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About The Nebraska independent. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1896-1902 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 23, 1899)
KeaalU of the Sfriim Treatment made by
the Experiment Station of the Mat
. Inl verult y.
Since tlie use of anti-toxin hog cholera
.serum was begun by the department of
Animal Pathology of the University of
Nebraska, there have arisen in the minds
of many, various inoculations as to its
manufacture, native application and ef
fectiveness. Owing to the fact that the
disease , is now raging in the state, and
many inquiries coming into the depart
ment result therefrom, it seems advisable,
to make public sorr.o facts regarding the
erum treatment In tho first place this
treatment is in no sense a vaccination, as
is used in preventing small pox in the
human family and blackleg in cattle. It
is the same principle applied as in the
anti-toxin treatment of dipthcria, which
has scored such success in recent years
both in this country and abroad. In
vaccination the process consists in giv
ing the person or animal, as the case
may be, a slight attack of the disease to
bo prevented, whereas in the serum
treatment the process consists in apply
ing a substance to counteract the diseuse
rather than produce it.
This treatment depends upon the fact
that if a hog once undergoes an attack
of cholora he is proof or "immune"
- agaiast a second attack. It has been
found by scientific investigation that
this property of immunity is contained
in tho white blood corpuscles, hence the
most natural procedure would be, to
transfer the white blood corpuscles from
an immune hog to the sick hog. And
this is exactly what is done by the serum
treatment, excepting that the immune
animal used is tho horse instead of the
hog. In brief, the process of the manu
facture of the material and its applica
tion is as follows:
A horse is artificially inoculated with
the germs that cause hog cholera. As a
result he suffers a mild attack of the
disease. On account of the hardy con
stitution of the hor.se it is necessary to
give him repeated inoculutions to pro
duce immunity, which takes, a period of
nearly six months. When it is found
that this horse is absolutely immune,
his juglnr vein is tapped and a quantity
of blood removed, which is placed in a
chamber of a certain temperature and
allowed to clot. In collecting the serum,
that containing tho white blood eorpus
clos rises to the top, when it is drawn off
and is ready to be injected into the sick
The department now has twelve horses
in the experiment and has treated many
thousand animals with rery satisfacrory
results. It is gratifying to learn that 1
the people who have used it are anxious
I to receive more, being convinced that
the treatment is, and when more exten
sively used, will be a most valuablo aid
to the farmer. The method of injecting
the serum hyDodormically into the in
fected animal is dono with ease, and very
I quickly, too, so that the work can be
done by any farmer with very little time
! aim irouoie.
I It is the desire ef the department to
1 call attention to the fact that the mater
! ial may be obtained free of charge, but
it must be borne in mind that at this time
f of the year tho demand greatly exceeds
1 the supply, so that in many cases refus
fals will have to be made. A detailed de
Jscription of the nature of the serum
treatment in hog cholera is given in bul
letin No, 47 of this station, and as these
fare for free distribution among the far
liners of Nebraska, anyone interested in
the subject may obtain a copy by writ
ing to the director of the experiment
I; Did You Know It?
j Do you' know that the government
aay legally take over the telegraph
ines at any time they wish to do so?
phe only thing necessary to do is to
ippoint appraisers to appraise the value
4 the property. This is provided for in
removing i'osta! Laws (page "rfi, 57
,nd 58, Postal Laws and Reffulntinrwi
Section 93, Companies to tile accept-
ice.-neiore any telegraph company
pan exercise any ot the powers or privi
mo wmierreu oy law, such company
ami me uieir wrmeu acceptance with
ne pohimasier-general of the restric
,-ons ana obligations required by law.
Section 93. Postmaster -general to se
jet appraisers for United States. The
:nited States may, for postal, military,
r omer purposes, purchase all the tele
faph lines, property and effects of any
I all companies acting under the pm
jsions of the act of July 24th 13l!fl, en
pled, "An act to aid in the construc--in
of telegraph lines ami to secure to
je government the use of the same for
jstal, military and other purposes," or
der this title at an appraised value
be ascertained by live competent, dis
lerested persons, two of whom shall
.selected by the postmaster general of
j United States, two by the company
terested, and one by the four so pre
fusly selected. (R. S. 8 52(;7.)
