The farmers' alliance. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1889-1892, March 22, 1890, Image 2
THE ALLIANCE. PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY HORSING. BY THE ALLIAUCE PUBLISHING CO. Lincoln, - - - NeDiaska. J. BURROWS, : : Editor. J. M. THOMPSON, Business Manager. " In the beauty of the lillies Christ was born across the sea, With a glory in his bosom That transfigures you and me. As He strove to make men holy Let us strive to make men free, Since God is marching on." Julia Ward Howe. " Laurel crowns cleave to deserts, And power to him who power exerts." "A ruddy drop of manly blood The surging sea outweighs." "Emerson. ' He who cannot reason is a fool, He who will not reason is a coward, He who dare not reason is a slave." EDITORIAL. " Sheridan's Photograph. We are greatly surprised at the result of our offer of the photograph of Sheri dan and his Generals. By ordering these pictures in large quantities as we are now enabled to do, we can reduce the price to our customers. We now furnish the picture and The Alliance one year for $1.25 REMOVAL THE ALLIANCE OFFICE. OF The Alliance office is removed to the CORNER OF SI & 11th STREETS, where we have capacious quarters, and will be much better able to receive and -entertain our friends than at our late office in Bohanan Block. The office of the State Business Agent and the office of the State Secretary will be on the ground floor, and the publication office and editorial rooms of The Alliance on the second floor. We are happy to inform our friends that we now have as pleasant and commodious printing and editorial rooms as are to be found in the city. We are also adding to our facilities for JOB PRINTING, and are prepared to do as good work at as reasonable rates as any. THE STATE AGENT -will have a full line of samples of Im plements and Farm Machinery, which he will sell in large or small lots. Remember our latch-string is always .out. A 1m Mnnetarv Svstem. For several years we have advocated, " not the loaning of money to farmers on their iarms a3 a measure oi temporal j relief, but the issuing of all money upon 'land security. This is no new idea. In -1848-49, eleven years before the war, unci thirteen years before a greenback was ever heard of, Edware Kellogg, a retired New York merchant of the ri pest experience in all financial matters, a friend and contemporary of Horace Greeley, wrote a book entitled "Labor and other Capital: The rights of each secured and the wrongs oi ootn eradi cated; or an exposition of the cause why few are wealthy and many poor, and the delineation of a system which, without infringing the rights of proper ty, will give to labor its just reward." Some vears earlier Mr. Kellosrsr had written a powerful essay on the same subject, for which Mr. Greeley pro cured a publisher, and which he com mended and recommended for study in an editorial article in the Tribune of Au gust 17th. 1843. headed "Usury, the Evil and the Remedy." This question is now fairly and prom inently before the people of this coun try. It is true some of those who are advocates of the idea do not yet appre ciate its full significance. It is true it has come up under the form of a propo sition to loan money to iarmers on their lands, as a measure of relief for a depression the real cause and extent of which is understood by comparatively few. But the agitation will soon take the form in which we have always ad vocated it, viz : a proposition to make a radical change in the system of issuing monev. It is beginning to be under stood that the causes of the general de pression cannot be found in any tem porary stagnation, nor in so-called over production; but that they lie in a de fective monetary system. Public at tention once fixed upon this fact, in quiry and investigation will soon lead to a fuller and better understanding of the whole question. Senator Stanford's in terview with Frank Pixley, which we publish this week, is a. masterly pre sentation of the present condition, the need for relief, , and the direction in "lit e ' i which reiiei win ue iounu, viz: in an increased volume of money. A hun dred millionaire, it would seem that ,Mr. Sanford would be on the side of the monev power in this question. But it is not so. He is on the side of the peo ple, and his great wealth jriakes him independent of any influence whatever While .his article is a surprise to us, we hail it with great pleasure as a means of bringing this subject before the pub lie. '"-; : ' - We publish below a chapter from Kellogg introducing the "true mono tary system." we win ioiiow it naxt week with another chapter giving the specific plan of his proposition to issue money upon land security. "We now enter upon the most impor tant and yet the simplest part of this " i i a. subject; nameiy.tne insiiuuion oi a u ue monetary system, oy wmcn me uisiriDu lion of wealth can be properly regulated It has been proved in our foregoing arguments, ; that the amount of a cur rency should be equal to the wants of the people, and that gold and silver, of THE which the quantity is necessarily limited, are not the