The Nebraska independent. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1896-1902, January 16, 1902, Page 7, Image 7

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    January I6,f 1902
Interesting Role Assumed by
Russia Toward the Empire.
, Remarkable Confidential Letter Al
ij leged to Have Been Written by
"; Russian Minister Throws Light on
Czar's Policy Why He Keeps Man
, chnrla Talk of "Wolves and Tigers.
According to advices received at Vic
toria, B. C, from Ivai Fens Fu by the
steamer Empress of Japan, a eonf er
iencewas held there Jbef ore the Chi
nese court started for Peking with
Prince Ching, at which the Chinese
statesman submitted to the empress
- dowager the suggestions of the repre
sentatives of Great Britain and the
United States at Peking, says the Phil
adelphia Public Ledger. The ministers
asked that the heir apparent, Pubun,
te disinherited; Yung Lu to be kept
'from the Chinese court, Tung Fu
'Hsiang be decapitated and that the so
called regency of the empress dowager
be abolished and the emperor restored
to position. Fearing to present these
"Suggestions to the empress, Prince
Ching demurred for some time, but
finally put forward the suggestions,
and the empress dowager at once
agreed to depose Pu Chun and execute
Tung Fu Ilsiang, but would not agree
to remove Yung Lu from her council
or resign her regency.
Tung FU Ilsiang is said to be beyond
the reach of the empress dowager, be
ing at Kwaxtgsu, where he Is engaged
'In forming an army to invade north
China. Yung Lu still retains his posi
tion as grand councilor, and M. Lessor,
the Russian minister, has been mak
ing strenuous efforts to secure his ap
pointment as plenipotentiary to settle
the Manchurian question.
The Tung Wen IIu Poa publishes
the confidential letter addressed to
Grand Councilor Yung Lu by M. Les
sor immediately after the death of LI
Hung Chang. The document is said
to have been obtained from Japanese
sources and is as follows:
"As your excellency is doubtless
aware, the territories of our two coun
tries are in touch with each other, and
among foreign countries Russia is the
nearest neighbor of China from a geo
graphical point of view. Everything
that affects the interests of one fully
affects these of the other.
"In consequence of this Russia has
always looked forward to that day
when China may be prosperous and
powerful. Unfortunately the Boxer
disturbance broke out last year, and all
the foreign powers took advantage of
the occasion to send their hostile ar
mies into China. Though we tried to
refrain from participating in the expe-
ULUUll, 1U VU ill uiu, tic IUUUICU
most strenuously to persuade the al
. lied forces to evacuate Peking as soon
as the legations had been relieved.
"Subsequently when the Japanese at
tempted to snatch. the power of polic
ing the city of Peking from the hands
of the Chinese authorities we stood ob
stinately in their way, and so their un
reasonable attempts were frustrated.
"When all the allied powers joined to
gether in dictating to China the pun
ishments of those Chinese officials who
'were suspected by them of having
countenanced the Boxers, we exerted
every effort to got as many officials ex
empted from punishment as possible
In order to protect the dignity of your
country. It is needless to say that it
was entirely due to that strong and
persistent opposition that your excel
lency was not included in the list. We
have tried and done everything in our
power to protect the interests of China,
and it is for this reason that we have
- earned the implacable hatred of all the
other powers. He, the late Li Hung
Chang, was a very farsighted and able
statesman, who had always been on
friendly terms with us because he
knew that Russia was the only true
- friend of China.
s "With regard to Manchuria, it Is a
place where the present dynasty had
its origin. How can the Chinese gov
ernment permit a number of wolves
and tigers to intrude into this impor
tant province of-the Chinese empire?
We knew that unless we stepped for
.' ward China would be powerless against
'those wolves and tigers. We there
' fore made haste in dispatching a strong
army southward to protect this prov-
In and make a permanent occupation.
This statement,' I hope, will be a suffi
cient explanation why :we refuse to
give up Manchuria now.
