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About The Nebraska independent. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1896-1902 | View Entire Issue (Feb. 6, 1896)
THE NEBRASKA INDEPENDENT
February 0, 1806.
25 Nebraska Jnbcpcnbcnt
THE WEALTH MAKERS and LINCOLN
PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY
v BY THE
IndepEijdeijt Publishing Go.
At 1120 H Street,
LINCOLN, - NEBRASKA.
$1.00 per Year in Advance.
Address all communications to, and make all
droit, money orders, etc., payable to
THE INDEPENDENT TCB. CO..
LET EVERY OWE TUEH OUT.
The Reform Press Association will
meet in Dallas, Texas, on Feb. 22d
Every populist editor in the state of Ne
braska has a duty to perform and that
duty is to be at Dallas when the Reform
Press Association is called to order. Let
nothing detain you except the impossi
bility of getting there. It will be the
greatest meeting the pop editors ever
hold. Matters of the most vital impor
tance to future success of our papers will
there be discussed and decided.
Victory is in sight in this state and in
the nation. Let us make sure of it.
Come, every one of you come.
Bio silver meeting at Raymond Satur
day night. Good speakers. Be sure and
Why don't some farmer announce him
self as a candidate for office in the re
publican party, or are there no farm
era in it?
You can't say "as good as wheat" any
Imore, for wheat is no good at all in these
gold standard days. , It don't pay the
cost of raising.
The right to issue money is a function
pf the government and not a function of
the banks, and for that the populist will
tight till he dies.
The populists of Minnesota will run a
special train from St. Paul to St. Louis,
on July 22, to carry the crowds who will
attend the populist national convention.
We hear a great deal these days about
republican and populist candidates for
the presidency, but where are the demo
cratic candidates? Won't some one trot
What troubles a great many honest
men about the financial question is op-'
eimathy. The only remedy for it is a
good populist paper taken regularly and
Yob might as well, try "to coax an
earthquake with a bun" as to try to get
Alleu, Butler, Holcomb, or Taubeneck to
abandon the essential principles of this
Brad Slauglter gave all the editors
of the Nebraska Press Association an
annual pass, on the Lincoln street car
lines, lias Brad got his eye on some
J. Sterling Morton can use that his
toric instrument with which Samson slew
his thousands, more continuously, and
with less effect than any other man in
the United States.
Prof. TAUsiosays: "The appreciation
of gold is the general fall of prices. The
two are not related as cause and effect,
they are simply two names for one and
the same thing."
Donnelley's paper now has 15,000
circulation, and he asks the populists of
that state to put up the money and buy
a press. They will do it, too. The pops
np there mean to win next fall.
Every national republican leader is a
coward. Not one of them dare to state
fairly and honestly his position on the
money question. Cowards never led an
army to victory and never will.
The new commander of the Spanish
troops in Cuba seems to be no more suc
cessful in whipping the Cuban's than the
old one. When men fight for liberty they
are usually pretty hard to whip.
The dailies are now rejoicing over the
'flood of gold." The rhetoric of the ex
pression is on a "parity" with its truth.
Do they mean that the metal is melted
and flooding the country like an over
The Chicago Sentinel can come down
-oriiilir whftn it is beaten that all
the ill feeling is banished from the minds
of those who contested with it. I ne i o
v Advocate and Southern Mercury
didn't know how to do the graceful so
well. They are eomewnai more awk
ward, but they get there just tne same.
THE UNBBASONINO MUtiriTUDB
Mr. Carl Snyder, whoever i hi this
writer knoweth uot.snysin tlO'Vbruary
Review of Review in des'ivrb'ing the
awful "flood" of gold which he says Is
pouring out of the mines of the world
"At the preseent time f 27 will buy the
same supplies which cost $100 in 1870.
In other words, the cost is hardly a
fourth what it was aquarter of aceutury
ago, while the price of gold is the same
today as then, the same a in 1849 the
same as it has been for more than half a
century. All other values have fallen;
this alone stands."
That the writer himself does not be
lieve a word of the whole statement is
proved by half a dozen passages in the
same article. The intention is to juggle
with the word "price" in the above sen
tence, but the idea conveyed is that the
value of gold never varies, that it is
always and everywhere the same. That
no reasoning human being believes that
statement and that he does not believe
it himself is abundantly proved by the
the following statement on page 172.
