Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About The alliance. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1889-1889 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 4, 1889)
STATE FABIIEE3' ALUASCE.
si.oo . .nn A it ir
PER TEAR ,. V J ' W
IN ADVANCE. ) j JjJJ X A
- -i- ., .,, .
. ... .( .
Editorial Notes and Clippings.
THIS TIME IT IS YOU. ,
four subscription has expired, and unless re
newed within the-Tt" -f- next flftee" day,8
r BatlBfactory ar inementt made
with the editor, your name will be
removed from f our books and the
paper diseontin il ued. Wetru8t
you will feel it your duty to send
us your Bubscrip tion and continue
with ub. Should-- Jthisparajn-aph be
marked with a blue crops it means you.
The demands of organized labor
are just and equitable and will harm
' Take courage farmer friends and
push forward the good work. The
future of our cause was never brighter.
The only sure way to educate the
masses is to circulate the Alliance
literature and lots of it. We have it
at this office, fifty-two doses one dol
lar. The population increases steadily,
and as steadily the volume of curren
cy decreases. A fool ought to com
prehend the consequences. National
The people will not believe a. self
interested paper that is the acknowl
edged organ of the organized bull
dozers and murderous mobs of this
state. Thev are getting weary of
their silly prattle.
Call the attention of some good
J wilif ii'iwr.rArAhreshwjr. machine,
to th:s paper and suggest to him trTat
it will be an easy matter for him to
obtain several subscribers at almost
, every place the machine is set.
The contraction of the currency
last year was $1,300,000,000, but
this was offset by the coinage of
about. $33,000,000 of silver, and an
equal amount of gold, leaving the
net contraction $67,000,000. -Wheel.
The government has been pursuing
the policy of taking care of the rich
and letting the rich care for the poor
long enough. The fact is the rich do
not take care of the poor. We want
to stop this state of affairs and give
the poor a chance to take, care of
themselves.'Th is is the aim of .the
Alliance, farmer friends.
The content of todayis not a con
test between parties, but a contest be
tween the people and the moneyed
oligarchy that controls all depart
ments of government, finance and
transportation, and seeks to control
even the private interests of the in
dividual. It is the people against
the power of concentrated wealth.
The Georgia State Alliance which
met at Macon, August 20, had a most
successful meeting. Delegates were
present from 2,040 Alliances repre
senting a membership of 85,000.
This is a grand showing for Georgia,
and at the rate Nebraska is forging
ahead the time is near at hand when
the old grasshopper state of Nebraska
will be walking hand in hand with
her sister Gulf state in Alliance mem
bership. "Hail mighty dayl
-4 Charles Dickens, who visited this
country in 1842, wrote from Boston
to a friend in London. "There is
not a man in this town, nor in this
state, who has not a blazing fire, and
meat every day for dinner, nor would
a flaming sword in the air attract
more attention than a beggar in the
streets." This was before the days
of legalized brigandage, when con
gress and state legislatures legislated
for the whole people. Millionaires
I were a marvel to the country then.
.In a letter to the Dakota Ruralist,
written by A. Wardall; of Dakota,
during a visit to this state a fortnight
or so ago, he says: Nebraska has a
strong Alliance organization, and it
is growing rapidly, and hopes to be
able scon to grapple successlnlly with
the crushing monopolies that have so
far held them helpless in their rapa
cious .grasp. He further says, they
have started. an active and aggressive
paper at Lincoln called The- Alli
anxe, and the Alliance state secre
tary has established an office at Lin
coln, and are pushing the work
There is a strong talk among the
farmers of this "county about organ
izing themselves into clubs or Alli
ances. In reality there is scarcely a
dissenting sentiment in opposition to
such an organization and all that is
lacking is for some one to take the
lead and make the initiatory move.
The Alliance like all other organiza-1
tions that have the general good for
the basis of their operation, is as val-
uable to its members as they have the
intelligence and honesty to make it.
The organization is conducive of ex
citing the noblest of purposes, and is
well adapted to develop the mental
and moral endowments of all its
members and as a consequence of
this development, their financial con
dition will be greatly improved, but
after all, the success and benefit to
be derived therefrom cannot be at
tained except through the vigilance
and combined efforts of the members
themselves. -Thyer County Herald.