"With reference to the convention
as agreed upon between . the late H
Hung Chang and us, It is a satisfac
tory document in' every respect. But,
unfortunately, it has Deen frustrated
by that plenipotentiary's regrettable
death, and those who have been au
thorized to take up this important
work left off by him are ignorant of
the political situation and misunder
stand our good intentions. Instead of
consolidating the Indispensable rela
tions between China and" her "nearest
neighbor, Russia, these men are seek
ing the friendships and alliance of
such far distant powers as Japan and
England. I need hardly say that your
excellency will be at one with me in
condemning their stupidity. I hope
you will describe the situation to her
majesty, the empress, dowager, and
persuade her to put the Manchurian
affair '1n your hands, that I may nego
tiate with you alone. This, in my
opinion, is the only way to prevent the
province from falling into-the fcands of
foreign powers."
Result of Sunday School Competition
That Made IllcU Merchant Sick.
That John Wanamaker, the million
aire merchant and former postmaster
general of the United States, superin
tends a Sunday school in addition to
his interests is "current history, but
there is a chapter in that history which
hitherto has not been published, says
the Chicago Inter Ocean. It is called
the story of the prize which was never
awarded. Mr. Wanamaker's school had
convened as usual on a bright Sunday
morning, and Mr. Wanamaker an
nounced before recitations that he
would confer a substantial money prize
upon the pupil who gave tho best an
swer to the following question: "Whom
do you love above all others?"
Upon the announcement a number of
little hands went up. Mr. Wanamaker
selected one of the children and said,'
'Well, whom do you love best?"
It was a little girl, who replied, "I
love my brother best."
Mr. Wanamaker was much pleased.
He said that the love of a sister for
her brother was one of the sweetest af
fections, because as long as brothers
and sisters loved one another there
could not be discord in families. Then
he asked the little girl's name.
"Bessy Crawford," she replied.
Then he propounded the question to a
"I love my parents best," the lad re
plied. Mr. Wanamaker was once more high
ly pleased and spoke at length upon
the fourth commandment and the les
son derived therefrom. This little boy
when asked his name said that it was
Eddie Brady.
The next answer was from a boy
who had been Impatiently attempting
to attract Mr. Wanamaker's attention
ever since the announcement of the
prize. At last the boy Was asked,
"And whom do you love best,-my boy?"
"I love our Redeemer the best of
all," was the answer.
"Ah!" exclaimed Mr. Wanamaker.
"That Is the answer, for It embraces
all the others." In a really eloquent
speech the former cabinet member
pointed out that the love of the Re
deemer was the idealization of all
Christianity and eulogized the spirit
which had prompted the answer. Final
ly, after a well rounded peroration,
which would have done honor to any
pulpit or clergyman, Mr. Wanamaker
turned to the boy and requested his
"My name." came the proud reply,
"vas Levi Guggenheimer."
The Philadelphia papers contained a
report the next morning stating that
John Wanamaker was seriously indisposed.
Fifty Horsepower Engines on South
ern California Wheatflelds.
Farming is conducted upon a large
and economic scale in many portions
of southern California, writes the spe
cial correspondent of the New YorTc
Post from Los Angeles. In no locality
has modern steam farming machinery
been applied with such effectiveness
as upon the grain ranches in southern
California. On one ranch the engine
used to draw the machinery is of fifty
horsepower and has driVewheels eight
feet high. It consumes twelve barrels
of oil every day, and its operation re
quires the services of seven men. In
plowing fifty-five furrows are turned
over at one time, covering a breadth of
forty feet. Eight horses are needed to
keep jhe machine supplied with water
and fuel. The best record made so
far in plowing is seventy-five acres in
four hours and forty-flve minutes. The
field was five miles around, giving the
great engine a straightaway course,
with few turns, in making th record.
In operating this plow to the best ad
vantage a water station is maintained
at one corner of the field, from which
the engine is supplied as needed. The
average capacity of the machine is the
plowing of 110 acres per day.
The use of this machine is not an ex
periment. Last year 6,000 acres were
harvested by it. On a ranch of 1,000
acres it is an economic investment, but
a smaller acreage would not warrant
the outlay. Last season a combined
harvester was drawn by. the engine
and averaged over 1,000 acres of wheat
in a day, cutting, thrashing and sack
ing the crop. One of these great field
engines is at work this season near
Covina, displacing seventy mules.
Secret Service Officer Outstripped by
the President and His Son.
