bbls
Straw wrapping paper.
Walltitilsh.N. O. 8.
Butter hermetically sealed.
muiercoior In DDIS.
Ftlt for caT.et lining.
Cracklings In packages.
Beans in sacks or barrels,
Pickles, 1 In wood
Catsup, I and tin
Horseradish, cans or
Preserves, in glass
Jelly, f packed In
Fruit butter, boxes or
Mince Meat, I barrels.
the State, but which I will show they are
local rates, which are prevontisir the de
benefit of these outside wholesale points,
goods in which the people are most inte
discriminated against under the local dis
through rates to these points from Chica
the fourth class rate bears to the first
bears to tne nrst class rate.
Tablet bowlnr ratf v tloerinlnafioM of
mlut fourth and Sfth clan fr4rkt aa cod pared wlta fnurta and ink eiaaf frclffet (hipped
umtw la tkrourb f rrtttt Unf f r litcaro to Kebnuka pntnu.
tint tab tttovlnr itw inmr relata of faurth and fifth r uwa frrlpbt to flrat class
rrela-ht anw IB liirouf k tariff cl lb C. b. k
Cfelcafo lrat e!iH Fourth claai fifth rlaat etana rata of elaxa rate of
to ratn. rata. rate. latclaatrata latelaaarale
Omaha, T& to .) .
L'Tooin. W 34 i .42 .85
raJrmont, 1 10 'A 4 .60 .41
Harvard, 1 M 60 .t .41
Haattcr. 1 SS 60 61 .4; 41)
Krarm-T. 1 to & ,5i 44
India no la, 14 K2 71 .55 44
Waboo. tO 84 A SH .4S .35
toward, 1 UO 47 37 .47 .37
York. 1 10 M so .41
Grand laland, 1 IS ff hi .47 41
Broken Bow, 1 4 77 of I45
Beatrice, W 42 .47 M
Arena percentage which fourth claw rate
from Cotest-a, 47 fH3 per cent.
',mf !wmS which fifth ciasa t rcijit
uu-in Rom rtieagt), 4U per cent.
Second table bowing' the average relation
f relfht under the local diatanoe tariff of the C.
Average percentage which fourth class rate is
local distance tariff
AS against the through tariff average of preceding table 47 9-13 per cent
Average percentage which fifth class rate is of
local distance tariff
As (gainst the through tariff average of preceding- tabic 40 per cent
Thus we see that this railroad company, in order to prevent the supplying of
borne markets by the interior of the state,
into the state under the through rates,
classes out of their usual proportion to
additional burden on fourth and fifth class
1 will now show you the relation of that
of the State. I have indicated on this chart what portion of the State of Nebraska
can compete in the home markets of Nebraska as against Chicago, Kansas City and
Umana on these very products rbich I
and fifth class freight.) I do this in order
against the citizens of interior Nebraska
home markets. I will state in the first
ndicate the distance on the proper scale
608 miles by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad, yet I have drawn a
curved line around the city of Omaha which represents about the limit of the area
where fourth and i'fth class shippers in interior Nebraska can ship into Omaha
at equal rates with Chicago; that circium
the city of Omaha. No man in the State
that little circle, a distance at all points
pete on fourth and fifth class freight with Chicago 508 miles away from Omaha,
the best home market of Nebraska. Look what a tremendous discrimination
against the development of interior Nebraska upon fourth and fifth class rates is
presented by that circle! Take the fourth and fifth class rates from St. Louis
and Kansiis City to Omaha and see how far they will carry freight under fourth
and fifth class rates of the local distributing tariff. You will find it is 108 ni'les. You
will find that any citizen of Nebraska living at a distance of 108 miles from the
city of Omaha pays as high a rate on fourth and fifth class freight to Omaha as is
paid by the St. Louis shipper to Omaha 455 miles away. And this is the local
rate system of the state which they uphold here and say is reasonable. A system
whicli is bringing even the lighter farm products of Iowa into Nebraska home
markets as against the domestic shipper in the interior of the state. Take the
city of Lincoln and draw a circle around it with a radius of 125 miles, aid not a
man outside of that area in the State of Nebraska can fairly compete as against
the Chicago shipper on fourth and fifth class freight in Lincoln, the second best
home market of the state. 125 miles a? against 543 miles from Chicago
to Lincoln, and remember that every man on the C. B. & Q. railroad between
Chicago and Omaha and Chicago and Lincoln gets the Chicago rate or less than
tne umcago rate!