President Powers of the State
Farmers' Alliance, will visit , Thayer
county some time during the present
month with the viewf&rVbrganizing
that county. As the movement is
rapidly spreading . vvetrust that the
county of Thayer iHf fall ?.nto line
and assist the alrer&ast throng in
the accomplishment ;jf of this the no
blest work ever prepared for man.
After the spefches on Labor
Day it will no? jlJnger be doubted
hat the workingiien are in earnest
in demanding jbje Australian ballot
reform law. f Itvas a good day for
politicians ftoget pointers. Time
will tell whetner they improved it
or n0t f
Blaine township Farmers' 'Alliance
will hold Picnie? at Haddock's
grove, threet4ofihalt iTpile east
and one mile south oirHastings, on
Thursday, Sept. 19. A specral invi
tation is extended to Alliances and
farmers generally to be present,
though everybody are invited.
The farmer needs just one thing
the recognition of his rights. All his
troubles and misfortunes have come
from a denial of his rights by other
classes, by government, by politi
cians and by political parties. Farm
ers, like other people, act with some
political party, and like other people
their political attachment is usually
pretty strong. There can be no ob
jection to this," if the political party
with which he acts is doing the farm
er any good. As a farmer we are
free to say that next to insuring the
prosperity of the nation, we desire
our own prosperity rather than the
success of any political party that ex
ists or ever did exist. We have an
undeniable right to share the pros
perity that is enjoyed by the corpora
tions. It is sweat from our brows
that is turned into millions for the
combinations of capitalists, and they
are able to get rich at our expense,
because the politicians favor them
and make laws in their interests and
We can change this condition of
things if we will. It is probable that
if we h;ive the mind to do it, we can
effect organization among farmers
that will enable us to control the
primaries, and thus control the policy
of the political party to which we be
long. A.t all events, it" is or sacred
duty to protect our rights and our
interests, even if it is necessary to
smash the old political parties and
form new ones. We are heartily
tired af paying the fiddler while other
classes do the dancing. We desire
to see the coming of the time when
the profit on a bushel of grain will go
into the pocket of the man who grew
the grain, and we are quite ready to
encourage any plan that will lead to
that result. American Farmer.
ORGANIZATION OF THE ADAMS CO.
The Sub-Alliances of Adams coun
ty met for the purpose of organizing
a County Alliance, at Allen's hall, in
Juniata, Saturday, Aug. 31, at 10:30
a. m. Called to order by Organizer
A. C. Tompkins, and on motion Mr.
W. I. Huxtable, of Hansen, was
made temporary chairman, and C. S.
Wilson, of Kenesaw, secretary. A.
C. Tompkins, of Hansen, Francis
Phillips, of Liberty, H. B. McGaw
of Blaine, E. Bady, of Shiloh, and
John Breckner, of Ayr, were ap
pointed a committee on resolutions.
A committee on permanent organi
zation were then appointed as fol
lows: J. B. Brown, of Liberty, P. C.
Donoly, of Shiloh, and A. A. Bow
man, of West Blue.
The meeting then took a recess un
til one o'clock p. m.
One p. m. Meeting called to or
der by the president pro tern, who re
quested all not members of the Alli
ance to retire from the room, and
LINCOLN, NEBRASKA, WEDNESDAY,
announced that the doors would be
thrown open at 3 u cim-.
body invited in. Bro. John Shea
appointed doorkeeper. The com
mittee on permanent organization"
made the following report: "That
the officers of this organization be a
president, vice-president, secretary
treasurer, lecturer, sargeant-at-arms
and doorkeeper; that the president,
vice-president and secretary-treasurer
be elected by ballot, and that an in
formal balled be taken on each with
out nominations. Other officers to
be elected by acclamation." Report
adopted, and, after the informal bal
lots were duly taken on each officer
embodied in the committee's report,
the following were duly elected:
President, Francis Phillips; Vice
President, W. I. Huxtable; Secretary-Treasurer,
H. B. McGaw; Sar-geant-atawrs,
John Shea; Doorkeep
er, J. B. BrownLecturer, A. C.
Tompkins; Chaplain, John Breckner.
A committee on constitutionnd
by-laws were then appointed as fol
lows: S. M. Davis, Shiloh, S. M.