proper materials. It re mains to be proved that a piper cur rency can be established, which shall be always adequate in amount, and which can be maintained at a uniform value. The present chapter will offer some con siderations of the security and compe tence of a paper currency, as a medium of exchange. First, we may notice some of the ways in which paper is now used.and in which a legal power expressed upon it i3 deem ed sufficient security. All titles to land, all loans of money on bond and mort gage or otherwise, the payments for all lands, and for every other species' of property on a credit, are security by pa per. These papers must, of course, be made legal liens upon property or tbey would be worthless, for their value must consist in their control of real property, and not in any worth inherent in their substance. Money of every description, gold, silver and paper, is created by the laws, and its value consists in its being made by law a public lien upon all pro perty for sale. lhe difference between a private obli gation, such as a mortgage, or note of an individual, and money, is, that the two former are private liens, one on, a pecihe piece of property, the other on any or all the property of an individual; while money is a public lien on all pro perty for sale, whether that property be owned by individuals or by the Govern ment. Between individuals and the Government the law secures the fulfil ment of contracts by mortgages and other paper instruments. If paper in struments can be made safe representa tives of property between two individ uals, no good reason appears why paper instruments cannot be made safe repre sentatives of property for any number of individuals. If paper instruments can be made representatives of property or iimueu penoas oi ume, no gooa rea son is percieved whv thev cannot be made safe representatives of property when payable on demand. And if made payable on demand in something capa ble of producing an immediate income, they are then made competent to fulfil all .the uses of money; for monev can have no other use than to exchange for property, or to loan for an income. Governments have falsely assumed that the value of money consists in the inherent worth of the gold, silver and copper materials out of which it has been coined. This is not only palpa bly a false assumption, but the laws of the nations prove it to be so ;f or in nearly every civilized nation the governments have authorized paper money (when se cured by State and National stocks, bonds and mortgages, and so forth.) to be issued in the form of bank netes and circulate as money. England has made paper money a tender in payment of debts; and in other countries, where pa per in the form of bank-notes is author ized to be used as money, although it is not a tender, it is generally received as such. Bank-notes are called money, although the law does not make them a tender for debts. Banks are, however, chartered by law, and therefore, the bank-notes issued by them are generally considered as money and answer all its purposes. They are founded or based upon a promise to pay specie on demand. et us see, however, if they are not prac tically money, instead of being merely representatives of gold and silver coins. A man exchanges at a bank in New York a hundred dollars in specie for a one hundred dollar bank-note and takes it to a western country to buy land. The note is thus put in circulation there, is loaned and reloaned on interest, and is used in the purchase ot property and prouucis. n is coniinuauy acuve, wmie the silver for which the bank-note was taken in lieu lies dead in the vault of the bank, and is neither used to purchase property or products, : nor to fulfil con tracts, nor to produce an income. The bank-note has performed all, while the specie has performed none of the func tions of money. If the former were cir culated for any number of years, and should be loaned for an income, and used to purchase property thousands of times, and when it was returned to New York, there would be no specie in the vault of the bank to redeem' it, still, every purchase made .by the bank-note would be valid, and every mortgage for which it had been received would be a binding lien upon the property of its drawer for the payment of specie both or the principal and the interest, uoms and bank-notes have a legal power to ac cumulate, not natural to either of them. Both are generally recieved in tender for debts, so that one is practically as much money as the other. In fact, if either is to be despoiled of its character as money, it must be the specie, for this is mostly deposited in the vaults of the banks, and while so deposited is not prac tically money; but the bank-notes which perform more than ninety-five hun dredths of the exchanges, are really the money of the country, and fulfil all its uses with greater convenience and cel erity than could gold and silver. Paper made to represent landed property in stead of specie, and endowed with legal power to accumulate, measure, and ex change property would answer every purpose of money, and would be money. The