The Nebraska independent. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1896-1902, May 15, 1902, Image 1

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1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 II I ? i II 1 II If II II
NO. 52.
St. Pierre, Island of Martinique, French
Wit Indie, Destroyed hy Eruption
of Mont Pelee Many Thousand
Lives Lost
Readers of The Independent who
have access to the dailies have doubt
less read the details of the eruption of
Mont Pelee on the island of Martin
ique, French West Indies, one of the
lesser Antilles, and the total destruc
tion of St. Pierre, a city of something
over 20,000 Inhabitants. It is impos
sible to secure anything like accurate
details of the number of lives lost,
but a3 the dispatches say that the
only ones who escaped death were
those who left St. Pierre before . 8
o'clock last Thursday morning (May
8), when the eruption began, the fa
talities must be near the 20,000 mark.
A dispatch from Fort de France, Isl
and of Martinique, says:
"Strange to relate, in view of the
number of inhabitants of St. Pierre
who were swept to death by the vol
canic waves from Mount Pelee on
Thursday, very few corpses have been
found by those engaged in the work
of cremating the dead bodies. This Is
due to the fact that most of the people
are buried under the thick layer of
cindered lava, which apparently en
tirely consumed the bodies of the
Since the destruction of Pompeii,
nearly 2,000 years ago, by the erup
tion of Vesuvius, no volcano has ap
proached Mont Pelee in the destruc
tion of human life. The Martinique
disaster stands in the class with the
destruction of Galveston, and the great
tidal wave in the Pacific a good many
years ago when hundreds of thousands
of Pacific islanders lost thefr lives.
The eruption of Vesuvius threw
out such an enormous amount of
molten lava that the city of Pompeii
was completely covered; but the in
habitants of St. Pierre lost their lives
by inhaling the deadly gases thrown
out by the volcano. Mont Pelee (pro
nounced Palay) was thought to be ex
tinct; it has shown no signs of ac
tivity for over fifty years, and the
crater was filled with water, forming
a lake where the people boated and
bathed. Since the Pelee eruption the
volcano Soufriere on the island of St.
Vincent, British West Indies, has been
in a state of eruption and it is re
ported that 1,600 people have per
ished. Congress has appropriated half a
million dollars to aid the survivers
of the great catastrophe, and Presi
dent Roosevelt has issued a call for
voluntary contributions from the
American people. Cornelius N. Bliss
of New York is made treasurer of the
relief committee. Postmasters and
presidents of all national banks will
act as agents for the collection and
forwarding of funds. John C. Whar
ton and Victor B. Caldwell of Omaha
are named on the committee.
James Taylor, who was one of the
officers of the1 Roraima, the Quebec
line steamship which was destroyed in
the harbor of St. Pierre, gives a
graphic story of the tragedy of "last
Thursday to the Herald from St.
Kitts, island of St Christopher", B.
W .1.:
"We experienced the greatest diffi
culty in getting into port," said he.
"Appalling sounds were issuing from
the mountains behind the town, which
was shrouded in darkness. All the
passengers were up and some were
trying to obtain photographs.
"Suddenly I heard a tremendous ex
plosion. Ashes began to fall thick
upon the dock, and I could see a
black cloud sweeping down upon us.'
I dived below and, dragging with me
Samuel Thomas, a gangway man and
fellow countryman, sprang into a
room, shutting the door to keep out
the heat that was already unbearable.
"The ship rocked, and I expected
every moment that it would sink.
Outside I heard a voice pleading for
the door to be opened. It was Scott,
the first officer, and I opened the door
and dragged him into the room.
"It soon became unbearably hot and
I went on deck. All about was lying j
the dead and the dying. Little chil
dren were moaning for water. I did
what I could for them. I obtained wa
ter, but when it was held to their
swollen lips they were unable to
swallow because of the ashes which
clogged their throats. One little chap
took water in this method and rinsed
out the ashes, but even then could
not swallow, so badly was his throat
burned. He sank back unconscious
and a few minutes later was dead.
All aft the ship was afire, and from
the land came drafts of terrible heat.
At last, when I could stand it no
longer, I sprang overboard. The wa
ter was almost hot enough to parboil
me, but a wave soon swept in from
the ocean bringing with it cool water.