"Will it be possible for our monetary
system to survive the addition of such
an overwhelming flood? Our present
system was framed to meet exactly the
opposite conditions which iw present
themselves. Its author had in view a
scarcity, not a glut of gold."
If the value of gold is not affected by
an "overwhelming flood" or by a strin
gent scarcity why should not "the mon
etary systems survive?"
A note of hand, a bond or any obliga
tion made payable in dollars is now
practically an agreement to deliver on a
certain date named in the paper so
many grains of gold. Is there any sane
or reasonable human being who will suy
that the hardship of payment may not
be increased or diminished by an "over
whelming flood" or an overwhelming
scarcity of gold?
The trouble about this matter is that
there are multitudes of unreasoning hu
mati heings in these United States who
have votes, and who, when told that the
value of gold never varies, that the value
of all other thiugs may rise and fall, but
gold, whether there are "floods" of it or
dearths of it, is like God himself, without
variation or shadow of turning, believe
it, and vote to make themselves slaves.
The only thing that stands in the way
of populist Buncess is blind, unreasoning
ignorance. The voters are buncoed by
the gold brick writers of the great maga
zines and never b top to think that the said
writers are the paid attorneys of the
power that absorbs, year after year their
Aside from this the whole article is false
and deceptive. If there was such a
"flood of gold" as Mr. Snyder describes,
prices would rise, Instead of that they
are constantly falling.
THE OAT IS OUT OF THE BAG
There has been no assertion of the
troldtte speakers and writers that has
done more harm than the claim that
wages have constantly risen since 1880
while the price of products of labor have
as constantly fallen. The goldites had
to support them in this statement the U.
S. census report and Mun hall's tables.
While every economist knew that the
theory that prices could fall constantly
for a period of years and wages as con
stantly rise was just as ridiculous as to
say that every ounce of metal added to
a pound weight made it that much
lighter, yet here were always these statis
tics and Munhall's tables to meet.
Senator Jones in his great speech re.
plied to the assertion by saying that when
we estimated what labor received in this
country we must divide the wages per
capita, among all the laborers, the un
employed as well as employed, and that
we must also include the agricultural
laborers, whose rate of wages was not in
cluded in those tables at all. He did not
attack the statistics as unreliable.
It now turns out that the Englishman
whom the republicans put in charge of
the census of 1890 "fixed" the wages re
turns so they are not only unreliable,
but on this point are wholly false.
Prof. II. L. Bliss in the December number
of the Journal of Economics shows up
this fraud completely. It appears that
in the census of 1880, only the real wage
earners were included, but in the census
of 1890 the salaries of superintendents,
owners, agents, stockholders and scient
ists employed in and about the great
mills and factories were all included.
This of course raised the rate of wages
The superintendent of . the great
Amoskeag cotton mills at Manchester,
N. II.. was once showing the writer of
this over those immense works. In an
swer to a question about the rate of
waxes he replied:
"Oh. we pav them pretty well. There
is one." pointing to the chief chemist,
"we oav him $25.00 per day, "and there
is another," pointing to a skilled
draughtsman and artist who made and
enlareed the patterns for prints, "we pay
him $16.00 per day. Besides that we
have two or three employees in Boston
and New York whom we also pay from $5,-.
000 to $8,000 a year.
In Porter's census, all these high priced
officials, azents, artists and professional
men, were put in as wage workers. No
wonder that the statistics show that
wages rose while the product of labor fell
THE OMAHA EES AT XT.
Now that the Omaha Bee has gone into
. s . f
straight lying, or rather into tne ousi
of nrintinz old lies, it is making a
good job of it. Hear it: "After years of
ffort to put silver dollars In circulation,
(dm tbau $60,000,000 are being used as
It is impossible to conceive what the
tditor thought he could accomplish by
Writing or printing such an audacious or
unbelievable lie as that. 1W fore the peo
ple hal any press of their own, there
might have been something accompliehed
by printing such falsehoods when there
was no way oj denying them, but now it
only brings contempt upon the paper
that prints them. There is scarcely a
man in the state bo ignorant as not to
know there is over $500,000,000 of sil
ver in constant circulation, in silver dol
lars and in silver certificates. It is about
all the money there is in circulation. The
bankers lock up the greenbacks and the
A PHIL ARMOUR SCHEME.