President Roosevelt, accompanied by
his son Theodore, outstripped the se
cret service officer who was detailed to
follow him the other' afternoon in
Washington, says the NeAV York Trib
une. Leaving the White House about 4
o'clock, they walked across country to
Cabin John Bridge, a celebrated resort
in Montgomery county, Md about sev
en miles northwest of Washington and
only a short distance from the Poto
mac river. For the greater part of the
walk the detective, who was ordered
by the president not to shadow him,
kept pace with the chief magistrate
and his son.
On the way back to the White House,
at a place near the Chain bridge,
which connects the banks of the Poto
mac about three or fxmr miles from
Georgetown, the secret service man
became exhausted. Here he was forc
ed to remain several minutes to rest
and get his breath. In the meantime
the president and his son proceeded to
the White House. It was an hour or
more after dark wThen they arrived.
The outstripped secret service officer
came in to make his report about an
hour and a half later. He was com
pletely played out and has not told any
one whether he took the electric cars
in or not. -
When the Vagitation against the concentra
tion of wealth in a few hands first attracted the
attention of the sturdy farmers of the west when
they thought they saw an effort being made after
the farms had been mortgaged for millions of dol
lars, to double the value of money, so that it would
take twice" as many bushels of wheat or corn to pay
their debts, their taxes and railroad freights,' they
began to assemble in the sehool houses to discus
this sort of business thi3 commerce that was car
ried on for. the benefit.' of one side and the injury,
cf the other." The great works on political econ
omy in which the whole subject had been thrashed
out, were not accessible to them. A good many
small paper bound books were printed and circu
lated among them, which for the most part were
simply trash. The result was thta the farmers,,
adopted for their theory of political economy the
Sermon on the Mount Hardly a meeting was held. .
but that It was read or quotations were made from
it. Many speeches were made wholly devoted to,
illustrating the principle that In every trade and
transaction that was honest, both parties
were benefitted. These -illustrations were -
drawn from farm life, the Only life with
which the speakers ' were familiar. One
often used was like this: "I knew a man who came
out here and he had only a yoke of oxen. The first ,
year he broke prairie with them and did his haul
ing. The second year, when it came time to cul-.
tivate corn, he could not do it with the oxen. A
man who came into that country that year had, a
small pair of horses and he could not break prairie
with them.' So the man with the oxen traded his
oxen to the man with the small horses. . They both
could go on making a home. One could cultivate
his corn and the other, could break prairie. Both
made money by- the trade. So it should .be in all
business transactions. Any sort of business that
is transacted, if it is so conducted as to make, large
profits for one side and tending toward the im-
poverishment of the other will, in the end, if long
continued, result in the destruction of bOth." Rev.
J, Lewis Marsh preached a sermon in All Souls
church, Lincoln, Neb., January 5, in which he, in
a scholarly way, shows that the Golden Rule is not
only practicable, but in fact is the basis of wealth; "
Every once in a while The Independent prints a
sermon, but it never printed one of more real
value to all those who are interested in good gov
ernment and the advancement of man, than this
one by Rev. Mr. Marsh. Tested by the last words
of the great masters in political economy, in so
ciology and ethics, it is found to be correct. The
Independent commends the whole sermon to the
study of its thousands of readers. The sermon
was as follows:
Is this Golden Rule practicable for 1902?
Whatsoever ye would that men should do to
you do ye even so to them. Jesus.
Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.
What thou hatest thyself that do not thou to
another. Hillel.
What you wish done to yourself do to others.
May I, being of sound mind, do to others as
I would that they should do to me. Plato,
Christians have usually thought of the Golden
Rule as a revelation made directly by God to man
a divine standard declared not by man, but for
man. It has therefore been upheld rather as a su
pernatural than a natural standard an ideal rath
er than practical rule a rule brought into human
life, independent of human experience, imported
from foreign sources.
I do not look upon this rule as imported, v
but one thoroughly native, I believe this precept
came out of the experience, of the "practice" of
men. It is the outgrowth of men's efforts to get.
along together in life. It Is the statement of the
most practical experience of the worthiest and most
thoughtful men as to thes principle which lies at the
root of human society and'of individual welfare;
It Is written in the'mOral code of the primi
tive Hebrew people and' recorded in the book of
Leviticus, -"Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thy
self." In the Chinese code the great thinker,
moralist and teacher, Confucius, said some 500
years B. C, "What you wish done to yourself do to
others," and In Greece the great moralist and
philosopher, Plato, said in the form of a prayer:
"May I, being of . sound mind, do to others as. I
would that they should do to me." . '
These utterances of men who lived long be
fore Jesus, and who had probably no knowledge of
each other, irdfcateHhat each of them had come
to recognize the one universal principle on which
society could stand and prosper. They came; to
this truth by deductions from the experience of ,
life. It would seem that wherever and whenever
men have seriously, thoughtfully, experimentally,
Arrest of Countess Castisllone's
Maid Discloses Stranfee Facts.