(Section 97. The following named
ppanies have filed acceptances pur
suit to section tt'l, prior to Deeeiuler
k, lStTJ, and on the dates respectfully
ted: Western Union Telegraph Co.,
, he 8, 13C7; Postal Telegraph Co., Aug.
Ninety eight other companies, which
luues every company ever organized,
uiso signed it." 1 his agreement
urn every mile of privately owned tol-
ipn line in the united States.
Beat Them All.
ryaifs principles have triumphed,
e has beaten England and Lombajd
'e has downed Wall street
Jo has knocked Manna out.
fe has thwarted the money power.
n has laid out the railroad corpora-
iieat air the banks and their
.an has downed them all and is on
Glory to Old Glory, and Bryan for
I lext president of the Unitd States.
& " S. (I. Swioabt.
! izard, Neb.
induce people to come in early for
ay work I will givo 10 per cent off
J our best Photo until rwnlwr
We make all the latest and best
.at reasonable prices. Come early
ia tue rush.
J. A. IlATDKn,
It A THANKSGIVING
COPYRIGHT, 1CD9, BY
Touug Mr. Middleton stood staring
through the window of bis furnished
apartment staring at the half hearted
snowfall and the November dullness of
a New York side street wondering
somewhat whether, after all he was
doing wisely in throwing away his
chance of going home to the other end
of the state for his Thanksgiving din
ner. Whether the event would Justify his
decision or not would depend on a
young person over there, across the
street, a bewildering damsel of Can
nda, whose business for the winter In
New York was to study the church or
gan. Mr. Mlddletou, having, very much
to Mils own satisfaction, established
himself as one of three nt the same lit
tle table with her lu Mrs. Flanagan's
dining room, where he ate twice a day,
would feiadly have jmproved the occa
sion of a holiday aud the opportunities
offered by a common sentiment of be
ing left out lu the cold world.
Naturally enough, the young man's
eyes wuutlereU to the front of Mr?.
Flanagan's house, and Instantly he
saw that something very much out of
the eommou was going on. In fact,
Middleton saw that a crowd was gath
ering outside Mrs. Flanagan's, aud the
occasion of the crowd was evidently u
huge furniture van. Furniture was be
ing carried out of the house not mere
bedroom furniture, but strange and
problematic articles which Middleton
associated with Mrs. Flanagan's dluius
"Well. If there Isn't that crazy old
majolica Jardiniere she sets the ice
water on!" he ejaculated. "By Jingo,
they're evicting her and and her
It's high tlma for me to drop In."
Ignoring the expectant grin of the
crowd and stepping over a heap of
dirty burlap on the Bldewalk, he dodg
ed in through the doorway, between a
Diovlug refrigerator and a waiting wire
cot, and, as he entered, a girlish voice
somewhere beh'.nd the refrigerator
called out "Oh. Mr. Middleton!"
"So glad you've come!" Lillian Mc
Kay shouted, clapping her hands.
"Ilurrah! Whet are you looking at my
hair for? It's a sight 1 know. I,
haven't had time to do it up. Say
Isn't It a shame? And they wanted to
take my piano, If you please! Now,
you're n lawyer. You can settle the
whole thing for poor Mrs. Flanagan,
"I'm only a lawyer's clerk yet and
the question for us for you and Mrs.
Latour and mo tp settle Is, Where are
we going to get our Thanksgiving din
ner?" "Yes, I know, and you might have
gone home to Buffalo"
"I'd rather be Just whore I am," said
he young man.
"Thanks," she said, and then she
went ou in a hurry: "Cui't you do
anything to stop them, Mr. Middleton?
How can they turn her out like this
when she told them she would pay this
"Did you know about It this morn
ing?" Middleton asked her, passing
over the question of law.
"Why. no. The first I knew of It
was when I was practicing over some
dreadfully dilllcult things they gave me
nt the college, and lu walked two
men Out Mrs. Flanagan! Come here!
Here's Mr. Middleton. Perhaps he can
Mrs. Flanagan had Just .emerged
from the darkness of the back stairs, a
pale, black haired woman, with glit
tering black eyes.
"No, child." she said. "Mr. Middle
ton can't help me. I don't know where
all you children are going to get your
dinner today and tomorow, Thanks
giving day, and after you've paid uie
"Oh. that'll be all right Mrs. Flana
gan." said Middleton.