Frink, West Blue, B. B. Snodgrass,
Blaine. This committee to report at
Committee on resolutions then
made a report which was adopted.
Secretary McGaw then announced
the Alliance picnic to be held in
Blaine township, Sept. 10, after
fwhich, on motion, the doors were
thrown open and s the soul-stirring
marshal . bind of Blaine Alliance
called those onyhe outside into the
11.,, President Phillips then an-
a . regular class meeting an? invited
' .llVDi-'J-- jl' -1 ' V'' . m. . fN-ct
... ; r - ----
speaker called ouEswas Mr. G. Fisher.
of Cottonwood, who gaVehV :t
inga'good: practical talk;Cw.;"
evinced the fact that the old veteran'
of the Cottonwood ' still' lived. ,.JIe
was followed by:J, M.'Mttler of Ken
esaw, J. B. - Brown ;bf&.tberjty, Mr.
Hill -of Rosela'ndM.1 K'fcwood of
KenesWS. M. Frink qf Jj&st ' Blue,
S;- Davis, o, ShiloVAV C. Tomp-
cvcrvuoHViin iaKe ., narr. ; 1 n tii
1. : r t- . . . t : . i,.
bs ui iansen, anq joiners,
he eetir? thin -.adioatned to
date. To a quiet listener outside of
the Alliance it might seem from the
tone of the speakers at this meeting
that the Alliance was strictly a non
political organization, and no .defi
nite plans in that direction for the
future. This is a serious mistake.
There is no organized class of men
today that realize more fully the need
of political action than the Farmers'
Alliance. It knows full well that
class laws have established the pres
ent oppressive systems, and that the
only remedy must come via the bal
lot box. This is what it proposes to
do, and do in a non-partizan way
not non-political. Perhaps our
members are too conservative is why
they are misunderstood, but while
this might be true to a certain extent,
still they are deeply in earnest and
purpose taking hold of all matters
carefully and considerately. While a
policy of this kind might not. bring
the move into prominence so rapidly,
still it is commendable as the safe and
sure road to success. 'The longest
way 'round is the surest way home."
The Farmers' Alliance is bound to
NOTICE EXECUTIVE BOARD.
A meeting of the Executive Com
mittee of the Nebraska State Farm
ers' Alliance will be held at the office
of The Alliance, in Lincoln, on
Tuesday, Sept. 10, 1889, at 1 p. m.
By order of J. Burrows, Ch m.
J. M. Thompson, Sec.
Coal For The Alliance.
August and September is the best
time to figure on the winter's coal sup
ply. We quote the following prices:
Pittsburg, Kansas, good article soft
coal, $1.65 per ton. Mulberry, $1.75
per ton. .In lots of 12 tons or over f. o.
b. at mines. Orders should be sent to
the state agent right away stating
number of cars wanted and time of
shipment. Xeed not be paid for until
received at your station.
The Alliances desiring groceries at
jobbers rates should send money with
the order. To meet the objection of
not knowing how much to remit we
will commence your list at the begin
ning and fill it entire, or until the
money is exhausted. In ordering
lumber, make out bill stating kind and
quality, price of same bill in your
home market, so that in case we could
not save you money we would not til
your order. We quote good 3 in.
wagons at $51, S inch, $53, 3 inch
$54. Address all orders to "Allen
Boot, State Agent, Omaha, Keb.
THE V0IC2 OF THE PEOPLE.
Under this head we solicit short articles
from the people upon any and all subjects
of interest. ,We cannot undertake to be re
sponsible ho-rever for any matter appearing1
under this head the design being: to allow
the greatest freedom to writers whereby
they can discuss, and thus take an interest
in the great questions of the day which ere
so materially affecti ng the people. W rite plai n
but never mind .your spelling, grammar, or
anything of that sort, we'll attend to that.
Sign what you choose to your articles, but
send us your name always.
The Hnltiplicition of Political Issues.
The adoption of new issues by an
old dominant party before said issues
become popular is sure to disintegrate
and defeat the party. The same policy
pursued by a new organization or party
is sure to prevent its growth and make
Theee propositions are self-evident
when we take 'into account the actual
facts. Let us consider the facts.
The leading and basic principles of
the people's party, of the Knights of
Labor, of the Grangers, of the Farm
ers' Alliance, and Labor Unions, are:
First Abolition of land monopoly. .