"I was caught in the receding wave,
which was of tidal velocity, and was
carried out to sea. Then on the sec
ond return of the wave I washed
against an upturned sloop, to which
I clung. A few minutes later I was
joined by another man whom I learned
was Captain Muggah of the Roraima.
He was in dreadful agony and kept
begging piteously to be put on board
his ship.
"Picking up some wreckage and a
tool chest, with five others who joined
me. we succeeded in forming a rude
raft, on which we placed the captain.
Seeing an upturned boat I asked one
of the five to swim out to it and
bring it over so that Captain Muggah
might have an opportunity to live.
The man succeeded in getting the boat
righted, but Instead of returning he
picked up two of his countrymen and
went away in the direction of Fort de
"Seeing the Roddam, which had ar
rived In port soon after we anchored,
making for the Roraima, I said good
bye to Captain Muggah and swam to
the Roddam. Before I could reach It
it burst Into flames and put out ; to
sea. I finally reached the Roraima
about 2:30 in the, afternoon and later
was taken off by the cruiser Suchet.
Samuel Thomas, the gangway man
whose life was saved by Taylor, de
scribes a woman who was burned, to
death while she held her baby in her
arms, protecting it-with her own body
from the fire that filled the air. The
child was alive long after its mother
had ceased to suffer.
Republicans Trying to Divert Public At
tention Concealment First Then Inva
sion Now Justification
Washington; D. C, 'May 10, 1902.
(Special Correspondence.) The repub
licans in congress sadly need someone
to advise them for their own good.
Their much-vaunted ' defense and Jus
tification of the Philippine outrages
proved to. be merely; a clumsy attempt
to distract public attention by pre
tending that various exceptional cases
of disorder and lawlessness in this
country had anything to do with the
principles at issue. It may be 'good
policy in one sense, to try to divert
public attention: from the acts of our
army in the Philippines, but the very
attempt shows, clearly that the re
publicans had no defense to make.
The democrats need have done noth
ing except let Lodge,. Beveridgeetal.
talk. They are convicted out of their
own mouths. If there is one thing
which stands out more clearly than
another in the republican muddle, it
is that Roosevelt does not desire to
shield those who have been guilty of
permitting the "kill and burn" atroci
ties and the "water cure" .method of
benevolent assimilation. Yet Senator
Lodge had no more sense than to at
tempt to justify these very atrocities,
thus putting the responsibility for
them upon the administration and the
war department. "I am not here to
excuse cruelty or torture," cries Lodge
and then proceeds to do that very
Roosevelt declares that no punish
ment can be too great for those who
use inhuman methods of warfare and
then Lodge proceeds to plead justifi
cation for the General Smith order
and other brutalities. Doubtless the
whole matter is first up to the war de
partment and then to the administra
tion and the party in power. There
can be no shirking of responsibility,
because the guilt is divided among
these various departments. If Roose
velt has honesty and courage he can
easily-get rid of Secretary Root who
has not only known of these outrages,
but who has aided and' abettedthem.,
If the republican majority in congress
expects to in any way justify itself
with the people it .will put itseif on
record as being ready to use its abil
ity to put a stop to the outrages In
the Philippines. -, -
The puerile cry that any criticism is
"an attack on the army" is hardly
worthy of answer. When did the army
get to be such a little god that it was
above criticism? It is true that the
individual soldier should be blamed
far less for any participation in these
cruelties than the war department and
the administration and the republican
majority in congress which permits
and encourages such a policy. It Is
equally absurd for the republicans to
do the baby act and cry out that the
democrats are attacking the Philip
pines policy for campaign purposes.
This might impose upon the Filipino
children of ten whom General Smith
claims are so ferocious that our troops
must be permitted to shoot down the
mothers of these children, but it will
not impose upon the country at large.
The democratic minority stands as
the guardian of the interests of the
whole people. If it were not for the
persistent efforts of the democrats the
story of the Philippine outrages would
still be hidden in the archives of the
war department and the killing and
burning and reconcentration and wa
ter curing would be going merrily on
in the Philippines. As it Is only a
very small portion of the real truth
has been extracted. The republicans
first tried concealment, then evasion
and lastly justification. Nothing can
now keep the country from registering
its disapproval of the policy which
has permitted our national honor to
be disgraced. Our adoption of Weyler
ism in the Philippines is a lasting dis
grace. One that can neither be wiped
out nor forgotten.