"Never mind, Mrs. Flanagan," said
Lillian. "We'll manage about the din
ner. I declare," she went on. turning
upon Middleton a haughty aud uplifted
chin with a very aggravating dimple
In the middle of It, "this Is the lirst
Thanksgiving I was ever lu the States,
and 1 think you Yankees ought to 1m?
ashamed to to let Mrs. Flanagan be
treated like this!"
"It Is an unfortunate collleldcnoo.,,
Middleton said In a low voice, "but I
don't think it enn be fairly Imputed as
a national disgrace. Mrs. Flanagan,
where are you going tonight?"
"Me. child? Why, I couldn't tell you
that to save my neck. If I ouly had
time to look nround"
"Yes. I know. But, as it is, where are
you going?" the young lawyer persist
ed, "and where are your boarders go
ing?" "All my boarders that had rooms
here are gone, child all except this
one sweet angel," ineaulug, of course,
I have an Idea, Miss McKay," Mid
dleton exclaimed, quite as If something
new had Just occurred to him which
"Then, for soodness sake, out with
"Why. you sec, so many of us room
ers over at Anderson's toko our meals
hero that wo shall be In pretty general
distress If Mrs. Flanagan goes off.
Vliat would be bad for the Andersons,
wouldn't It? Very welL Why not let
THE NEBRASKA INDEPENDENT
THE STORY .,
OF, A NOVEMBER
EVICTION, A CANADIAN BEAUTY
AiJD AN ANNEXATION.
Mrs. Flanagan come over aud occupy
"They haven't any dining room va
cant, child," Mrs. Flanagan mournful
"But Mrs. Flanagan can send up
meals to our rooms for the present,"
Middleton answered. ,
"And where do I coni in, or whither
do I go out?"
"Ask Mrs. Latour to let her 'dear
Canadian girl' share her room. She'll
be ouly too glad."
So It came to pass that Mrs. Flana
gan w as Installed that evening in the
Among the roomers at the Ander-
Bona' vaTriu"Latdar. She was the
pink of chaperons, a widow, pust mid
dle age, with admirable social ante
cedents. "It's too bad. Mr. Middleton," said
Mrs. Latour that evening when, after
"HERE'S MB. MIDDLETON. PERHAPS HK CAN
1 HKLP YOU."
a decidedly scrappy meal In his own
room, he had dropped In to call on
her and Lillian McKay. "And your
family lives In the western part of the
state? Of course, if you had known
how It would be, you could have made
your arrangements in plenty of time-
yes and now"
"And now it will be sufficient cause
for thankfulness if I get anything to
eat at all tomorrow."
"Oh, dear!" said Lillian. "It's all too
dismal for anything. I wish Ronald
I raser would come now, if he is com
ing to New York. It would be a dis
"When did he say he wag coming,
my dear?" Mrs. Latour asked.
"Rome time about the end of Novem
ber; said he expected to 'drop In on
me. " Then, with a sudden start and
a worried look on her face, Lillian ex
claimed: "Oh, I say! Wouldn't that
be dreadful? IIow is Rouald going to
find me if he does come?"
.Mrs. Latour had heard of Ronald
v raser. Mlddletou had not. Ho won
dered. In gloomy silence, who on earth
Ronald Frnser could be;.
lou enn write to him, dear, can't
you?" said Mrs. Latour. "Won't a let
ter reach him iu Toronto?"
lie lert Toronto weeks ago, Mrs.
Latour. He may be In New York nt
this very moment."
"It would be dreadfully vexatious,
my dear. But don't let's fret ourselves
about It. Mr. Mlddletou, you are the
man of resource who found shelter for
poor Mrs. Flanagan and kept us all
from going hungry. You can surely
tliluk of some way to t-ave Mr. Frnser
rrom going distracted when he finds
No. OS empty and no little Canadian
At for Middleton, he nt first could
think of no scheme to save Mr. Fraser
fi'om distraction. But presently he sav:
that Lll'.inn's mind was seriously dis
turbed by the prospect of missing this
Mr. Fraser, she saying nothing. iShe
bad sat down npurt, to stare through a
window pane at the Hakes of snow that
fluttered from out the darkness. And,
whoever Frnser might be, Mlddletou
could not resist the power of Miss Mc
"Perhaps It would be a good idea."
be said, "as we can't camp out lu the
snow, waiting to catch Mr. Fraser at
No. US, to pin a notice ou the door over
"That's It!" Lillian cried. Jumping
Hp. "dive lue a piece of paper, ileil
know my writing. Look here! I'll say.