Second Money at cost.
Third Transportation at cost.
Perhaps none of these organizations
haVe yet adopted these precise formu
las. But arreful reading of their
declaration i jficipJes and litura-
ture will she.
X these tfireCpropo-
sitions are e
their leading principles and practical
aims, and the only means of accom
plishing teit avowed purpose the
emanc?-'' . n of labor from the tyrany
of capitsJ. ;
V. le- majority of the American
peopla&re already in favor. of these
principles as a means of emancipation.
In other wor" the primary purpose
and end of Hj these organizations and
their friends end supporters, Js the
! labor from the tyrany
' these . three political
Srded as the means
v caeans for their ac-
- -w- -
Lids, un. e a larpe majori
ty f the.peofc - 'therefore, all that is
necessary for idaccomplish our end
and purpose, K to unKetnwbat we all
most desire.. 7 - ; ?-35.-,
All that prevents an immediate -uh
ion on these three essential measures
is the mnltiplication of minor side is
sues. For instance: Introduce pro-
L; r "v AXav
i 11 i.iiiir Mini v u u 1 1 -ti uro !( iDicr nnu.
uiiiy, iiuu we uiereuy hiiuu oul nan
the remainder, thus, by these two side
issues alone, reducing our numbers at
least three fourths, thereby making
success and emancipation impossible.
This multiplication of issues is the
most effective means our enemies take
to "divide and conquer." And it is
the most fatal mistake our short sight
ed friends make.
There is no rational hope of our suc
cess until we unite on the above named
essential measures, and set our faces
as a flint against the introduction of
side issues (however good in them
selves) till the primary endfis attained.
Ansley, Neb., Aug. 10. Editor
Alliance: Noticing sketches from
various Alliances I thought I would
drop you a line and let you know
how our Alliance is getting along.
On the 9th of last March we had
hard work to get seven members to
organize Alliance No. 521. Since
that time we have continued to grow
both in numbers, and interest until
at our last meeting we initiated two
new members, making forty-five, and
six applications, with full and earnest
determination to stand by and carry
out Alliance principles to the letter.
Some of us take The Alliance and
some the Economist, and some take
the Workman, but you can rest as
sured that, come what will, 521 Alli
ance will be the last to leave the
ranks, and while there is a man of us
left our voice will be lifted against
the giant oppression of 'monopolies
and in favor of the elevation of labor.
The farmers in this vicinity are fully
awakened to their interests, and if
everything works - as present indica
tions go td show, our enemies on the
outside may expect soon to hear
With best wishes for the success of
of our cause we are
Pres. Alliance 521.
Silver Creek, Neb., Aug. 20.
Editor Alliance: I take the liber
ty of sending you enclosed a copy of
a private letter which may be of suffi
cient interest to your readers to war
rant its publication. The writer had
no. thought whatever of it ever ap
pearing in print. The; members of
our Alliance hope soon to be able to
organize a business association. We
find it rather slow work, principally
on account of a swindling concern of
a hay company here, which nearly
ruined some of our farmers, so that
- ... .;- ' '. ..: . ...
SEFT. 4, 1889.
people are afraid. We adopted an
article precisely identical in terms
with Article 10 of the Nebraska State
Farmers' Alliance Business Associa
tion. But fearing that it might not
afford full protection to individual
stock holders. I sought this legal
counsel. I see no reason whatever
why farmers by means of these asso
ciations should not be able to sell
most of their produce and buy most
of their supplies, and greatly to their
advantage, only so they are careful,
go into no speculations, and always
aim to do a perfectly safe business.
Cemtral City, Neb., Aug. 17.
Chas. Wooster, Dear Sir: You
say your people have an article which
reads, "Stock holders shall not be li
able for the debts of the corporation
beyond the unpaid amount at any
time of their subscription to its capi
tal stock." You then ask, "Will
this protect the stock holders?" I
answer, under certain circumstances
it wilL Under other circumstances
will be no protection.
-You then ask, "Uuder what cir-
cumstlncsaLwill it fail?"