A new page has been furnished to
the history of the relations of Napo-
leon III. to Italv bv the arrest at Rome
of Angelica Vergozzola, the maid of ! set themselves to search out the -principle which ,
nuius iiumtui suuieiy muiviuuai wtuare iu
First World's Fair to Be Held In
Osaka Two Years Hence.
N. Kanzaki, Japan's special commis
sioner of foreign exhibits for the fair
at Osaka In 1903. will shortly arrive in
the United States from Germany and
exert his efforts to Interest American
manufacturers In Japan's enterprise,
say the New York Times. According to
interviews that he has given abroad, it
is his intention to have the United
States, Germany and Great Britain
meet as Industrial rivals at Osaka from
March. 1903, to the end of the follow-
ince from being invaded by the other j ing July.
powers, and our action in this matter 'Hitherto industrial exhibitions In Ja
has had its desired effect, for by our pan, which have for many years been
strenuous and prompt efforts peace
and order have been gradually restored
through Manchuria, and no- foreign
-power has dared to touch -the province.
Thus the ' sovereignty of China in the
-province has been maintained.
5 "As general peace has been restored
and the court is about to return to the
old capital, it appears' reasonable that
we should hand back Manchuria to its
. proper owner to quiet the minds who
are inclined to suspect . that Russia is
- aiming at absorbing and annexing this
Important territory, but after careful
consideration we find that it Is not at
all opportune for us to do so now. The
f reason Is' obvious, for China i3 newly
defeated and sad with the burden of
an unprecedented indemnity. It is not
within ber power to raise sufficient
funds and maintain a strong army in
llanchuria to defend it.
"But unless- Manchuria Is strongly
garrisoned it is impossible to. prevent
foreign powers from casting a greedy
' eye on the province. It is for this rea
son that Russia insists on keeping this
Important territory under her control
.nntil, China shall be strong enough to
.take it back. If we disregard , the wel
fare of China and evacuate at the pres
ent moment, I am sure that no sooner
have onr troops left the place than
held at the periods of twice a decade,
have been exclusively national In char
acter, and. Although the coming fair at
Osaka will display Japanese manufac
turers at their best, it is also the inten
tion of the government to encourage
competition among them ' by showing
what European and American manu
facturers have accomplished.
What Japan is most anxious to have
exhibited at Osaka is what Germany,
England and the United States are do
ing in regard to great public works
the utilization of water power for elec
tric plants, canal building, the use of
steel in the erection of buildings and
bridges', tunneling and electrical trac
tion. Just now the cities of Tokyo,
Osaka, Yokohama. Nagasaki and Hiro
shima, although already supplied with
waterworks, leave much to be desired
in the way of sanitation.
the late Countess Castiglioae, who
was the reputed mistress of the em
peror, says the New York Press. The
maid was arrested upon the charge of
stealing a large part of the personal
property of the Countess Castigllone,
and other arrests are expected.
Angelica Vergozzola's house was
searched by the police, and many pri
vate letters between Countess Castigll
one and Napoleon III., King Victor Em
manuel and Cavour were discovered.
An ivory crucifix worth 15,000 francs,
choice Sevres vases and costly jewels
were also found.
It is believed that Countess Casti
gllone, who died in Paris in November,
1S99, had been sent to Paris by Ca
vour to captivate the emperor, and the
letters captured show that she kept
Cavour informed of the emperor's do
President's Graclousness to a gro.
President Roosevelt and his son
Archibald were walking up Sixteenth
street in Washington when a gust of
wind whisked off the boy's hat and
took it Bailing along the sidewalk. A
little colored boy chased the hat and
returned It to the owner, says the Ne
York World. The president and Arch
both shook hands with the email negr
Application Proves Successful on
Man ElRhty-ieven Years Old.