abundance of paper is not an ob jection to its use as the material of money, more than to its use for deeds, notes, bonds and mortgages. It would be a better material for money than gold and silver, for these metals are limited in amount, and are troublesome, expensive and hazardous to remit. If a sufficient gold and silver cuirency were presented to this nation tree oi cost, tne inconvenience and expense attending the circulation and transmission of the coins, would far overbalance the whole labor and expense to provide and circu late paper currency. lhe question to be settled then,is this; can a currency be formed entirely of pa per, which will buy the productions of labor as readily as gold and silver coins not whether a silver spoon can be made out of a paper dollar, or whether a gold watch-case can be made out ot a ten dollar bank bill as well as it .could out of an eagle. We do not want money to make utensils and ornaments. We want money for a medium of exchange, to buy such articles as are useful to us, and if it cannot be made of paper so that it will be as good to the man who sells his labor or his products as gold and silver coins, we do not want paper cur rency." .. '' Glimpses of Fifty Years. The above is the title of the most de lightfui and readable- book that has been published this year. It is "The Autobiography of an American Wom an," by Mrs. Frances E. Willard. The book is a gem in every sense of the word in its typographical execution, in its binding, in its illustrations, and above all else in its matter. The life of Mrs. Willard embraces the most active period in literature and material pro gress of this country. She has been an important actor in the great movement for the enfranchisement of women, and in the women's temperance movement. This book embraces an epitome of all this period, presented in the most charming style. It will undoubtedly have an immense sale. C98 pp. H. J. Smith & Co., Publishers, 351 Dearborn St., Chicago. FARMERS' ALLIANCE; LINCOLN, NEB., Sugar Beet Culture and Beet Sugar. There is much interest now in sugar beet culture in this state. As we have .been appealed to for our views as to bounties, and as to the propriety of voting bonds in aid of projected fac tories, we have been to some pains to collect accurate informatian in relation to the matter. We give below most of a letter from Senator Manderson: Washington, D. C, March 13, 1890. Hon. J. Bcbrows, Lincoln, Neb. : Mr Dear Sib: Your letter was received and I comply with your request for copies of my beet sugar bills offered. As endorsed they are substantially corrected as they will chance to be reported from committee. -' :' - I regard this question as one of the most important, in an agricultural industrial sense, that the west can consider. It involves a di versification of farming, the obtaining from land in Nebraska more per acre than corn will return, the keeping of $100,000,000 of money per annum at home now annually sent abroad for sugar, and the enriching of our people who seem to have soil and climate, capital and energy. The apprehended dan ger is that if the tariff on sugar is badly cut at this time, it will allow Germany and France to dump their surplus beet sugar in upon us to deter capital from investing in factories and prevent farmers having a market for their beets. The tariff abroad, except in Eng land, on sugar is from 2V, to 3 cents, and ours is 2 cents. Senator Paddock has my bills In charge and will make a report soon. 1 would be pleased to have the Alliance look into this matter carefully and at an early day, and forward its views to myself or to any one of the delegation. . Nebraska is purely an agricultural state by nature and we should do all possible, as it seems to me, to get the most out of every acre of land. Very truly yours, Chas. P. Manderson. THE YIELD OF BEETS PER ACRE, AND YIELD OF SUGAR. There has been undoubtedly much exaggeration as to the yield of sugar beets per acre. In cases like this, where a new industry is to be intro duced, such exaggeration always takes place. Of course the cultivation of beet sugar in Germany is no longer an experiment; but at the same time the industry here by American farmers, with high-priced labor, is an experi ment; and it is a great deal better to approach it cautiously, recalling our memories of the morus muliicaulis and the Chinese sugar cane or sorghum craze, than to go in with too much en thusiasm and meet a disappointment. There is a beet sugar factory at Laven ham, in Suffolk, England, or was as late as 1887, at which records of yield, per cent of sugar, &c. have been kept. In 1887 571 acres averaged 13 tons per acre. Of this two:thirds averaged 15 tons, and the other third only tons. This, it must be remembered, is in a country where fertilizers are largely used, and where the most thorough and careful hand cultivation is given. It is well to compare these facts with the exaggerated yields which have been stated in this state. Five tons of clean roots give about 41 cwt of coarse sugar, which gives about 160 pounds of double refined sugar, and 60 pounds of inferior lump sugar, and