Answer: If yoOr;yprporation should
fail to comply with the tierral Stat-
ut.es in perfecting its orginatlbw it
renders the stock holders collectively
and individually liable for the whole
of the debts contracted from the time
of organization untiPit' does comply
with the provisions of the General
I suggest a strict compliance with
Sections 126, 128, 130, 131 and 136
ot Compiled Statutes of Nebraska,
page 256--7 of corporation. If you
do this your stock holders will only
rI4ke liable for unpaid subscriptions,
Cornell, Neb., Aug, 19. Editok
ALLiANCE-Oie of the most difficult
questions which -virj.Bf ore the Al
liance at the present timelsiHbw
may the members of tmi k Alliance
most enetlrely co-operateifl A political
Every reflecting persons realizes that
without changes in our state and nat
ional laws, and in many cases, radical
changes too, everything else that may
be accomplished can effect but tempor
ary relief. Unless the law making and
law executing powers are brought un
der the control of the laboring classes,
every advantage that may be gained by
cooperation in business, will, by and
by, be neutralized by the maladminis
tration of laws already existing, or the
enactment of such laws as will effect
ually prevent such advantages in the
future. And, though by patient study,
and earnest discussion we may be
brought to agree on what laws may be
necessary to protect our rights and in
terests from the greed of corporations
and capitalists, and the domination of
the monied aristocracy, what relief
shall we obtain by that knowledge, if
our political action is coatroled by
these same soulless corporations or dic
tated by this same selfish aristocracy?
Here we are, mostly members of but
few. months standing in the Alliance.
We have, the most of us, voted from
the time we were old enough, in some
of tbe eight,, or more political parties
now existing. Though unconscious of
it ourselves, we know we are blessed
by political prejudices, for everyone
can see it in his neighbor.
Shall we form a new party on the
platform of justice and equal rights for
aii? "V:".;v, - ' . v ...
Suppose the majority of the dele
grtes of our regular meetings should
decide on such a course. What would
be the result? George Washington
Alliance No. 1279, would bring the
subject of the new party up at the very
next meeting. A resolution would be
promptly introduced binding the Alli
ance to the support of the new party.
John Doe immediately takes the floor.
"Mr President. I like that platform.
It is strong and deep. It was the es
sence of the framework of the grand
old republican party when it was first
formed. I therefore heartily endorse
it. Let it be covered with the right
kintlof planks and it will be worthy of
the support of every member of the
Alliance.-' The gentleman further
remarked that if the principles of a
high protective tariff were incorporat
ed in the platform, he would not only
pledge his own support, but also that
of many others of the republican party
who are getting tired of the corrupt
wilfulness by which the party is controlled.'''--
Richard Roe also in a few pertinent
remarks expressed his admiration of
the new party platform. It was the
grand foundation of the time honored
democratic party of which he had al
ways been a member. But he could
' ' . '
not agree with Bro. Doe in regard to
the tariff. It was already too high,
and was creating a dangerous surplus
in the treasury. He would recommend
that a plank be inserted which would
pledge the judicious reduction of the
tariff so that it would relieve the bur
den of the poor.
Mr. James Kadioal would say that
the platform met with his hearty ap
proval, and with the addition of a
plank pledging the new party to the
principles of free trade, he was sure it
would be enthusiastically adopted by
the Union Labor party of which he was
a member. Mr. Robert Faithgood said
that while he heartily endorsed the
principles of the new party, he could
not pledge himself to its support until j
he knew what stand it would take on
prohibition. He had already pledged
himself against the traffic in ardent
spirits until it was destroyed and with
out a temperance plank in the plat
form he could not support it. Mr. Da
vid Beering said that he was in favor
of the new platform, and of temper
ance, but he would never join a party
which would try to dictate to him what
he should eat cr drink, or prevent his
purchasing the same. Mrs. Watchful
said she was decidedly in favor of the
prohibition plank, but before she voted
for the resolution she would like to
know what was goincc to be done about
woman suffrage. She said that the
term "equal rights" was a , misnomer
so lonjr as nearly one-half of our adult
1 population was disfranchised. The
Yrderit then called the Vice Presi
dent to the ctiair,aud in a few forcible
and eloquent remarks reminded them
of the fact that they could ftcaoniplisl
nothing unless they 'hung together".?