Are you, gentlemen of the Board, to
of Iowa, for the benefit of tho Kansas City shipper, for the benefit of the Chicago
shipper, and for the benefit of the St. Louis shipper, as against the interests of
the citizens of interior Nebraska?
Secretary of State Allen: Take some certain article and give u an illustra
tion by comparison of shpments to Lincoln.
Mr. Dawes: I have read here 150 articles. I will state again, however, some
of the articles upon which this discrimination against the interior shipper is found.
I read here articles shipped fourtto and fifth class: (Mr. Dawes then re-read a
portion of the list of commodities given before.) I have the list if these gentlemen
wish to inform themselves upon the oemmodities. !
Auditor of State Benton: Do I understandyou io"say tiat jelly iniasses is
a fourth and fifth class article?
Mr. Dawes: -Yob, Jt depend upon the way it is packed of course. Some
times n goes unaer other classes when packed differently.
Secretary of State Allen-. Do I understand that you are stating the case
of the Lincoln jobber?
Mr. Dawes: I am simply stating my
lieve however that the future prosperity
velopment of the interior of the State.
ing to do with the shipments from Lincoln out, but I am speaking of the man
who ships into Lincoln and wishes to use Lincoln as a home market, and ship
these different goods into a home market. The interest which the farmers of Ne
braska have in the building up of home markets is very great. On many of the
farm products as I will show you by my tables the farmer is discriminated against
in his own home markets by these exhorbitant local rates. I know that so far
out as Burlington on tho C. B. & Q. railroad in Iowa men are shipping cheese in
here. We want such a local rate system in this state that the internal develop
ment of the State may be encouraged rathei than retarded by the rates. I take
it the position of Mr. lloldrege is that they will give the rates as fast as we get
the factories. I say make living rates first and the factories and other industries
will spring up afterward. If the stato of Nebraska, through its Board of Trans
puliation is going to assume that because
pany they will send their men around to look up thesa little industries in the
State and give them commodity rates, it is going to make a very great assump
tion. What we want is local rates upon which business can be done in the home
markets of Nebraska. It is from small beginning? that a laree business ecncrallv
has its growth. And here this gentlemen
and says we will have the rates when
know is how we will be able to start up a
state which on fourth and fifth class
miles from Lincoln as again 542 miles from Chicago to Lincoln? That is the way
they protect the infaut industries of Nebraska! That is the way they build
Auditor of State Benton: You stated
sum of the local and through rate to Omaha. Is that correct?
Mr. Dawes: Yes, sir, that is correct.
ting rato. The distributing Lincoln and Omaha rate is not the local distance
tariff rate however. The rate, for instance, to Hastings is made by the sum of
the rate to Lincoln or Omaha and the distributing rate from Lincoln or Omaha to
to that point. I am not speaking of commodity rates; I am talking of those arti
cles which are shipped under the local
belief a3 to tue coal rate and the wood rate ana corn rate, but what I am argabg
on and what is before this Board for consideration and for re-adjustment is the
local distance tariff rate classes 1-2-3-4-5-A-B-C-D E and the local distributing
rates when used on east-bound shipment?.
Auditor Benton: Dont you think the people of this state are much more inte
rested in cattle than tey are in hoop poles and jelly?
Mr. Dawes: A great deal more, but in submitting hoop poles and jelly I sub
mitted 150 other articles, and I have more tables which I shall submit to 'you CO)
tides shipped under these ten classes besides hoop poles and jelly, all of which
the citizens of Nebraska could produce and sell to the home markets of the State
as against these outside points, if they had the rates.
What can the future development cf the State of Nebraska be with
such discrimination as that against it? An what is the cure
for it? Mr. lloldrege suggests the giving of discriminatory commodity rates to the
big man after he gets big without giving him a chance to grow big.
Mr. Munroe of the Union Pacific Ry: Do I understand you to say that Ne
braska men are discriminated against as compared with Chicago? For instance,
that if a man in Lincoln buys goods in Chicago ant ships them to Lincoln and
redistributes them for points west that he pays a higher rate than the Chicago
man shipping to the same point?