some molasses from which spirits are distilled. There is a refuse of pulp which may be fed to stock, amounting to 22 per cent of the weight of beets. Up to the present time Russia has produced the best sugar beets, having achieved 12 per cent of refined sugar. BOUNTIES OFFERED AND PROPOSED. The law enacted by the last legisla ture provides, (Sec. 1,) "That there shall be paid out of the state treasury to any corporation, firm or person en gaged in the manufacture of sugar in this state from beets, sorghum or other sugar yielding canes or plants grown in .Nebraska, a bounty oi one cent per pound upon each and every pound so manufactured under the conditions and restrictions of this act." It will be seen that this equals $20 per ton. Sec. 1, of the bill introduced in the U J3. senate by .senator Manderson, pro vides that the sum of $1 per ton shall be paid as a bounty to the farmer or planter for every ton of 2,000 'pounds delivered at a factory and manufactured into mercantile sugar. Sec. 2 provides that a bounty of 100 cts per 100 pounds shall be paid upon all merchantable su gar made from sugar beets, to be paid to the manufacturer thereof . It is well to scrutinize these bounties If Senator Manderson's bill becomes a law the Nebraska beet sugar maker would receive $40 per ton on his gross production of raw sugar, while the farmer would receive $1.00 per ton on his production of beets. According to the Lavenham fignres, it takes about 22 tons of beets to make one ton of sugar. The farmer would be receiving - $22 to the maker's $40. This would be in ad dition to the duty of 2 cts per pound which all consumers pay in favor of the maker. In all the beet sugar enterprises we have heard of the manufacturers pro pose to cultivate a large area them selves, and thus they would receive the three bounties, and of course give their own beets the preference in working, tnus placing individual growers at a still greater disadvantage. ' The bounties are enormous, and could not be long continued without re duction It would seem as though they were sufficient without the tariff. The people of this country paid in duties on sugar and molasses in 1888, $52,000,000 to protecta home product worth about $15,000,000. Suppose the duty increased the price to its full extent, viz: 2 cts, the Louisiana growers received a boun ty in 1888 of $7,000,000, which cost the people $52,000,000. we nave Deen asked to express our opinion as to voting bonds for beet-su gar factories, and we have been asked not to express it. We are opposed to bonds to promote private enterprises Any one who has carefully read this ar ticle will see that without bonds the manufacturer has by all odds the long est end of the string. Our protective laws are all to protect capital and not labor," as they are all obtained by capi tal. It is doubtful if any locality gets nearly all of the advantages expected by the establishment of sugar factories. But if they are to be established with public money let the municipality that furnishes the money own the factories. We do not share the sanguine expec tations of the advocates of bonds. These bonds are generally a clear gift to the beneficiaries, with ohly a small advantage to the tax-payers. It might be well for other localities to await the outcome of f he Grand Island enterprise before assuming large burdens. If it pays as well as predicted capital will seek it as an investment. If it does not pay much will be saved by being not over-hasty. Some Gems of Political Economy From A. S. Paddock. We find floating around in the papers an article on the invasion of English syndicates in our business enterprises which is attributed to Senator Paddock. We quote a paragraph: 'Undoubtedly the busine field in this country Is too extensive for the capital in the hands of our people at the present time; and thus in obedience to the inexorable law of supply and dem and, our Interest rates are universally too high. Our industrial enter prises suffer as much from competition with the cheap money of Europe as with cheap la bor. If, therefore, a part of the enormous surplus of 3 per cent money in Europe could be transferred permanently to these enter prises, although the proprietorship should pass into foreign hands, I think we would be materially strengthened in our competitive commercial trade with other nations. If the money onee comes to us, I don't see bow it is going to get away again. It is true the incre ment in the form of dividends would go, and yet it is not unlikely that a considerable part of this might be left with us in new iarest met." . There are almost as many misconcep tions and misstatements in the above as there are sentences. In the first place the word "capital is used instead of money." Capital is any portion of wealth which, may be used to create more wealth. The "capital" in the hands of our people 1 unlimited. Our ands, our undeveloped mines, our for ests, our streams,, are all capital. It m- money, the medium, of exchange, with. which to employ labor to unlock and. develop these treasures-,, which is lack ing. These resources this-capital, are