The vote was then taken with the
following result: For resolution, 21,
against resolution, 20. The resolution
was declared adopted. Mr. Doe im
mediately rose to his feet and with
deep emotion said that that this was
what he had been warned of from the
first, but he had not believed it until
now. This action proved to him that
the design of the Alliance was to break
ud the reuublican party. It was with
r r J '
I. V. bPARKt.i"Weep regret that he was forced to this
t " a 1.1 . f .
, j-jrvjon, out ne snouia uave nounng
cpnclubTiiixJV. Alliance. He
more to do with l"r:
th.m tank hi W. nnri wifliri. V.!---
. ..... . ,
itoe saia that 11 no must oeiong to avt
political party he should cling to the
the democracy. He also withdrew. A
tofejpber then moved -that - they proceed
to form Ihemselves into a new "party
club. During lhe confusion hat en
sued in the discussion of this motion,
Mr. Beering moved that the "Alliance
adjourn sine die. The motion was car
ried. The President then announced
that they would proceed to organize the
new party club. Ten members were
enrolled and they then adjourned for
Now Mr. Editor you may think this
is a picture of mere fancy, but I as
sure you that it is nearly a true repro
duction of what really happened in
many neighborhoods in this state,
when the Old Farmer' Alliance was
merged into the anti-monopoly party.
And have we learned nothing from ex
perience? Is there no better way to
use the political power which our free
institutions still give us, than to arouse
the prejudice of our members and to
break to pieces by party, what has been
joined together on prmciples? This I
will try to answer next week.
J. II. Poweiis.
State Agent's Notice.
It is very desirable and will save
some expense, and be better in every
way, if the Alliances will bulk their
orders so one shipment will do for
many parties. It is found that little
or nothing can be saved on groceries
at retail. If orders are in unbroken
packages can be had at jobbers' rates.
Price lists are of little account only in
a general way. The price on sugar
changed three cents in one week not
long since. Many other things the
same. Allen Root,
Price List of Oils to Alliances.
150 test, medium white coal oil, V cents.
150 " prime " l()' "
, 175 ." Y.L " " " 13 "
74 stove gasoline "11 Vi "
These oils in barrel lots. The best
harness oil in either one or five gallon
cans, 70 cents per gallon. Pure Neat's
foot oil in one to five gallon cans, 60
cents per gallon. In barrel lots, 50
cents per gallon. Axle grease, thirty
six boxes in case, $1.83.
Allen Root, State Agent.
The indications now point to the fact
the State Fair this year will be more
attractive than ever, as the managers
have been untiring in their efforts to
excel all former exhibitions. As it is
the last year of the terra of five years
for which the fair was let to Lincoln,
our city will see to it that it is both
profitable and attractive. The trades
display.is now assured and will be an
immense affair. Everything in con
nection with the fair will be on a
grander scale than ever.
The State Republican Convention
call is out for the convention to be
held ot Histing, October 8th. '
Queer Customs la Thibet
Polyandry ia that species o' poly
gamy in which the wife has more hus
bands than oqo, and it pre veils wher
ever the Thibetan language Is spoken,
even in districts' on the Indian sldo ot
the mountains. Polyandry is found in
many other places, such as tho Interior
of Ceylon, among the Tod as and Xaira
of Southern India, Iroquois, and aborig
inal Tasmanians; but Thibetan polyan
dry has the peculiarity that , tho hus
bands are all brothers, or at least very
nearly related, so that the woman be
comes the wife of a whole family, it
does riot appear to bo in anyway con
nected with the Thibetan religion, but
to owe its existence to tho poverty of tho
country and the desire to limit th
population, rich and poor, and It 1
only superseded by poiygamy, or mul
tiplicity of wives, where the poopia
have been much in contact with Hin
doos or Mohammedans.
Turner, the second of Warren Hast
ings envoy to Thibet, says that the
number of husbands is not restricted
or defined. At Teshu Lumbo, tho res
idence of tho Tesihu Lima, ho has
known a family of five brother living
happily with one wife, and he thinks
this probably is the practical UmlU
The children are regardoa as scions of
tho house, rather than of any Individ
ual member of it; all the husbands arw
treated as the fathers of the children,
and there is no notioeablo difference in
the relation. of a child to the different
fathers. The surplus women loft by
the system are provided for in .tho
Lama nunneries, whore they learn to
read and copy tha Thibetan Script
ures and to ongago in religious ser
vices. The choice of a wife for a family I
the right of the older brother, and tho
contract he makes involves marriage
contracts with all tho other brotheriu.