Roosevelt finds himself In just the
awkward position that was prophecied
when he fell heir to this administra
tion only more so. After all his blus
ter about what he will and what he
will not do, he finds his congress so
hopelessly rent by factions and dis
sensions that it is powerless to do any
thing that he wants even if it de
sired to carry out his wishes and it
mostly doesn't. Every day of such de
bate as the senate has witnessed for
the last ten days spells defeat for the
republican party not only for the com
ing congressional election, but in the.
next presidential campaign. Yet the
confusion is so great that Roosevelt
has to threaten an extra session if
this congress does not hurry up and
pass the Philippine bill and the Cu
ban tariff bill. The record so far has
not been a creditable one. :
" The alleged Chinese exclusion bill,
which is one of the few pieces of do
mestic legislation, is a gold brick
which should gladden the celestial
heart of Wu Ting Fang and his
friends. The law will only be opera
tive until December, 1904, and then
when the treaty falls we will be left
exposed to unrestricted Chinese Im
migration. The Philippine clause Is
worthless and even now the islands
are to he made the gateway for an
influx of Chinese labor. When you
add to this that the "full dinner pail"
is now without meat, there Is nothing
to enthuse the average citizen either
with the doings ; of congress or the
administration. -D.' P. B,
Kepublicans Exhibit Agility In Aroiding
Discussion of Philippine Bill Car
mack Skins Dolliver Judge
Tibbets Scored 1 ,.' -
Washington, D. C, May 12, . 1902.
(Special Correspondence.) The re
publicans in the senate are pursuing
every method to avoid the discussion
ot the Philippine bill. Senator Lodge
has tried and tried to get, the minor
ity to agree upon, an early vote, bwt1
the disclosures from . the Philippines
are coming so thick and fast that the
democrats, realizing that the facts
should be presented to the American
people, have refused to agree to any
policies of suppression. Senator Till
man was forced into a discussion of
the race problem by the senior sena
tor from Wisconsin, Mr. Spooner, in
order to give the republicans an op
portunity to discuss that mooted ques
tion. In fact they are determined ' to
avoid the real issue as much as possi
ble. Senator Lodge, the . republican
chairman of the Philippines commit
tee, really opened the debate for the
majority on Monday last, when for
three hours he dodged, and dived to
keep away from the Philippine ques
tion, with all the agility of which he
is a master, and we are given notice
that today Senator Foraker . will go
through some more contortions to
show his ability in "coming near, but
not touching" the real question.
The democrats have brought many
and serious charges concerning the
condition of affairs in the Philippines,
and they have proven them beyond the
shadow of a doubt from the "govern
ment's witnesses," all of which make3
the case stronger. From the witnesses
summoned only by - the majority, for
they refuse to summon any of im
portance which the minority want,
they have heard of General Smith's
Herod-like, Weyler-like butcheries;
they have been brought face to face
with some of the most horrible In
stances of the water cure; they have
been told vividly of such butcheries
and atrocities which several years ago
would have stirred the American peo
ple beyond the control of the admin
istration. All this from the witnesses
for the government. If the minority
could only be able to summon men of
influence in the Philippine islands
men of power among the Filipinos
themselves the opposition, or the de
fense of the Philippine people, could
be heard and their case justly tried.
Here we have formed a plan of gov-,
ernment the senate and1 the house-
each presenting : radically different
measures each of which is the best
possible. All this has been arranged
by the committees of the senate and
house without ever hearing a single
native, without ever ascertaining the
wishes or the desires of the people In
the archipelago. Four years have
elapsed and nothing has been done.
We have shown to the world that we
don't-know how to manage colonies.
We have nothing to show in the isl
ands for our four years' work and for
the millions spent, save razed towns,
plundered villages and a terrorized
people. We have given to the world a
successor to Attila, to Weyler, our own
General Smith, who murders babes",
who would make a fair island a
"howling wilderness,' and who boasts
of it.