Mr. Dawes: No, certainly not. I say that the Chicago, Omaha and Lincoln
rates to any given point in the state are exactly the same; but I wish to show
pretty soon the relative discrimination in favor of these two cities oi Lincoln and
Omaha as against some other small citteu, which under Mr. Holdrege's assump
tion ought to be sought out and helped a little.
Attorney General Hastings: Those though only refer :o Lincoln and Omaha?
Mr. Dawes: No, sir. There are other distributing points in the Stale;
Hastings, I believe has recently had a distribuiting rate, and Nebraska City has
a distributing rate.
Mr. Holdrege of the B. & M. Ry: Has Fremont?
Mr. Dawes: I don't know whether Fremont has or not.
. Continued Xext JTeek.)
tb tor! 4lntic fans' tA tb C B- O R
Q. Hy. to thirteen Nebrataa point:
Yrr wnt 4tb Per cent Sth
Is of flntelaM rate under the through tariff
rats is of Srst cm rate usder tbe through
of fourth and fifth cUsa freight to tint class
B. y. Bjr, for Nebrataa:
Per cert 4th
claM rate of
let claM rate
Per cent of
6th claas of
of first class
nrst class rates under the
67 per cent
which would decrease their busineus
arbitrarily raise the fourth and fifth
the first class for the pake of putting an
condition of affairs to the home markets
havo named, (which are shipped as fourth
to show the relative discrimination
on fourth and fifth classes in their own
place that this map is notlarce enouch to
from Chicago to Omaha, a distance of
ferance is located only 125 miles from
of Nebraska located outside outside of
of only 125 miles from Omaha, can com
keep in force these rates for the benefit
opinion as a citizen of Nebraska. I be
of Lincoln depends upon the proper de
The line drawn around Lincoln has noth
of the generosity of the railroad com.
(Mr. lloldrege) comes up before you
we have th3 business. What I want to
business here and have a rate in the
freight keeps out the shipper over 125
the through rate was mado up ot tho
By the local I mean tho local distribu
distance and distributing tariff. I have my
cd Willow County and the Fourteenth
Ixdiaxola, Aug. 19. 1901.
Editor Farxees' Aluaxce: As
usual the dark and treacherous band of
the enemy waa plainly visible from the
ranks of the good old pirates who
worked the primaries and convention
on fusing and trading. In the conven
tion they allowed new converts to enter
in the race, and two lepublican incum
bents who were known to be seeking of
fice. They also took lawyers too freely
whom they have been denouncing as
the means of drawing the net around
them and trafficking in human souls
these many years. And yet they take
them as of old to degrade our party.
Bro. Burrows has from time to time
sounded the keynote of warning to be
ever on the alert and not let your vigi
lance relax. It is the aim of the wily
politicians to destroy us in the quick
sand of fusion, and tnus destroy our ad
hesive powers. I warn all indepen
dents to beware of the inevitable doom
that awaits them should they entertain
a single thought of fusion or trade. And
let no local racket such as a county seat.
or that the K. of L. did not vote with
us last fall, deprive us of our reason;
but bury those matters in oolivion so
that the power ot hades cannot resur
rect them. 1 caution you to only take
up men who baye been fighting for re-
Lforrn a number of years men who
now what constitutes a government of
economy for tne wnoie people men
who know the fundamental principles
underlying our financial fabric. You
cannot afford to take any aspirant for
office. Let the office seek the man in
1 will say to tne delegates to tue juai
cial convention take no man of mush
room growth, but men who are tried
and true men who have 6een danger
lurking in our camp before the inde
pendents rose in their might to break
the shackles which have bound us these
many years, i using and trading is
what blasted the hopes of all other re
form parties. 0, S. Van Dohen.
Knox County Independents.
Ckeighton, Aug. 17, 01.
Special to The Fakmers' Alliance:
The Knox county independents held
their nominating convention at this
place last Saturday. The best of feel
ing and harmony prevailed and the del
egates looked like a body of men who
meant business. Our able representa
tive J. G. Kruse was a leading spirit in
The nominees are as follows: Treas
urer, N. b. Whitmore; county clerk,
Charles Van Camp; county judge,
McCormick, of Niobrara; sheriff,
Crockett, at present a commissioner;
county superintendent, J. P. Preston,
an ex -pastor living on his farm at Ba
zille Mills; for clerk of the court J. T.