'Apply at' what's this number? 'at
D.'i, across the w ay.' "
"Very well." said Middleton. "I'll
take It over. But. by tlie way. don't
you think that as Mrs. Flan.iRan could
hardly furulsh furth the semblance of
a meal this evening, we might go out
and forage for a Thanksgiving dinner,
Just to make surer
"Buy things?" Lillian exclaimed Joy
fully. "Oh. come on I Let me get my
hat. I've got 52.50."
"And Is the old woman expected to
play chaperon to a marketing party on
such a night as this 7" Mrs. Latour ask
"It does seem a little too much." said
Middleton, "though I see uo old wom
an In tbls case." ,
"Oh, Mrs. Latour, I think you can'
trust me with Mr. Middleton this once,,
can't your said Lillian, tugging on a'
-i tninn i might. Just this
Whnt are you going to get?"
"Oh, a turkey for us three," Middle
ton began, once more thinking that his
luck was not so very atrocious, after
"Yes, aud perhaps Ror.ald may be
here to have some."
And, with that remark of Lillian's,
down again went Mlddleton's opinion
of his luck.
"Stuffed with chestnuts," ho went
on mechanically, "cranberries, cara
mels, Ice cream" . "
"Come on," Lillian interrupted.
As they went out of tlie street door
Lillian's escort shut it with a needless
"Do you always shut doors like
that?" Miss McKay asked.
"Eh? No, not always, only Just now
I happen to be looking' out for any
thing I can get to slam," Middleton
answered viciously as they paddled
away through the wet snow, Lillian
carrying tlie placard to be affixed to
the doorpost of No. 08.
The placard was securely fastened
over the bell button, aud then they
made for tho corner to catch a car.
As they took their stand close to
the track, by an Iron elevated railroad
support, tho car slackened speed, and
a man In a long coat and a fur cap,
whom Middleton supposed to be some
holiday roisterer, Jumped off. The man
stopped and stared Lillian In the face.
Then, In a moment, with a cry of
"Hello, little girlie!" the strange man's
disengaged arm was twined about
Lillian's gray fox collar, and his face
was rapidly approaching hers. But
the two faces were violently parted by
a blow of the kind technically known
as a "loft hook." and the "left hooker"
was Mr. Mlddletou.
"Stop!" Lillian cried. "What are
you doing? Don't you see it's Ronald?
Oh, Ronald, I'm so sorry!"
Ronald had recovered himself from
the shock and was In the act of charg
ing when Lillian hurriedly pronounced
the formula of Introduction: "Ronald,
my friend. Mr. Middleton. Mr. Middle
ton, my brother-in-law, Mr. Fraser."
"Oh, your friend, eh?" said Ronald.
"Oh, your brother-in-law!" said Mid
dleton. "1 didn't know, or I
'If I had known you were so well
protected, LU. 1 wouldn't have been lu
such a hurry," said Fraser.
'Come on, for gobduess sake," said
Lillian. "If we don't move on. there'll
be a crowd."
'Whero are you moving.to?" Fraser
asked in bewilderment sollcltouslv
feeling the right side of his face.
"Just now we are going to market"
But Lillian interrupted in her impul
sive way: "Oh, Ronald, I'm bo glad to
see you! And I'm so sorry. I'll have
to explain It all to you. We were Just
going to buya Thanksgiving dinner
for Mrs. Flanagan to cook. Mr. Mid
dleton didn't know"
"That's all right But who is Mrs.
It was a hard matter to explain all
these complications while shopping
crowds Jostled them r.nd "L" trains
rattled overhead. Middleton' pointed
this out and, postponing their market
ing, they fell back upon the hospitality
of Mrs. Latour's room.
My dear boy," she said to Middle-
ton, seeming really alarmed at the mis
understanding which Fhe could have
prerented, "If 1 had thought anything
like this would havo happened. I would
have told you of the relationship. It
was all my silly fun."