Yet, whenever the democrats in the
senate begin to attack the butcheries
and atrocities in the Philippines, the
republicans come back at them with
the cry, "Don't sling mud at the Amer
ican soldier." That was the whole
text of the "oleaginous" speech of
Senator Lodge. Don't defile the proud
name of the American soldier, let us
kill and burn, let us apply all the
water cures," let us "kill all over
ten," but don't you throw mud at the,
American soldier. Does the republican
party think the American people are
oing to be fooled longer by that siren
cry? io tney trunk tnat wnen tne
other political party show to the
American people that the islands
have been ravaged and that we have
another and a more horrible Weyler,
that they can fall back on their old
deceptive cry of "Don't throw mud at
the American soldier." Senator Bev-
eridge, the pestiferous little ' grass
hopper from Indiana, broke loose on
Tuesday and before he had finished,
came to be the butt end of all the wit
and sarcasm of the senate. He charged
the democrats with being diliatory in
clearing up the situation, and the re
ports were immediately shown him
that he, more than any other man, had
taken up most of the time making
ittle speeches as to why the witness
should not be compelled to testify.
f anyone had taken time, and use-
essly as" well as diliatorily, it was
the "Wasp of the Wabash."
On Tuesday Senator Turner, - the
awyer of the senate, made a magni
ficent speech, able and' rhetorical, in
opposition to the passage of the pend
ing bill. He gave the administration
a good lambasting for its policies and
declared that the policy of "kill or
burn" must continue if we want to
subjugate the Filipinos. It was a
magnificent speech and, although not
eloquently delivered, is a splendid
piece of campaign literature and well
worth reading. -
On Thursday Senator Dolliver, the
egotistic senator from Iowa, toyed
with the wrong cage and as usual
came out of the short end of the horn.
Your correspondent, Mr. Risley, came
Into my office a short while after and
said, "Carmack has made the greatest
speech delivered- this session in the
senate." . Risley was enthusiastic over
it and repeatedly laughed heartily over
"poor Dolliver." The junior senator
from Iowa had taken, occasion to very
bitterly attack Carmack for his speech
and, in closing, read an editorial from
the newspaper which Mr. Carmack
formerly edited, the Memphis Commer
cial Appeal, which, although speaking
of Mr. . Carmack in very pleasant
terms, denounced his speech on the
Philippines.; Dolliver took occasion to
sarcastically chide the : junior .senator
from Tennessee about it. In reply,
Senator Carmack took the opportun
ity to floor Senator Dolliver in a few
well chosen words. In reference to the
editorial from the Commercial-Appeal,
Senator Carmack said that personal
ly it was very complimentary, and
politically, it was as fair as could be
expected, from a paper . whose owner
was Governor Luke E. Wright, now
holding the position of acting gov
ernor in the Philippines under the ad
ministration: The floor broke out into
a roar, at Dolliver's expanse and it was
several minutes before," the . chairman
could restore .order J L But here Mr.
Carmack . did ; not! (stop; ,-; Dolliver
thought; he- could Ibe sarcastic, but
Carmack thought he. could go one
better and . rib wonder .Risley said
"poor Dolliver.!:' It is a habit of Dol
liver's, in makina aspeech, to use, his
arms in the queerest, of gestures, but
Carmack . said ithat he would , not at
tempt to imitate; him .because he had
not the necessary, ."Control of. his ab
dominal muscles." He described Dolli
ver as hanging ; by; his ."prehensile
tail" and making "simian gestures,'
which every, one - knew to mean that
he was comparing the Benator to an
ape. And, in conclusion, he spoke .of
the personalities that had been thrown
by Dolliver. "If : I were Jo, object,"
called Carmack -"at each instance that
the senate - violated the rules ' of de
cency in debate, I should have to. rise
and condemn : him to absolute silence
for the rest of his life." Here Senator
Hoar rose and, called Carmack to or
der, but as he bad finished, the laugh
was on Hoar.' tJo wonder Risley was
enthusiastic - It was the master battle
between the two masters of sarcasm,
Dolliver and Carmack, and the latter
proved that he is not only . the master
of the senate in eloquence, in Jogic and
in ability, but the master of the senate
In hurling the . most ; biting sarcasm.
Dolliver has been taught a lesson, and
won't monkey, with the machine again.