American. Why should, they not be developed with. American money? In terest is controlled by the conditions and method of the issue of. the money of the government. In this country,, with the exception of the limited vol ume of greenbacks, it is issued to cor porations, and they are specially au thorized to charge a. high rate of inter est. All the money of Eurooe mierht " o be imported and this fact would not be changed. Interest would continue to be controlled by the two facts which. control it now. In fact, an. increase-in the yolume of money would by increas ing the volume of business raise the nominal rate of interest. But at the samc time the burden of interest would be lessened and the margin of profit to producers increased, by the- advance in prices. Why should not our govern ment issue money to our people at 11 pr. ct on land security.,so as-to give us- lt per cent advantage over England in the matter of money, instead, of suffering by competition with, her,, or becoming, tributary to her letting, her take the "increment in the form, of dividends)" as Mr. Paddock says- she will. Money is the life-blood of business, and it is al ways created by law. Why should we depend upon England for it? What shall we think of all. Si senator who speaks with such, complacency of the proprietorship of our magnificent wealth and resources "passing into foreign hands." If it was- tariff he was talking about such an invasion, would excite his holy horror. But the facts are worse than the sen ator supposes. It is not cheap money that sends the Englishmen here. They come because the avenues of invest ment and enterprise in Europe are full. and because ' our young and growing empire offers these avenues in abund ance; and they are not bringing money; they are bringing our evidences of debt or they are starting their enterprises here on a debt basis, and thus adding to the already enormous burden of inter est our people are staggering under. Senator Paddock might take a lesson from Leland Stanford. The Fractional Currency Bill. The Washington dispatches bf March 13th say that an adverse report was made to the house committee on bank ing and currency by a sub-committee on the various bills for issuing frac tional currency. This action is not un expected, and foreshadows that of the whole committee. Geo. W. E. Dorsey is chairman of the committee on bank ing and currency t A national banker is not likely to favor fractional cur rency or any other government issue of money. It is thought that the commit tee will favor some sort of fractional currency in connection with the postal service. This means an evasion. If it was not for the limitations upon it the present postal note could circulate as money. But the money power care fully guards all such avenues. A nbte sold at the postoffice for transmission, and to be presented for payment in a few days, is not money. The people want fractional paper money; and if Geo. W. E. Dorsey helps block it Ne braska farmers will remember him. To Make Land the Basis of Money. The proposition to issue money on land security, instead of as now on bond security, is willfully misrepresent ed by the Bee and other papers of the money power. It is stated as a propo sition to loan money to farmers on land security. ; It is no such thing. The proposal is to make land the only basis of security for money, and city land or mineral land could be used for that purpose as well as farm land. If the editors will read the little book in which the proposition originated, writ ten in 1849 by a New York merchant, they would be better posted. It is La bor and Capital by Edward Kellogg, Lovell Library. Price 20 cts. BATHED A Y, MAK. 22, Interstate Commerce Commission ill Lin coin. Messrs. Morrison and Veazy of the interstate commerce commission, are holding a session at Lincoln to investi gate the question of rates, rebates etc. The session began at 10 a. m. Tuesday. Mr. Monroe, assistant general traffic manager of the Union Pacific was the first witness. Very little that was new was developed by this witness. One point, however, in regard to the effect of freights upon the prices of corn was brought out. Mr.' Monroe said that just before the opening of transportation in the spring, when Vessels for Buffalo were being chartered, the effect of the lower rate was felt in Nebraska in an advance in the price of grain. .Hon. Elijah Filley, oi Gage County was on the stand, and testified to having recieved a rebate as high as 11 cts per 100 before the passage of the interstate law. Also,that by careful and econom ical work sad close figuring the average cost of raising a bushel of corn was 17i cents. . ' In the evening Geo. W. Hoidredge, of the B, & M. was on the stand. Accord ing to Mr. H.the railroads are the worst abused institutions in the United States. Their earnings, under the most econom ical management, are barely sufficient to pay the most meagre, return on the capital invested; the rates are net only not exorbitant, but are as low as- can be made without forcing the roadls- into bankruptcy. Mr. Hoidredge- made a general denial of all charges of unfair