Edward Beebe, eighty-seven years
old and a resident of Derby, Conn., for
nearly half a century, has been cured
of a cancer. The cancer first appeared
on his ,nose many years ago. A year
ago it began to increase in size and be
came painful. . His condition became so
bad that . physicians said his death
would ensue within a few weeks.
About a month ago, when Mr. Beebe
was believed to be dying and after
many forms of treatment had been
tried unavailingly, the plaster applica
tion was suggested and decided upon.
The plaster was applied to the nose.
Two weeks later the plaster came off
and the cancer with it, says the New
York Press. Mr. Beebe Is up and about
and says" the pain has gone and he
feels as well as a man of his age could.
The same treatment is being tried on
two pther Derby persons afflicted with
Novel Engineering: Project.
The czar has just sanctioned a re
markable engineering, project, the rais
ing of the water of the sea. of Azof 14
feet 8 inches by building a dam near
Kertch nine miles long. In the wall
Immense sea gates are to be made for
the passage of ships. There will also
be outlets for the superfluous water.
The cost will be about $25,000,000, the
Interest on which will be paid by ships
conditions. of growth, as the law of gravitation
hold3 the world of things in unity, they have rec
ognized this principle and given it this plain,
practical statement. Prof. David Swing has said
in his own beautiful way:
"The Golden Rule is no doubt one of the most
fundamental laws that can ever be expressed in
words or carried in the mind of man. Nature's
great law that matter attracts matter, that a vast
central world will attract planets from a straight
line into a circle, that an earth will draw a falling
apple to itself, and hold its liquid sea, and liquid
air close to itself, and will hold the seas under the
air, and the land under the sea, Is not more funda
mental in the material world than the Golden
Rule is in the world of duty and happiness. The
Golden Rule underlies our public and private jus
tice, our society, our charity, our education, our
religion, and the sorrows of bad government, of
famine, of war, -of caste, of .slavery, have come
from contempt of this principle."
Another more recent writer has said: "The
Golden Rule is golden simply because it summar
izes into a line all the moral convictions of hu
manity. In these great standards we get away
from the particular, the tentative and reach the
absolute and the general." E. P. Powell.
Once more, a recent editorial says:
"The Golden Rule was the historical summary
of man's moral thinking up to two thousand years
ago. it created tne conscience stanaara oi man
kind." Christian Register.
Let us then take the Golden Rule as the result
of the most thoughtful and profound investigation
of men into the laws and conditions of moral life,
the sincere conviction of men as to the, law by
which mankind will reach its most perfect condi
tion. It did not come ready stated to men be
fore they had had any experience in life but-it -came
as the largest and truest deduction from ex
perience. , .'.'Practical'! means that which comes
from "practice," then-the Golden Rule is in its .
origin thoroughly practical. Like all other knowl
edge and every other formula it has been discov
ered, invented or provoked by actual experience..'"
But' we have another vray of defining the
practicability of a law than by its origin. Ws
judge a thing practical not because of how or from
where it came, but by whether it can be put into
use to advantage. Men are never very sensitive H3
to where .things come from, if they can only be
used to advantage, (except in "religion there men
are inclined to think that it does matter morj
where they come from than as to their working
ability. This was illustrated by a Christian mis-;
sionary who, when heathen actions were con
trasted with Christian deeds, much to the disad
vantage of the Christian, said: "AChrlstian vice
is better than a heathen , virtue." So many people
have thought that a doctrine or formula or a cus
tom that came from the Bible or from Christianity
was worth much more than any other, irrespective
.of its practicability.) m
Ordinarily we do not care whether our sugar
comes from Cuba or Hawaii or Louisiana or Ne
braska, but we ask how much we .can get for a
dollar and how far it ! will go in practical use.
wj, cthor mir clothes are made In London or New
care If they, prove satisfactory in use and wear.
That which can ; be used to best advantage is the
most practical. v:-1 : ' t -i ::;Xf-
The commercial spirit of the age wOuld bring
everything to the money test and .nothing is
judged practical unless it brings a financial return.