The system is said to have existed in
Thibet since prehistoric tlmj, so that
Its origin is lost in antiquity. It has
been suggested that It arose in a state
of society whero men were forced ta
li away from home, and whero tho
duty ot protecting the lamuy wouia
fall ott tho brotheri In turn. Tho nota
ble benefit -ts that it restricts popula
tion in regions" wV?ro emigr.amn in,
difficult and whero thoraans of ub
aistence cannot be eadly incr&aU-
London Globe. t .
In tli3 DivX D32p Sea.
It has long bon known that the day
light cannot penelra'j for r.ny gi-cat
distanco into the depth of Uia sea or
our deeper, lakes. There has been,
however, much discrepancy in tho re
sults of experiments. A Swiss investi
gator, M. Aspir, luw recently combined
his roacarohea with those of I'ror. 1'.
A. FoiToll, ani come to some ia.oros.t-
. "A. tunciusiuiw couuu. mug uw nonq-
'T conclusions coiicoi-niug iho
irsr. - jn,m Gf daylight into Urn water of
music, mu lakes. The method of
the out. in4.a.t.in Itv mi'
expeti ajWhat cymplicitei apifjv
of a sonvVv.ttthi-tKo,iid pin--'- ; -a
proper prou V(jt or vn3i'ed to the depth
desired dosir?vfi)Sio.i fo.- ten minutes
and thon withdrawn for d j.t'ijp:nint.
! The results of soverat tri iL uppear
to establish thogjuar il conohislo.i that
4itho Lalro Geneva. in the month of
SepX0Tnberthe utno'int of - daylight at
tho depth bf-lO metroj below tho sur
face is about the exixx as the light per
ceived of a clear nighCwhen there is
no moon. Similar cxperimeui-varrioi
on in tho Mediterranean appear U
show that in tho middle of a bright
sunlit di-y per.'ect darkness is attained
at the depth of 30 ) metres. Tims at
less than 1300 feat wei probably pass
below tho level whero sunllg.it ha
any sensible inlluoneo on the hie which
the waters contain.
As most of tho sea floor, probabljr
more than 19-20 of Its area, has great
er depth than 1,800 foet, wo may as
sume that in general the life of the sea
bottom has to live in utter darkness, iw
gloom practically as deep as that of m.
cavern. As over half the earth's sur
face Is covered by water to a greater
depth than 1,300 feet, it follows that
more than half of tbe earth receives no
direct effect from sunlight.
The experiment on Lake Geneva
appear to show a seasonal variation in
the transparency of the waters, there
being a difference of twenty or thirty
metres in the penetration of light, tho
sun1s ray 8 attaining the greatest depth,
in March and the least in August. Tho
difference in the penetration o! light
into the waters of the Mediterranean
and those of Lake Geneva appears to
Indicate that tho latter basin contains
in its . waters, despite the apparent
clearness of the fluid, a certain small
amount of organic matter. New York
Bales for a Rainy Day.
. If the umbrella is at the "other end
of tho lino," boar it patiently. Some
other umbrella will do just as well.
Be sure and inform every one you
meet that "it rains.' Otherwise they
might remain in ignorancoof the damp
Waterproof garments may be depend
ed upon to 8hbd water upon other
folks. That seems to be the chief ob
ject of their existence.
Do not allow any ventilation in a
horse car" on a rainy morning. It
might exhilarate the passengers to
deeds of violenqp.
Carry your umbrella very carefully
and you can just manage to drain one
quarter section of it down the back of
the person who is so unfortunate as to
be ahead of you. He will appreciate
this. Hartford Post
We may, with very little inquietude,
see a man persist in a project which
he has found to be impracticable llvo
in an inconvenient house because it.
was contrived by himself, or wear a
coat of a particular cut in hopes by
perseverance to bring it into fashion.
These are indeed follies; but they ar
only follies, and however wild or ri
diculous, can very little affect other.
Indeed, tho folly of persisting In im
practicable ideas is generally visited
only on ourselves.
Y Copper 'loed Shoes.
Tno Connecticut man who hit upou
the device of putting co per tips on
the toes of children's shoes has. realiz
ed a fortune of $1,000,000 for, his idea.
Powered by Open ONI