ness or injustice on the part of the-roods-. The commission seemed desirous of ob taining full information on the-subject of rebates, the amounts so given-to ship pers, etc, and Mr. Hoidredge- seemed very desirous of witholding all such; in formation. , This culminated ini at de mand for the rebate books, andi the re fusal on the part of Mr. Hoidredge to produce them. This refusal was- fol lowed by a threat from Col. Morrison, to institute proceedings for contempt. Mr.Holdredge then state i that he would not leel at liberty to produce the books without first submitting the question' to the president of the road. Mr. Morrison remarked that the com mission had made its demand for the bookst and that Mr. Hoidredge might submit the-question to whom he pleased. The evening session of Wednesday was quite interesting. Farmer Church Howe was first on the stand. His tes timony amounted to nothing. J. Buiv rows was next sworn. The only thing of interest connected with his interview was the attempt of the railroad cappers Howe,. Thurston and Deweese to badger him an .opportunity they rarely get and were anxious to improve. But the attempt amounted to nothing. The event of the evening came at nearly, the close-of. T.. W. Lowrey's testimony, he following. Mr. Burrows. Not much of interest waa reached until the cappers had got through with him, and he was about to leave the stand, when Judge Morrison by two or three quiet and well directed inquiries, ellicited the statement that within a year Mr, Lowrey had received a rebate from the B- & M. Co. on through grain shipments- to both Chicago and New York of five cents per 100, and that he knew of other parties who had received the same- rebate, naming a Chicago firm as one of them. This was . a bomb in the camp, of the cappers especially the B. & JxL. cappers. It was interesting to see Geo W. Holdredcre squirm. He said he knew nothing about it. Mr. Lowrey retorted, "You know as much about it as I do." Mr. Holdredcre as serted that there was some mistake; The attorneys ot the other roads looked as though they might be hit by the next bolt. Judge Morrison quietly persisted in getting all the facts he could, and In timated that there would be further inr vestigation into the matter.. At the time this rebate was granted; it was a criminal offense punishable by, heavy fines. The "penalty has since been enlarged, and it is now punishable by imprisonment as well as fine. Gen. Attorney Thurston and Geo. W, Hoidredge would make a handsome picture looking through the bars.. If Church Howe could be added, looking over their shoulders, with . his squint eye and Mephistophelian leer, it would equal anything imagined in Dante? In fTI 1 a -a a a -a ierno. - v no Knows? xne Diina may sometime fall from the eyes of Justice, and lime bring round some great re venges. ' Publishing Resolutions. J. M. Hammer, of Science Ridge Al liance, writes us that his Alliance adopted resolutions asking for relief as to rates of the railroad commission, but voted down a proposition to publish them. He asks, -"If these resolntions are not for publication what are they for, and what good are they to us or any one locked up as the surplus in the U. S. treasury?" Well, we say to our brother that the resolutions. might be sent to the board of transportation. Of course publish ing them would be right and proper. But we are able to publish only a small part of what . we receive: So, send them direct to the board of tranporta tion, Linc6ln. Is the Crisis Near at Hand? I see in the near future a crisis arising that UNNERVES ME AND CAUSES HI TO TREMBLE FOR THE SAFETV OF MT COUNTK T. As a result of the war corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong- its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the republic is destroyed. I feel, at this point, more anxiety for the safety of my country than ever before, even in the midst of war. A. Lincoln, v The above is exactly the talk that has caused thousands of lesser men than Lincoln to be denounced as cranks and lunatics. The march of events show that the words were prophetic and wise But the Republic will not b 4 destroyed. It may pass through a trial, perhaps of fire and blood. The blind 1890L greed of the money power may carry it forward on the lines of the past ten years, until tlte people wwu ate, and, having no more to lose, rise in revolt. Then would come the trying hour. A powerful interest, backed by such aristocrats as partly compose our senate to-day, would cry for a stronger government a monarchy perhaps. But we warn them now that the Missis sippi will run turbid from a thousand crimson streams belore the Republic will be surrendered. No! It wouM emerge from such . a trial with tho rights of man more assured and sacred, and with a truer equality among the people. Well do we remember, after the seven days horror in the swamps of the Chickaborainy, with ten thousand men slain, reading in the cowardly pa pers that the war was a failure1, and that we mustt compromise with the slave power. Then, sitting on the ground, ragged and weary and worn, we tightened our belt in lieu of a sup