A few weeks before the convention
the Niobrara Pioneer had spoken ap
provingly of Mr. Preston for that posi
tion. Some have seemed think that
possibly that was done to get him nom
inated, and then turn the Catholic vote
against him. Sut perhaps the two
wealthiest Catholics in the county, well
acquainted with the nominee and his
extreme liberality as to denomination
alism, were delegates and stood by Mr.
Preston from the start. It is not there
fore likely that the opposition can work
this racket to any extent.
What we need in this county is a
much larger circulation of The Farm
A ROMAT1C TAI.E. ,
Told a la Penny Dreadful
Nothing occurred to disturb the
serenity of the lovers. The days
sped quickly by, and no shadow
came to mar their newly-found hap
piness. One day, as they sat together
on the rustic seat which had been
Merriam's favorite nook, she looked
up suddenly from a long reverie and
"Don't you think, darling, it is
itrange that we have never heard
from your brother John since that
eventful night we missed the train?
It is nearly a month now since mam
ma brought us to the sea, and no
word from him lias yet reached us."
For a moment the young man by
her side was Btrangely silent.
"I did not think it necessary to
mention this before, Merriam," ho
said, there was a little matter between
John and myself which rendered it
advisable for me not to .send him my
address. I "
But even as he spoke the sharp
click of the gate in the distance, and
a man rapidly entered the grounds
and walked towards the speaker, who
stood defiant and irresolute.
"At last!" muttered the stranger,
who, it is almost needless to say, was
his brother John, "1 have found you.
And now," he hissed through his teeth,
grasping the oilier firmly by the wrist,
"where is my shirt?"
(The continuation of this story will
be found in the next number of the
"Scullery Maid's Glory.")
Searching for James the Second's
A romantic story comes from tho
pretty village of Triel. There, it is
said, James II buried his crown and
the valuable relics of hi3 family, and
for more tima f rrty years all over tne
neighborhood, from time to time, peo
ple have dug for the buried treasure.
Nearly half a century ago a mysteri
ous woman appeared tit Triel. She
bought a house and large estates,
and went up and down the village,
having no dealings with the inhabit
ants, and arousing great curiosity;
but after a time some neighbors made
her acquaintance, and learned that
she was in search of the crown of
James II. Legend and romance soon
took root in the soil upturned by this
odd woman's mysterious diggings on
her estates, and rumor finally said
that the lady, Mme. Deville, was a
daughter of George IV and Queen Car
oline, and in proof thereof the Fleur
de Lis, as everybody knew, was on her
shoulder. Moreover, in her bedroom
was an ancient bed adorned with
crowns on escutcheons. Lord Palm
erston was said to have visited her.
Finally she died, but the legend did
not die with her. The land was Bold
to a person who had received her con
fidence, and who continued the quest.
This successor is a Parisian shop
keeper. The digging still continues,
and still the crown with its priceless
atones remains undiscovered.
INTERESTING ITEMS FOR RURAL
Kaeptha Ground Stirred A Danger
In BreedingWhen to Dig Pota
toes Caesa on tha Farm
Feeding Skim Milk
Keep the Ground Stirred,
Every farmer understands the val
ue of a frequent stirring of the soil in
the corn field. The value of this
practice, however, is greatly increased
in a season of drought. The reason
is that the top of the soil by frequent
stirring is made to act the part of a
sponge, and arrests the moisture that
is being constantly poured into the
air above. - -
We once made the following experi
ment, to obtain an approximate idea
of the amount of moisture thus drawn
off, and the hindering effect on evap
oration through constant stirring of
the surface soil.
During a prolonged drought a place
in a well traveled highway was select
ed, where the fine dust was several
inches deep. A large bell glass a two
quart Mason fruit jar will answer the
same purpose was well chilled by
contact with ice, wiped perfectly dry
and placed mouth down o'n the dust
and covered with several thicknesses
of white cotton cloth, After a period
of five minutes the cloth was removed
and it was found that sufficient mois-
tnrA Vinrl nri-jon fitn ftA tof a,-,t
condensed on the cold glass, to run
down its sides and form a wet ring in
the dust, quite plainly discernible.
" On the side of the road was a field
of corn which the owner had not cul
tivated for more than a week. The
dry weather had formed a multitude
of fine cracks in the soil,
out of which moisture was pass
ing at a rapid rate. To deter
mine the difference in evaporation of
the unstirred ground in the cornfield
and the frequently stirred dust in the
road was a fact that would be valua
ble to know. Accordingly we again
chilled the glass and placed it in the
cornfield in the same manner and for
alike period of time as in the road dust.