Today Senator Lodge will make an
other, attempt td fix a time for a vote
upon the bill, but as usual this will
prove without effect. He will then at
tempt to have the senate meet one
hour earlier each ; day. This the demo
crats are willing to do upon one con
dition, and . that is that the republican
senators be compelled to -attend the
sessions. Each day. there are dui iew
senators present to hear the bill dis
cussed and the democrats are deter
mined that they shall be compelled to
attend or otherwise they will not agree
The Gold Democrats on the Tariff and the
Meat Trust What Mr. Bryan's
Position Asks Mr. DeHart
Gold democrats, as they call them
selves in this part of the country, are
teaching that a protective tariff raises
prices. The New York Journal, New
York World, New York Herald and
other democratic papers are teaching
this doctrine. They believe in free
trade or a tariff for1 revenue only, and
whether they are free traders or rev
enue tariff ers they are opposed to pro
tective tariffs on the ground that they
raise the prices of the necessaries of
life. At the present time they are
pointing to the exceptionally high
price of meat and saying that the tar
iff duty on foreign meat is the cause
of the high price of all meat produced
in this country. They say, for in
stance, tnat the duty of 2 cent3 a
pound on foreign beef is the cause of
the high price of beef . produced here
and the cause of the high price of veal
produced in this country is due to
the tariff duty of 2 cents a pound on
foreign veal. They say the same thing
with respect to pork and mutton
The truth is, that whenever this
country can produce any commodity,
not only In sufficient quantities to sup
ply our own people, but can send a
portion of the. supply abroad, then
the price here does not depend upon.
the duty pn the similar foreign ar
ticle. For instance, if we can produce
all the meat we want here, and can
send meat abroad then the price of
meat here does not depend upon the
price abroad or the duty on similar
foreign meat. If, for instance, we can
supply all the beef we want and can
send beef abroad, then the price of
beef here does not depend upon the
duty on foreign beef. The same :'s
true of mutton and pork. This being
true, it is a gross misrepresentation
for gold democrats, or any one else, to
say that the high price of meat is due
to a duty of 2 cents a pound on for
eign beef, veal, mutton and pork.
With respect to commodities which
we can produce but are not producing
In sufficient quantities to satisfy our
own demands, then the price may be
affected by the duty on similar foreign
commodities. Sugar is a commodity
of this class. We are producing it,
but not in sufficient quantities to sat
isfy our own demands. If there is a
duty on' foreign sugar and we are
obliged to go to foreign countries for
sugar, then the duty will have a ten
dency to raise the price in this coun
A- 1 1 mama) a e '"PI! A wr ' a va' "Hilt"
uu ituj earner scooiuuo.. trv -not onlv of thfi ?uear' produced
few of .the republicans nave
tended thfi dallv sessions; and they are
Lodee. SDOoner: -Beveridge. . Dolliver
and McComasJ "Senator Foraker .will
speak today, Senator Stewart on
Tuesday and Senator Spooner on-Wed
nesday. On Thursday the democrats
will open again with Senators Clay,
Bacon, Money, Patterson and Bailey.'
A vote on the bill will not be reached
for two weeks yet and perhaps longer.
On Saturday Senator Bailey of Tex
as made a. brilliant speech against the
embassy to the coronation of Edward
the seven times. In the consideration
of the appropriation bill, he offered an
amendment to the effect that no money
appropriated by this bill should be
used to pay the expenses of envoys to
the coronation of Edward. "If.:' said
Mr. Bailey, "we are to send a special
embassy to the coronation of this
monarch in Great Britain, we must
hereafter send an embassy to the
coronation of every monarch, or else
give affront to the nation concerned."
Continuing, he said: "If it be true that
we have sent embassies to the cor
onation of European rulers, I ask- if
special embassies ever have been sent
o the inauguration of the president
of the United States? Are they en
titled at our . hands to what they do
not give us?" Mr. Bailey finally with
drew his coronation amendment and
n its place offered a resolution declar
ne that it is beyond the power of the
president to appoint special embassies
without the consent of the senate, the
resolution went over. The senate then
passed , the army appropriation bill."
The president has named, rion. .Her
bert G- Squires, who is. now secretary
to the legation of the United States in
China, to he the first envoy of the
United States"' in thenew republic of
Cuba,-which igflaunched to theworld
on Wednesday, May 20. He has also
appointed Ewell S. Bragg of Wisconsin
to be consul general at Havana,' Cuba.
The house has passed the bills to
admit the territories of . .Oklahoma,
New. Mexico and Arizona , Into the
statehood. This bill was the only im
portant measure considered by the
house during the past week. The first
proposition was to unite Arizona
and New. Mexico into one territory
and then admit it into statehood asr
the state of Montezuma. -But this
amendment was beaten and in its
stead the bill admitting each of them
was passed.