But the marketing expedition did
come off at last, and the result was a
Thanksgiving dinner which Mrs. La
tour called a "partie carree" and Mid
dleton a "bully old Thanksgiving pic
nic." The table was barely large
enough to hold four plates. Mrs. La
tour's dressing mirror reflected turkey,
THE TWO WF.KR VIOLF.XTLT PARTED.
ham and n pudding and her writing
desk aud mantelshelf groaned under
celery, rnulinower. cups, saueera, nuts,
coffeepots and milk pitchers.
Aud when tho feast had reached tho
dessert stage Mrs. Latour blandly
1 would not wound the national
susceptibilities of our friends. But
mny I propose the toast of 'Annexa
"Well," said Fraser. "we Canadians
want protection for our native prod
ucts, and you Yankees seem disposed
to give it. Isn't that so, Mr. Middle
ton T But how do you mean 'annexa
tion,' Mrs. Latour wholesale or piece-
Lillian told Ronald no was talking a
great deal of nonsense.
Little girlie," he said, "yon don't un
derstand these things."
But she did understand, and under
stands them still better now. She has
been annexed alnce that memorable
Thanksgiving, much to the Joy of Mrs. j
Flanagan. Mrs. Latour and, not least,
of Mr. Middleton
' I -
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How long have you
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2 south tn st. Arthur Betz.
Aceiiseil of Propagating Atheism and Prac
ticing Hypnotism in Order to (iet
Shades of tho Puritanic founders of
Yale will shudder when they learn that
formal charges have been filed against
the college of teaching atheism and
According to allegations made by
Robert II. Waters, of Newburyport,
Mass., the university authorities con
certed to impoverish his uncle, the late
Prof. Othniel C. Marsh, to "jockey" him
out 01 his valuable collection of verte
brate specimens, and to instill into his
mind the belief that there is no here
after and that he could make himself
immortal to himself on earth.
Waters' statement was riled in the
superior court November 9th as his
ground for appeal from the decision of
the probate court allowing the will to
stand. The hearing will begin next
The document filed by Mr, Walker,
stripped of legal verbiage, is as follows:
' That Othniel C. Marsh executed the
will under undue influence of the officers
of the university.
"That on or about Jan uary 1, 1898,
they induced him to give the university
a large amount of personal property and
scientific collections, valued by him at
"That in pursuance of their under
taking to obtain his entire property,
they induced him to devote his time,
labor and money to the university for
many years without compensation,
whereby he impoverished himself and
became deeply indebted; whereupon
the university lent him $30,000 and
compelled him to secure the loan by a
mortgage on nis real estate in ;ew
"That for many years he was engaged
in deep study; research, and investina-
tion of the remains of prehistoric ani
mals and reptiles, visiting many parts of
the world, especially uninhabited parts
of the United States, and was exposed
to many hardships and dangers, and
that as a result he was at the time of
the execution of the will extremely ner
vous and laboring under the. delusion
that there was no future life, and that it
was necessary for him to make some
financial arrangement wherebv he could
become immortal upon this earth; that
the university encouraged him in this
delusion, and induced him to believe
that if he would give his preperty to it
the university would erect a monument
or establish a museum to immortalize
him. and that he executed the will for
the purpose of obtaining immortality on
this earth." X. Y. World.
One of Them Tells How He Kdlleil a Pa
per When He llln't do any
thing or the Kind.
The real power, political and educa
tional, in the United States lies in the
country press but it is the country edi
tor who exercises it. You may think
that funny, but I have been there and
know whereof I speak. I pulled the
lever on an old Washington hand press
for many years, was printer, devil, edi
tor, solicitor -just what the large ma
jority of them are today. I said f. edited
the paper- I thought I did, but the fel
lows who controlled the city dailies real
ly edited my paper. The positions they
iook on nil pu Di ic ijuostions tound a re
flex in my paper. They did my think
ing in that way. I had the readers in
the country but they really controlled
them by controlling my mind or lack of
mind. More people read the country
press today than rend the metropolitan
press, but localise the country bumpkin
never reads books, never investigates for
himself, has no convictions tiiat he is
afraid will hurt the party, he is merely
a tool in the hands of the cunning few
who control the city press. The country
editor has tlie power and in the local
field doen the work that makes the presi
dent, senators, congressmen, legislators.
and county officers, ami then is afraid of
these creatures he has made! He works
harder than most anybody for all he
gets out of the public crib, while those
he pushes into power gobble thousands
and even millions. He is afraid that if
he takes a position not in harmony with
the fleecers, they will take away a lit-'
Took MLD MEDAL at the Osaka In tnia irt
bivumus. hiiii mi I wwm hih
f the tab screw propeller tbat to rearing
i efnaaaa caatei toe giooaiee to oreaa
wmmmrmmm wwit uu
na farmer and
Mrs, Oeotry of Ky
iiu oi towa, soia low, says n wtu sen no ta
PO. Aceau make 1200. Booth.