The result showed to our satisfaction
that the moisture was pouring out of
the cornfield at least three times faster
than in the road.
Had the owner of the cornfield kept
the ground stirred lightly on top every
two or three days he would have ar
rested this wasting moisture and
thereby watered his corn very effect
ively, besides destroying the noxious
wwds. It was worth to us all the
time and trouble taken in the experi
ment to know this principle and learn
how thereafter to turn it to valuable
account in the cultivation of corn and
A Danger in Breeding.
Even in England the farmers are be
ginning to think that the breeding of
these mountains of horseflesh has been
carried too far. There is an ever pres
ent danger in the breeding of all ani
mals that the size question will be
overdone and carried beyond an econ
omic standard. A correspondent of
the London Live Stock Journal writes
that paper as follows:
fkmQ.breeders are runnine so much after
the heavy type of London dray horses that
they art leaving the plow out of sight.
There is, he adds, really no reason to do so,
for farmers who wish to use lighter horses
on their lands can have a market for their
geldings il the animals are able to trot well,
almost as good as they can have for horses
up to the heaviest wagon work. Nothing
is more useful on the London streets at
iresentthan a thick, square-set horse wide
ietween the fore legs, active, and not an
inch more than 16 hnnds, indeed 15.2 hands
is a good height. They are scarcely pro
curable, however, and leggy mongrels of
no apparent bree-liug from their looks,
nave to be taken instead at low prices.
Bates, the great Shorthorn breeder,
was opposed to the idea of breeding
for excessive size. He saw that the
food of support was too great in the
expense of daily maintenance for the
result obtained. The same principle
is true with horses. Muscular power
and effectiveness are not increased in
proportion to size.
The question of underdrainage is
one that the farmers 01 the West are
begining to study with considerable
interest. A great many are prevent
ed from taking hold of it by fear of its
great cost. A remark made by a
Kacme County farmer 111 a larm insti
tute at Union Grove, Wis., is pertin
ent to this point. He said ho had
fifteen miles of tile drain on his
farm and every rod of it had been
paid for by the extra production of
the farm in consequence of under
drainage. Every farmer who has
land calling for drainage should make
a trial. .Let him commence with a
small outlay at first, near the outlet
of the ground. Watch the effect, and
if favorably impressed try a little
more next year, A great ninny never
make any trial whatever. They may
have lots of sour, unproductive land,
but it stays so year after year. This
is not good business farming. Money
is never lost that is prudently invest
ed in making the farm more product
ive. When to Dig Potatoes.
A good many farmers look upon the
potato crop as one that can be
gathered whenever it suits their con
venience to attend to it. They plant
in good season, cultivate with care,
but often do not harvest until long
after the tubers are in the right con
dition to be dug. This is especially
true of the early varieties, which may
be planted early enough to mature by
the last of July, but are then not in
frequently left in the soil as a "con
venience" crop until other crops have
been gathered. Sometimes this delay
continues until after cornhusking.
The result of this method, or lack of
method, is that the potatoes in the
ground are exposed to a great variety
of temperatures, to the chances of
wet weather and to the various
diseases to which the potato is
The proper time to dig potatoes
is when they are ripe, as Bhown by the
decay of the tops. Some assert that
it is safer to gather them, even before
they arc ripe, maintaining that they
will then keep better and be less liable
to be attacked by rot. At any rate,
they should not be left in the earth
after full maturity. When dug the
ground should be dry and the air as
cool as the season will permit, but not
damp. They should be allowed to lie
on the ground for aonm hour if the
sun ia not too hot Tiwn pla in a
cool, dry spot, where tby will not bt
exposed to the liuht.
Ceese on tha Farm.
The common idea that there must
be a gander to every goose for breed
ing purposes is declared by a correspon
dent of Farm Poultry to be a mistake.
On the contrary, one gander may safe
ly be mated to four or even six geese.
There is no doubt, he says, but that
some ganders on becoming old will
mate with only one goose, but such an
one is a fit candidate for the spit.
The same writer contradicts tha
statement that only about ten
goslings can be raised from a pair,
and mentions a pair of prize Toulonee
geese that laid forty-eggs, from which
thirty goslings were hatched. A
young Toulouse goose, hatched in the
spring of 1600, laid last springtwenty
eggs for her first litter and would
probably lay a second litter on being
deprived of the first one.