We need, find no fault with this test. So long as
money is used as a medium of exchange and a
measure of value it is perfectly legitimate to test
the practicableness of any enterprise, effort or
method by the money return it will bring. But
it is often implied that this return come3 to -but
one of the parties involved. , There has been a
mistaken idea that commerce was a method to
accumulate benefits to one party at the expense t
another. Business has been , pictured as a great
scramble in which everyone is trying to get and
keep all he could away from others to give as lit
tle and get as much as possible. It has taken a
long and severe experience to teach men that there
is no justice in ' a commerce which benefits but
one side, that prosperity or success to one party
affairs of men, it is the year 1902. The sense of
justice is awakened and the feeling of resentment
which Professor Ross says "in its higher forms la
simply the egoistic side of the sense of Injustice,"
is quick to resist actions or methods which will
not work to advantage both ways. The justice an !
simplicity of the Golden Rule is that It will work
both ways. The doer and he who is acted upon
.can change places and find the results beneficial,
the buyer and seller, giver and receiver, ruler and
the ruled, under the administration of the Golden
Rule, can each put himself in the other's place and
find a mutually helpful relation. It is not a bad
way to test a method of action, or the justice of
any proceeding to Just ask if It will work equally
well both ways, Is it as fair for the one as for the
other? Can the parties change places and feel the
same sense of Justice in the results? It is also a
very practicable rule, because it is the most likely
to develop good will and bring people together Ja
the most helpful way. It would produce more,
for there 'Would be less loss In friction and In
does not necessarily mean poverty and failure to ' waste. . To lessen the; resistance and to dlmlnisn
another, that because ,one person grows richer
another need not grow poorer. Even selfish, grasp
ing animal side of man has found out by long ex
perience that the most practical, surest and safest
business is that which brings returns to all Who
are involved. That is not practical which ben
efits one only, and destroys or weakens another."
The sense of justice in man revolts at that self
ish scheming which seeks to Upbuild "self and not,.'
others. Oyer and over again has it been illus
trated that self-seeking which" does not consider
just returns to others as well as to self, is sure to
result in failure.
i It is this experience which has been epitom
ized and lorniu ated into 1 an ethical principle in
the Goldeti' Rule, which makes duty to self. the.
measure of duty to others. Do to others as you
would that they rhould do to you, is a recognition
of the fact that welfare is not solitary but social.
The rule is the outgrowth of the sentiment of jus
tice in man. This rule does; not deny self nor dis
courage self seeking. It is altruistic in that it looks
out upon others and recognizes duties toward
tnem, . but it is egoistic in that it makes, self the
basis or unit of measurement. It does not estab
lish ' altruism as authoritative, nor condemn
as false, but it does declare that they are egoism
co-ordinate and neither can be practical alone.
Many Christians have failed to see this and
have declared that egoism self-seeking was ut
terly false, and not to be encouraged. They have
attempted to set up a system of pure altruism
a living for others and a forgetting and neglect
ing of self. No wonder their notions seemed
"other-worldly," and their course "impractical"
the .waste are questions Rearing directly upon th-a
practical returns of v nutacturo and or human
effort generally. The system of selfish competition
has ran its way through individual efforts, throush
partnership, corporations, combinations and trusts
and many other schemes to get the advantage over
others, and now is taking on more and more a
form of co-operation whereby the, benefits are t j
be more largely and justly distributed. It is just
as essential to keep th port of destination n good
condition as the port of embarkation If the cargi
is to be safely landed and profitably disposed of.
One end of the line is as Important as the other
so far as the welfare of .the passengers is con
cerned. This outlook for the other end of the line
is a hopeful sign of the, times and indicates that
men see the practicalness of acting upon the
Golden Rule, and sharing their gain with others.
As men become more closely Interrelated, as
nations and races get mixed with, each other, as
businesses, religion and standards of civilizations
come into competition, it becomes more important
that the spirit in which men meet and deal with
each other should be one of good will, not of re
sentment or ill feeling. Confidence in each other
is-the foundation modern society. That confi
dence can be strengthened only by looking out for
the welfare of the other fellow. This is not the
neglect of your own welfare by any means, for
your own welfare rises with that of others. Lobk
ing out for yourself does not mean destroying
The" struggle for existence and the survival of
the fittest does not mean the destruction of the
weak, and the advancement of the strong it
and visionary suited to another condition of life - " means rather "the survival of that which is most
perhaps, but not to this world and to human na
ture in its present condition. Practical men of af
fairseconomists and manipulators of wealth
have, on the other hand, been inclined to see only
the egoistic side and have limited duty and re
sults to themselves, forgetting that others were
involved, or caring not what the result to others
may be if only self be gratified and established.