The senate on Saturday passed a bill
appropriating one -hundred thousand
dollars for the relief of the sufferers
on the island of Martinique, who have
suffered one of the worst calamities
here, which has to pay. no duty, but of
all sugar.; It would, certainly have a
tendency to rais6 the price of foreign
sugar, because the price or foreign
sugar, when brought . here, depends
upon the price abroad, plus transpor
tation, plus duty. This has a ten
dency to make a high price of foreign
sugar, when brought here, and, if
there is a combination or trust among
our sugar producers, they can raise
the price of all - sugar produced here
to the level of foreign sugar. But,
when the price of domestic sugar-Is
thus raised, it is done not by the tar
iff duty alone or by the trust alone,
but by the two combined. The remedy
in such cases is either to remove the
tariff duty or the trust. If we wish to
encourage the production of sugar in
this country by a duty on foreign su
gar, then the proper remedy is to
keep the duty on foreign sugar and
break up the unlawful trust or com
bination and compel them to sell their
sugar to the highest bidder or what
the market will fetch. If we think
that our own sugar producers: the
beet men for instance, ought to have
some protection as against foreign
beet sugar, fed by a bounty abroad,
then we keep the duty on foreign su
gar and watch for a combination
among our own beet sugar producers.
At the present time, there might, with
propriety, be an argument as to whe
ther or not the price of domestic su
gar is affected by the duty on foreign
sugar, but there is no room .for argu
ment as to whether or not the price of
domestic meat is affected by the duty
on foreign meat. Therefore, if we find
the price of meat unusually high, we
must look for the cause in some other
direction than the tariff law. The
gold democrats, in pointing to the
tariff duty on meat, as the cause of
the high price of meat, are making no
distinction between meat and sugar,
which latter commodity is a very dif
ferent kind of commodity, because we
have to go abroad for a part of our
sugar and do not have to go abroad
for any part of -our meat. If demo
crats could only keep in their minds
that this country can produce more
than we want ' of some commodities
and not as much as we want of an
other class of commodities, it would
help them' to understand the practical'
working of a tariff law.
With respect to commodities which
we do not produce at all, such as. tea
and coffee, the price here depends
upon the price abroad, plus transpor
tation, plus duty. With respect to all
such commodities, the duty, has a ten-
of the modern times.' From present dency to raise the price to the con
reports the eruptions are progressing
all over the Indies and the loss of
life is estimated in Martinique alone
to be about forty thousand lives. The
whole city of St, Pierre, containing
about twenty-five thousand souls, has
been destroyed in a space of three min
utes by eruptions . from Mount Pelee.
This , volcano was believed by all to
be entirely extinct, but In the" space of
three minutes it burst forth and en
gulfed the whole section of the island.
Ashes from the eruption have been
found over a hundred miles away and
it is impossible as yet to reach . the
Island." The United States consul and
family, It Is believed, lost their lives.
Further reports show that a volcano
on the island of St. Vincent is in
' -Continued on Page 5.) -r - -.-.
sumer, as much as the duty at least,
if not more, because these commodities
cannot be had without paying tb.3
price abroad, in addition to transpor
tation and import duty, as well as an
export duty in the foreign country
from which these goods come, if there
happens to be an export duty. There
is no room open for argument as to
the practical effect of a tariff duty on
these commodities. If the gold demo
crats would take into consideration
the fact, that there are at least three
kinds of commodities, namely, those
we cannot or do not want to produce
at all, those that we can produce, f ut
not In sufficient quantities to supply
our demands at home, and thost that
we can produce in such quantities as
to supply not only our. home markets,
but to send a surplus abroad , it would
help them to understand the practical
working of a tariff law, especially as
regards prices. It would also enable
them to see that there is such a thing
as a science of tariff taxation.
Tariff ; taxation, as a science, is no
new thing. It has been known a long
time. Among some statesmen it has
been considered only as a fine art to
get money out of the pockets of the
people without their knowing it. or.
if they knew it, without their feeling
it. Our fathers understood it well.