These Toulouse geese often att.iin a
surprising weight, as high as sixty
pounds per pair. The standard weight
is forty-eieht pounds per pair. The
white Erubden geese reach the same
standard, while other breeds, such aa
Chinese, Egyptian and Canadian,
average about thirty pounds per pair.
Geese are very easy to raise, and ara
good eating, as well as feather pro
ducers, and might be profitable on
many farms where now only a few
hens, and possibly a small flock of
turkeys, are kept.
Sweets for Horses.
The fondness for sweets on the part
of the horse has been taken advantage
of in different parts of the world and
his appetite for saccharine matter
catered to with the best results in
improving his coiulition. Horses
thrive remarkably well on sugar and
molasses, ail these ingredients in
terchangeable terms in this connect1
ion have been regularly used aihoe
1873 in Australia and South Ameri
ca and other parts of the world for
getting horses into condition for sale,
and also for colts while wintering in
the park. In raising colts there is a
risk of their suffering from stoppage
of the bowels if fed entirely on dry
food, and to avoid this they are al
lowed carrots or roots of some kind
in addition to their dry food. Sugar
not only improves the condition of
the colts, but prevents any risk of
stoppage above referred to. Tho
way it is used is to dissolve the sugar
in water and pour it on the chaff or
cut hay, taking care that the food is
well mixed, and in a day or two the
colt will be found licking the sides of
the manger long after the last mor
sel of the chaff has been eaten. South'
Feeding Skim Milk,
We heard so much of the failure in
raising calves on the centrifugal skim
milk, that we took occasion to inquire
into the reason. In nearly all cases
the unsuccessful feeder fed only twice
a day, fed it cold, and fed too much
of it. The secret of the feeding value
of sweet full milk is not the 4 per cent
of butter oil alone, but it is the digest
ibility, owing to the minute division
of it all through the milk. We should,
therefore, restore some other and
cheaper oil say linseed jelly and
stir it well into the skim-milk, which
should be heated to 90, and feed at
least three times a day. This is best
done through a calf feeder, though we
have seen the simple device of putting
some straw in the milk to compel the
calf to drink slowly, and that is all
that's wanted to make them thrive.-
Ashes for Hogs.
The importance of feeding ashes to
hogs should not be overlooked. Many
farmers are obliged to feed corn in
large quantities, especially upon the
prairie farms, where hardwood ashes
are scarce or wholly unknown; yet it
is upon these very farms there is the
greatest need of ash materials to aid
in building up the bone of hogs. Corn
cobs furnish a very strong ash, and
in the absence of hard wood they
should be burned and the ashes care
fully saved and fed. Spread them
upon a clean wood floor, and the
animals will help themselves.
Protect tho Potato.
The slightest appearance of curl in
the leaf of the potato is a sign of an.
unhealthy condition, possibly of the
rot. Protect against it at onco by
sprinkling the vines with thefollowing
solution. One pound of sulphate of
copper, six pounds of lime in a barrel
of water. To dispose of the potato
beetle at the same time, add a quarter
of a pound of paris green. Keep the
mixture well stirred, and apply it
with a fine spray.
Fumigate thegranaries with sulphur
burned in an iron pot before putting
in new grain.
The next day it rains get the grain
bags out. Mend those that need it,
and mark your name on all of them.
Manitoba's crop bulletin reports
the best and most abundant crop ever
known. Harvest will begin about
Sheep require the constant care of
some one familiar with their needs
and habits if they are to be kept in.
Uniform feeding of sheep during a
given preceding winter is necessary to
prevent losing wool in the succeeding
Feed the pigs in "such a way that
they will always be glad when feeding
time comes and ' be ready for their
Don't let the weeds grow, even in
waste places; cut them down before
they go to seed. This will save you
much trouble next year.
Blanketing a horse in the stable
makes his coat short and sleek. This
makes him look more valuable, and
it is easier to keep him clean than a
Hubbard squashes are a most pro
fitable feed for hogs. They are easily
grown and can be made to yield ten
tons to the acre. They may be fetf
all winter either raw or steamed.
Hay is generally cured too much.
It is not necessary to have it so dry
as is generally supposed. If not wet
by rain or dew hay may be left to
cure in the mow before it becomes
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