per,, and wrote t a dear friend at home that the war would go on, that the un ion would be saved, and slavery de stroyed. It was so. We are older now; but our faith is-the same; and we would take a musket now to save the nation with less hesitation than in '61. To you congressmen in Washington we say, nave a care- now you vote. Open you eyes and look- around you. Drop yout old theories' and take up the facts of to-day.. Listen to- the people, and let the money power take care of itself, else it may be worse for all of you. Alfalfa. There is some demand among our members. for lucerne or alfalfa seed. Alfalfa does not have to; be sown until corn-planting. The ground should lx? warm and mellow. The- last part of May or the first of June is early enough. The ground should be deeply plowed and thoroughly mellowed andsmoothed. A deep gravelly or loamy, sub soil is preferable, but alfalfa, does- well on our Gage county uplands. When the ground is warm enough, for planting corn or beets, and brought to a fine tilthv sow at the rate1 of three-pecks-to the acre, and harrow and roll. Hit oaa be sown in drills it. is much better. The drills should be six to eight inches apart, and the seed in this climate one inoh, deep. Rolling is imperative: The ground should be -kept dean until the plants- are well started: If. in the next spring half .or two-thirds- of the stand is dead wintorkilled' do not be discouraged. It will, be better the second, year, and better, still, the thirdi. As to the value of alf alf ai On deep rich soils it will yield three cuttings-in a season. If there is a gravelly openi sub soil, and the roots can reach water,, the-yield will be enormous. But do not infer, from this that it will do -well on a wet surface. For hay alfalfa is not as good, as-clover. If intended for. hay it must be cut early, before the stems be gin to-harden. If not so outu will bo- worthless for hay. As-a soiling crop it is nusurpassed.. An acre or two sown by the side of a hog pasture would be invaluable to out and feed to hogs. It does-not endure pasturing very well. We give the above as theresultof a very thorough five years' trial on upland' in Gago-county, with a northern exposure-.. Bright Figures From Chairman Walker of the Gentleman's Association. At the meeting of the interstate eomr- merce commission at Uhicago last Thursday afternoon Chairman) Walker filed a statement as to the efforts to- ob tain lower corn rates which he-termed a "concise review of the freight situa tion." The way he handles figure is amusing, if not amazing,. Ilo- com pares the old rate and the present ooe, and his figures show a lowering of the rate of 0 to 3 cts per hundred. Farther on be then says: ''If the-estimates given by the statistician of those states (Kansas and Nebraska) is correct in re spect to the surplus - product to be moved under these rates- the loss- to the roads may be safely stated at not less than $3,000,000." Now allowing the re duction equalled 2 cts per- bushel, and dividing the loss equally between the two states, this would show a surplus to be moved from Nebraska of 75,000,000 bushels of corn, or fully one-half of her total product for the year. The actual surplus to be moved has never exceed ed one-third of this acaQUJit. Again, on the basis of a reduction of 10 per cent, or 2 cts per bushel, the loss claimed would amount for this state to $15,000,000. This nearly equals the total gross freight earnings of all the roads of the state for the year 1887. At 500 bushels to the car it would re quire 150,000 cars to transport 75,000,000 bushels of corn. This would call for the moving of 410 cars of corn every day Sundays and all for 365 days. These figures1 are all on the basis of a two cent per bushel reduction. When we remember that tho actual reduction of rate "was only one cent per bushel, the wildness of Chairman Walker's figures is more glaring. The Windom Bill. Bro. Sharp and others asked us to publish the Windom bill in full. There is another bill, embracing the same features, which takes the lead of the Windom bill. We will publish this bill as soon as we can get an authentic copy. Alliance Insurance. We are in receipt of several urgent letters of inquiry in relation to estab lishing the Alliance Insurance depart ment. The Executive Committee has met many obstacles in this matter some unexpected ones. This has caused de .ay. We are hoping it will be decided so that we can make an annoucement in our next issue, which will be a finality. tf The Farmers' Alliance is the best advertising medium in the west. ffowspaper Notoriety Arbor SMe, (If 'y more, .S'fb.) Just now J. ftiirrows, editor oi The Fakmeb's Aixia JrK and for many years prominently indeimhed with the Is ation al Farmer's Alliance, ha its chief exen tive ofiieer, is being Utterly assailed by Rimh cornoration organs a.f the Omaha Republican, and tho Lincoln Journal. For nearly ten years the editor of the Arhor SMe lias known Mr. Burrows personally and intimately. Durtg that time we have contended in som-e hard fought battle for the rights f the wks- es; sometime politically opposed, mh always as we understood tho jiluation. In all these long: years Mr. Burrows adhered to-the owe text that an "injury to one is the conrn of all." I Gage county, where he has mrdb hi homo for yewrs, hi record is untarnish" d and his name has been tho ensign waving that riled thr blood of corpora tion cappers; and sent Ihem ono by ne into enforced retirctwent. This pair scarcely deems- it n,eceary to refer to these assaults upon Mr, Burrows, lie has no fallen political fortunes to recu perate, for t he only carexpagin he ever mado in Gage county both the demo cratic and republican parties combined to. defeat him. and by dint of hard canapaigningrand the- use of thousand of dollars in the hands-of tuai unscrupu corporation tool, Capt.