Both have been slow to see that the Golden Rule
is neither egoistic nor altruistic, but is a prin
ciple of co-ordination by which self and others
may work practically together.
This is a commercial age, and the year 1902
is likely to exceed all other years In the bulk,
reach and influence of its commerce. Nations and
individuals were never before so closely related to
each other. Never were there so many or o
great enterprises on foot. Human ambition was
never larger. Man's power to control the forces of
the. world and biing them to the aid of men was
never so great. We are astonished at the vast
schemes proposed. Continents are divided by ca
nals, hemispheres connected by cables, oceans are
joined by railways as well v as by canals. Men
signal from one side of the "vasty deep" to the
other, and talk to each other across the conti
nents. Roads are cut through mountains and un
derneath rivers; forests are turned into paper as
well as into lumber; the treeless plains are turn
ing into wood lands, and the barren deserts into
fruitful fields. The earth is literally being trans
formed , by the commercial ambitions of men.
There is no limit to the daring achievements if
men in their effort to bring practical returns to
' human effort. With all these great changes bring
ing men and nations into closer touch, and making
them more useful to each other, it becomes more
than ejver important that the benefits, of these in
ventions and conditions and enterprises should be
fairly shared by all; 'The ambition and ability. that ... .
seeks to bring large returns to self, must remember
that self cannot be upbuilt alone, and that every
gain which is made at the expense of another is a,
violation of the principle of order and stability,
and instead of contributing strength and health
really sows weakness and disease in the social
and commercial organism.
This is an age of expansion commercial ex
pansion, government expansion, educational expan
sion, individual expansion and if the expansion be
real and permanent it must be one of moral expan
sion as well. The altruistic expansion must keep
pace with the egoistic growth, else discord instead
of unity will be developed. We are boasting of the
great commercial gain of our nation in the past
year. The figures that are cited to show how we
are leading the world are astounding. It is the
French scholar and writer Zola, I think, who calls '
attention to the fact that the English language is
the only one that writes the personal pronoun'
"1" with a capital letter and that in no other writ
ten language does the "I" appear so frequently r
so prominently. It is to be feared the criticism is
just and that as a nation, we Americans are put
ting a great deal of the "ego" not only into our
language, but into our motives and methods.
The boast of our progress and prosperity all
too often is accompanied by the open or implied
satisfaction in the falling behind and failure of
others. Let the American "ego" (I never thought
before how similar in sound were "American ego"
and "American eagle" can it be that the name of
our national symbolic bird is a corruption' of our
national characteristic?) let the American "ego '
rise to more and more, but if it stays up, it must
be fairly balanced with an Increasing care for
others. Love and ambition for others a just de
sire to give others the benefit of our own growth
must check the egoism which will otherwise work
our own downfall. It is true we are paying a good
deal of attention just now to our neighbors; we
are professing great interest in their improvement,
we craye for them government and institutions
. like our own, and the development of their re- ,
sources, and enlargement of their commerce; but
it is much to be feared that we are thinking after t
all more of ourselves than of them, and we seek
to improve their conditions in order that we may
dispose of our surplus accumulations..
I have much sympathy with the thought ex
pressed by a recent writer when he says: "If not
for the good we can do them, but for the goods we
can sell them, lands are annexedVand peoples are.
subjugated,' then, as I believe, western democracy
will go the. way of republican Rome. If national
expansion must come let us see that heart ex
pansion comes with it." In other words, let
us do to others as we would have them do to us;
and as David Harum said, "Let us do it fust."
If we would have them increase our welfare, en
large our opportunities, help us to develop our
selves and give us a chance to be the best and gain
the highest attainment, then let us see to it that ;
we do likewise unto them. , The measure of gain
and of good we have for ourselves is the measure
we shall mete unto them. There never was a time
when it was so easily possible to do this as nov,
"Men and nations were never more responsive .to
each other, the standards and desires of men were
never so nearly on the same plain, the self has j
V been developed and projected, and we have in that
self the ideal which we want others to attain. The
method and the principle of "reciprocity" is being
m acted upon as nevers before. If there ever was x
in accord with progress." Progress is marked
by an ever-rising valuation of the sentiments of
justice and sympathy and the broadening and deep
ening of the demands of conscience, or the moral
law. The line of progress tends ever toward a
larger, higher, more responsible care for the weak
and unfortunate. To say that the weak must be
driven to the wall by the strong, that the lower
must be destroyed and prevented from hindering
the advance of the higher, is to violate the sense
of justice, and to act entirely from the selfish mo
tive, which "never can result in continuous growth.