They considered that a tariff law
might be used not only for getting
money for the support of the federal
government ,but for encouraging do
mestic Industries and building up the
country rapidly. This policy was com
menced at the beginning of the fed
eral government and continued, by the
consent of all political parties, until
1846, when the south got control of
the treasury department at Washing
ton and made a, law on the lines of
"tariff-for-revenue-only." This Is
what the, gold democrats want to do
now, but in these times we want stat
esmen who can look upon tariff laws,
not merely as a means or art of get
ting money out of , the people, with
out their knowing it, for the support
of the federal government, but who
can look' upon tariff taxation as a
science. McKinley 1 studied the tariff
during his whole public life, if not
before, as a science. Henry Clay de
voted his life to the same subject and
educated a school of statesmen. Abra
ham Lincoln was a pupil of Henry
Clay, and, in the early part of his
political career, was as much absorbed
in the tariff as he afterwards was in
the slavery question. John I C. Cal
houn devoted a large part of his life
to tariff, the other part being devoted
to slavery and how, the tariff and slav
ery were xionnected; and the result c?
his work and study was , a school of
statesmen who believed in a tariff-for-revenue-only.
There has never
been a school of statesmen in this
country (Henry George excepted) who
believed in free trade with respect to
all kinds of commodities. The school
of the protectionists, founded by Clay,
advocated more free trade than the
school of Calhoun, because the former
believed in free trade with respect to
all commodities the country could not
produce, while the latter believed In
putting duties on all commodities,
whether we could produce them or not.
The democratic party in 1846 adopt
ed the Calhoun plan of tariff, as ap
pears by the tariff law of that year.
At that time the whigs were the op
position party. They) were divided on
the subject, some believing in Henry
Clay and some in Calhoun. Ten years
later (1856) when the republican party
was formed, all republicans were be
lievers in Henry Clay and all demo
crats were believers in Calhoun. This
was the case four years later (1860)
when Lincoln was elected president
against ' two democrats, who each be
lieved in tariff for revenue only. For
twenty years the civil war and the
issues growing out of that war ob
scured tariff discussion and we heard
but little about it,- until 1880, when
the democrats brought out again Cal
houn's old idea. From that time un
til 1896, a period of 16 years, we had
plenty of -tariff discussion, but Mr.
Bryan and hi3 friends obscured tariff
again by bringing forward the money
question, especially the silver issue.
Where is Mr. Bryan now on the tar
iff issue, as now presented by the gold
democrats? He hasn't talked tariff
since 1894, when the Wilson bill was
before the country. The gold demo
crats are evidently preparing to elect
the next house of representatives on
the tariff question, and the republicans
are evidently very willing to Join is
sue with them on this subject. I
think the people here in the east
would like to hear what Mr. Bryan has
to say on the issue as now presented
between the gold democrats and the
The great defect of the republicans
is. not that they, favor protective tar
iffs, but that they do not favor an in
come tax. The great defect of i the
gold democrats is, that they favor
revenue tariffs or free trade in' all
commodities and do not favor an In
come tax. In opposing the income
tax , the republicans and gold demo
crats are agreed. !
Jersey City, N. J. '
The miserable creatures who edit
the great dailies have given another
exhibition of their contemptible flun-
keylsm. Until the terrific assault
made by the opposition In the senate
began to be understood by the people
generally, they were all for the policies
adopted in the Philippines and send
ing special representatives to help
crown kings In Europe. As to the
Philippines they are all "lying low,"
but as to coronation embassies they
have "flopped" and are all down on
it now. The Chicago Tribune says:
"The United States should not take
special notice of coronations," and
that senators "either because they
have thought the matter out for them
selves or because they perceive the
displeasure of the people at the de
parture from republican principles in
volved in dancing attendance by the
United States at purely monarchical
functions, are desirous that the bad;
precedent of officially recognizing cor
onations shall not be established."
On this subject as well as on several
others the administration has been
forced to adopt the populist view and
act accordingly. It seems now that
Whitelaw Reid will have to pay his
own expenses and when he arrives at
King Edward's court he will have no
credentials. Poor . Whitelaw Reid! The
pops extend their sympathy to him
in his awful distress.
For three years our flag has been In
the Philippines as the symbol of sub
jugation, and Roosevelt says "it must
stay "put."- ' '
Our Washington Correspondent Suggests
Senator Carnsaek for President Ex
penses of Government War
Washington, D. C, May 14, 1S02.
(Special Correspondence.) The dem
ocracy of the United States senate
has developed a new leader none '
other than Senator Carmack of Ton-'
nessee. The ability and force with
which he has managed the minority',
side of, the Philippine debate has been
a source of great pride to his friends
and of material benefit to his party. ;
As a quick and ready , debater, he Las
no equal on the floor of the senate.