November 23, 1899.
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tie work from him that he earns in the
public service! The country editor sel
dom reads books. All his ideas come
from the papers he reads, and as every
one of these, like himself, has an ax to
grind, they are continually deceiving
themselves. Here and there you will
find one who is more of a power than
others. They are the men who do not
crouch to the olHcial creatures they have
made. The unread fellow does not know
that the other gets his power from book
study but recognizes the superior influ
ence. The difference between men is the
difference mostly in what the mind
read. The country editor will humble
himself before the congressman or other
"superior" being hoping to get a little of
fice. Were he wise ho would make the
officer humble himself, for the editor
really has in his hands the political
power. Any editor with ordinary na
tural ability, by reading books on noliti
cai economy, both sides, can make him-,
self felt all over his state, even with a
small country paper. Appeal to Reason.
The Original Manuscript of the Hyma
Presented to George Fred William
for Hid Fight Against
An incidentof interest and significance
was the presentation last Sunday to the
Hon. George Fred Williams of Massa
chusetts of the original copy of the na
tional anthem, "America."
Dr. F. S. Smith wrote "America" in
1832, nearly seventy years ago. The
manuscript has been handed down as an
heirloom by one of the oldest families of
Boston. An effort was made to have the
original manuscript made a part of the
Boston Public Library collection of relics
but the owners decided on its presenta-
I i Hr t;ii:, ;
j tion to Mr. Williams in recognition of
his work against the growing spirit of
imperialism. The presentation was made
at a dinner given by Col. A. C. Drink
water, chairman of the Massachusetts
Democratic Executive Committee, in
Mr. William's honor. The speech of
presentation was made by Mr. J. M. Mc
Nary, secretary of the committee.
This is a relic for which all true Amer
icans should feel a keen sense of venera
tion. None can sing the words of that
beautiful hymn thoughtfully and sin
cerely without feeling a thrill of patriot
ic emotion. The ideas which lie at the
foundation of all our institutions as a
free and self governing nation are ex
pressed in poetic language in the words
of this anthem which has become en
deared to the nation through its use
during several generations. Buffalo
Mr. Williams should now forward that
manuscript to W. J. Bryan, who was the
first man in America to raise his voice
against imperialism, which he did in his
speech at Omaha when tho Third regi
ment was given a reception at the Ex
Made Them Fly.
Editor Independent -When the fu
sion forces began to roll in their votes
on tho 7th. they made the gigantic and
malign power of the trusts, and the pres
ident's imperialism and polygamyisin fly
like chaff in a whirlwind, and the whirl
wind of reform will not, cease until the
web of steel-strong chains of special
privileges, and the gold standard is de
stroyed in the union. ; .
C. X. Mkvers.
North Loup, Neb.
FARM FOR SALE.
A choice 80 acre farm, 3 miles north
of Filley, Neb. F'- residence, nice or
chard, etc., etc. Good neighborhood,
beautiful country. School within 1U0
rods. Address, Wm. Dknb,
3w Filley. Neb.
Wbrre do you buy your ehoest San
derson's, 12111 0 St., have the best shoes
for tho money that can be made. They
guarantee every pair to give perfect 'sat
isfaction. Tiy them.
The Rock Island Playing Cards are the
slickest you ever handled. One pack
will be sent by mail on receipt of 15
cents in stamps. A money order or
draft for CO cents or same in atamr
secure 4 packs, and they will be sent by
wpreM. charges prepaid Address, John
Sebastian, G.P.A O.B.LAP. Chi-
cago, . . 4
our trrtnin1 h. Ar...rT:
revolves 1600 revolution! a mlaaU.
nrar m wmrn aaaana. uimimUmi
innunuyaad the MtWMaoea.
eve will boy. a scieaUfie wonder.
win UBT. a BCMnUBe UIM l
ocrt lew Broatht,
W. T HlaM - - -
I riei a
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