(?)Jm Marsh, he was defeated by 85 voUi In a county naturally rciMjErfican by bno thousand majority., thew can cer tainly bo no wrecked political fortunes for him to retrieve in Gage ot&umrty. The Arbor State may not agree with Mr. Burrows in all things-,, bu that man does not live who-exoels- him. in. sincere determination to 'do his- part in ameli orating the condition, ottho- working and producing maBses. A Poort Road.. Tho Q road is- too poor to reduce rates on Nebraska produce;, but it U not too poor to buy out a-rival, rood to enable it to hold up rates. It has- jut bought out the Chicago Burlington & Northern, which has long boon a trou blesome and unmanageable olemont iu the freight problemthat is in tho prolv lem of how to keep up ratos. A. nota ble feature in this deal is the fact that it was perfected by the Boston owmr of the Q without the knowledge of any of its western officers Tlie first inti mation they had of it was from the re porters. There are one ; or two mom lines to be fixed, when railroad men think everything will bt solid. Tho ( earned in January, 1890, over. two mil lion and two hundred thousand dollar. If it should do only half as well for. the other eleven months - of - the -year.it will pay a dividend of eight per cent on all its stock, in addition, to the interest on its bonds. It is stocked for. $70,300,000, and bonded for $85,255,000 or a. total of nearly 162 millions. Its stock and bond, amount to$34,400por mile on 4,700 miles of road. This is the road which Geo-W. Hoidredge, in his impudent and. iusult ing letter to Gen. Leese admits au b duplicated for $20,000 a .mile, and assert that it is paying only 5.3 per. cent on that valuation, and says the inlerosm its bonds must be paid; out; of. that. While it is too poor to . reduce the rate on corn, it is not too . poor. to buy out a competing railroad for.cash. . Co-Operative .Stores. Editor Alliance; Wo- would like to have you give us a little -more light on the co-operative store. 1st. Would it not take two or three-ox pert, book keepers to run the-store?. 2d. How would we increase our capital to. run a large store? We would like to. start a store if we could see - ourwav. cloar to success. We are twenty-five mile from a 'railroad aud oannot deal with commercial men, as Paxton &. Galla gher has this country corralled. L'leaso give us all the- information you. can. We have upwards-of. fifty members-Ln our Alliance, and expect to have oiie hundred inside of two. months and we mean business. Respectfully, Geo. Sherman, fcnirgent, Nebs 1 . The book-keeping, of a co-operative store is no more- complicated; nor extensive than, that of an ordinary store run on. tho .credit system if as much so. If. there is absolutely no credit given; to. members,' (and. tliero should be none),, there is a very simple devic to determine tho amount of trade of each member for the month or quarter. Metallic- tokens are procured representing, the different denomina tions of coin. When a member buys any goods- he receives one of these to kens to the amount of his purchase. The amount in his posession at tho cud of the quarter determines the amount of his trade and the profit ho would lie entitled to. Correct book-keeping in important, but no more important nor onerous-than elsewhere. 2. If fifty of you join in. a store, ami do all your trading with it, and let jour profits go into capital stock, your store will grow with your ability to manage it. If you had a large capital to invest at the start we would not advise its in vestment. It is better to make a small beginning and let the business develop. Your situation is a disadvantage as to buying. But suppose you raise $250.00, or $5.00 for each member, and pay cash for a small stock of staples, do a ready pay business, and be ready with th- cash to pay for your next invoice. You will not repeat this process long before commercial men will find you, not withstanding a twenty-five mile buggy drive, and in spite of Paxton & Galla gher. There are many obstacles to bo over come. The Elixir of Life is found iu overcoming obstacles. Illness of Bro. Loucks. We have received a line from Bro. Loucks in which he informs us that he has been confined to his bed nearly all the time since tho St. Louis meeting. He is now better, and will soon be in the saddle again, for which we will all be profoundly' grateful. Bro. Loucks cannot well be spared yet.