The poor, the weak, the lower, may be driven from
the way, they may succumb to the conditions of
life, but the prosperous, the strong, the higher, find
their own growth and advancement not in trying
to overcome their weaker brothers and hastening
them from the field, but in trying to protect and
uplift them. Not. at the expense of others do we
rise and prosper, but only by their gain and by
their uplifting. The killing of Indians, American
Indians, or West Indians, or East Indians, or South
African Boers, has not, in my judgment, advanced
the white man's welfare nor raised the white man's
civilization or character.
It has been the sharing with these people, the
advantages of mutual effort, that uplifts. It is
thought for them, and not thought for ourselves,
that -has been the uplifting force of civilization.
It has been treating others by the same standards
that we. treat ourselves which has advanced tin
cause of mankind. We no longer believe that
heaven is a haven for a few selected people or
persons. As another has said, "Heaven for a few
would be no compensation for a general ship
wreck.' . . . Christian society and advanced
civilization are rapidly waking up to the fact that
there is not a scrap of salvation in getting our
selves picked out of a general shipwreck and put
into paradise, while thef rest are dropped into tho
sea." Christian Register.
Is it not time 1902 A. D. that the Golden
Rule should be applied more thoroughly in the na
tional and international dealings of men? Is it
not the most practicable of all rules to secure mu
tual good will, prosperity, and peace? Is not a
Golden Rule commerce and ' a Golden Rule state
practicable for this 20th century?
I have dwelt so long and so diffusely upon thi
larger and perhaps more abstract phase of the
question that I have cut myself off from expanding
as I wanted when I began the discussion, the
practicableness of the Golden Rule as a principle
for regulating our conduct for this year. I can
only say how that I believe the rule is one thor
oughly to be trusted in every-day life. Whatever
your work or position in life may be, you will get
the most satisfactory returns for your efforts when
you act by this rule and treat others as you would
have them treat you. This increases respect for
self and respect for others, brings you to the ser
vice of others and others to your service.' What
ever your vocation in life, whether mechanical or
commercial or professional, in business for yourself
Or in the service of another, performing your work
with the purpose of benefitting others as well as
self will bring you the surest and most lasting in
come. Business would be much simplified and con
densed if this principle were consistently acted
upon. This Rule consistently enforced in the
spirit which it inculcates would clear our commerce
of many commodities and rid society of many
methods and institutions which work now only a
one-sided and short-lived gain to men, and would
put men at work in a profitable spirit of co-operation
instead of a method of destructive competi
tion. The confidence, so essential to business suc
cess could be no more surely established than -?y
doing to others as you would have them do to yo i.
What rule would bring more peace and happi
ness into our homes and our personal relations
than this common rule? We are naturally great
imitators. The first part of our education and de
velopment Is very largely a process of imitation.
We do what we see done; we speak what we hear;
we repeat the actions and conditions that are put
before us. So we learn to do as we are done by.
Our standard is the action of others. But"as we
grow older, and see more clearly the relations of
facts and truths, the sense of self and of Justice
develop and we often resent what is done to us,
and another Ideal or ' standard of action rises.
Not "as we are done by," but "aa we would be
done by," becomes bur motto. But this may give
excuse for winking at faults and, evils of which we
are conscious. This may be Interpreted in a nar
rowly selfish way which would encourage only the
lower and more selfish self. , But when we are
honest with ourselves and rise to the standard of
our best selves, we do unto others as others ought
to do to us, thus -establishing a moral ideal be
yond our own actual attainment. ThIs standard
: of the ideal self projected and treating others as
we would have our very highest, worthiest self
treated, becomes a practical way for the improve
ment and deepening of manhood. This gives sin
cerity, absolute truthfulness, full confidence, quick
sympathy, great patience, and always close and
helpful 1 fellowship. If you desire thjs year to
grow in character, in self-control, in consideration
for others, in imagination, in the sentiments of
sympathy and justice, In the power of obedience?,
and to grow in favor with God and man, there i
no more practical rule for you to live by than this!
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