"Carmack for president" has a pleas-
ant sound and if one time In our his-,
tory the south may have a nominee,
the Tennessee senator would bring
to the executive office the same high
character that has established hla
senatorial leadership.
The old soldiers have another ob-,
ject lesson before them of the ox-,
treme love felt for them (?) by the
party in power. H. Clay Evans, pen
sion commissioner, has come in lor t
unlimited condemnation from the oid ;
soldiers for years, yet President Mc-
Kinley failed to remove him from '
office. While Roosevelt has been com- c
pelled to do so, he has appointed him i
to the consul generalship at London
at $50,000 a year in fees the best '
paying job under the administration '
as a reward for . his pension bureau
services. It is a good vindication for '
Evans, but a little rough on the G. i
A. R.
The president has signed the o!eo
bill and the law Is now in full force ,:
and effect.
Nebraska reform workers who have
for years advocated the Initiative and
referendum will be glad to know a
light Is breaking in the east on thi3 '
very subject. The Chicago Record-:
Herald, in a recent editorial headed
"Shall We have the Referendum?".
"The referendum is a remedy for
the greatest evils of democracy, scch
as corrupt legislation and government
by bosses, is receiving more serious
discussion at this time than ever fx-'
fore. A growing disposition on the
part of the people to test its efficacy
in rescuing the principles of self-government
is manifest in nearly every'
state. .
"This, of course, Is due to the pop
ular realization of the fact that ne.
are losing the power to control leg is-
latlon. So far as the selection of the
men who do the governing is-concerned,
we .have comparatively little
power -'mat is a matter that 13 large
ly controlled by bosses and party ma- .
chines. They do the nominating and
we ratify the nominations. The ques-
mitted to control issues and general .
policies? Shall the American people
have the option of defeating now and
then a rreasure which party contribut-.
ors or managers have with much diffi
culty and expense forced through the
legislative body?"
The Record-Herald Is the leading
republican organ of the west and yet
its argument for the plan urged by
the reform forces is as strong as any
democrat or populist could foresee.
This outburst from the republican.
paper was induced by the corruption",
involved in the municipal politics of
many of our great cities.
In this day "the machine' or "tha
organization" is everything. In or- :
der to maintain its power, the army ,
of employes must be increased and fed.
City and county offices are honey-
combed with a useless number of
clerks and subordinates. Extravagant',
and reckless expenditure of public ;
moneys everywhere. The appetite f
grows more and more insatiable. Im-
provements of streets, parks, water-,
works, and what not, must be made.
The taxation limit has been reached, :
and the next thing is a resort to the
legislature for an issue of bonds. Ard 1
the mountain of indebtedness goes en :
piling up. And "the machine" meth
ods have so developed that the leg
islature has become a necessary part -
of its existence.
And, in many cases, it is this sort
of legislatures who are called upon !
to choose United States senators. Is It i
any wonder that the same persuasive
Influence that can force a corrupt
franchise grab through a legislature
can have much the same influence
when it comes to choosing a senator
of the United States?
To demonstrate the corruption pre
vailing in municipal politics, it 13
well to submit some figures. For the
year 1900 the per capita cost of main
taining and operating the federal gov
ernment, Including maintenance of the
army and navy, for every man, woman
and child In the United States, was
$6.39. '
For operating the state government
of Ohio for the same 3'ear, the per
capita cost was but $1.89.
The ner canita cost for a number ot
prominent American cities ranged
from $31.50 per capita In the case of,
New York city down to $11.40 in the
case of Chicago. With the enormous
engaged in the prosecution of a for-
l A m a. 4111 il. .
cibii v cl l jl luuu ucb i mill I 11 r I ' 1
capita cost of maintaining New York
city was six times greater.
There is but one remedy for such
condition municipal control of all
UUlib UVllltlV O UiXAVA V H V. till LIUI 1 1 C C1AJL
. i a . . m
reierenaum vote ior ine settlement ot
all niihUn nnpstintis Tn this Rkptrh
of the workings of "the machine" and
its extravagances, I do not condemn
organization for party purposes. Or
ganization is absolutely indispensable
In the control of, party politics, and
this fact brought closely
home to the reform forces of Nebras
ka. There we are lax In our methods, f
We have the votes to control state
politics what is most needed is or- ,
-iJs (Continued on Page 5.) i