Some one asks the Independent how
much better the green bracks are when
there is $100,000,000 of gold in the
treasury than they are now with only
about $10,000,000 there? Would they
beany better with $200,000,000 there
than with $20,000,000? They certainly
would be better, for as the currency is
contracted just so much by every dollar
locked up in the reserve, the remaining
dollars left in circulation will be that
much "better," using the word in the
goldite way. But according to the pop
ulist idea they are that much "worse."
The whole idea of the gold reserve is to
contract the currency. Its effect, and its
only effect, is to further lower prices. 0'
course 1200,000,000 locked up can do no
one any good, except the owners of
money and paper culling for money.
Every dollar locked up increases the value
of what they own. They are getting the
government to play the same game that
Phil Armour played when he locked up
all the pork and took four or five million
dollars from those who had promised to
deliver to him pork, as they could get it
only by buying it from him.
These goldites have contructs binding
governments, states and individuals to
doliver money, What money they don't
own themselves, they are getting the
government to lock up. So when the
day of delivery comes, the parties who
have promised to deliver money have to
come to these goldite conspirators and
pay whatever the said conspirators de
mand to get it. If they demaud 100
bushels of wheat for twenty-five dollars,
this man who has promised to deliver
dollars, is helpless. He must accede to
the demand. Asnoone can create money
except the government, to carry out
their plan, they got the governmen to
stop making money at all by repeal of
the Sherman act, and now they are try
ing to get it to lock up a large part ol
what is left. A good many idiots call
thatscheme "sound finance" and "good
DISSIMULATION AND DECEIT.
The duplicity, the hypocrisy, the un
limited lyingof thegold standard writers,
some of them scholars, professors in the
great universities, Booie of them editors
of great literary magazines or weekly
papers, make us sometimes almost de-
Last week the New York Nation in an
editorial condemning corruption in our
public men, in our city, state, and na
tional government, all of which was
true, was written for another purpose
and had another effect upon the reader
altogether. There was as much cor
ruption and hypocrisy in that article
as in any half dozen public men in the
United States, possibly excluding Sher
man, Cleveland, Carlisle & Co.
The object of that editorial was not to
condemn corruption in public men, but
to give currency to a lie. It had these
two sentences in it and the whole article
was written for the sole purpose of put
ting them there. It asked: "Why have
we 'so many tons of silver stored at
Washington? Why is it not made to
circulate among the impoverished peo
Now the editor of the Nation knows
that there is not a dollar, let alone tons
of silver, save the seigniorage, in Wash
ington not in circulation among the
people by means of silver certificates.
That is the same lie that John Sher
man enunciated in the senate when Sena
tor Teller rose and said that the state
ment of the senator from Ohio was false,
and that he (Sherman) knew that it was
false when he uttered it.
It is almost enough, when one sees
these things, to make one despair ol
THURSTON'S BRA VERT.
Last Monday the State Jonrnal had
printed in the center of its first page in
pica French old style the following ex
tract from the speech of John U. P.
Thurston on the Monroe doctrine:
Sir, believing that the honor ot my country la
Involved; that the hour calls tor the highest ex
pression of loyallty and patriotism; calmly con
fident ot the verdict of prosperity; reverently
calling Ood to witness the sincerity ot my par
pose; I shall vote for It, not as an affront to any
other nation, but to uphold the dignity of my
own. I shall vote for It In this time of profound
tranquility, convinced that peace with honor can
be preserved. But, sir, I would vote for It Just as
a rely were we already standing In the awful
shadow ot declared war, I would vote tor It
were the shells of British battle ships bursting
above the dome ot the nation's capttol. I would
vote for It and would maintain It, at all baiards
ead at any cost, with the last dollar with the
last man. Yea, though it might presage th
coming of a mighty conflict, whose conclusion
should leave me without a eon, as the last
great contest left me without a aire.
For unlimited bombast that para
graph is perhaps not excelled in tin
whole range of the English language.
The fun of it however, is in the last
sentence. It will be seen that Thurston,
on the proposition of going to war, takes
exactly the same position as that taken
by the late lamented Artemus Ward,
who, rather than see the Union destroyed
was willing that all of his wife's relations
should be drafted into the army.
"Yea, though it presage the coming
of a mighty conflict says Thurston,
"whose conclusion should leave me with
out a son as the last great contest left
me without a sire."
Johnny is willing to sacrifice a father
and a son, but his own tender carcass he
does not offer.
Perhaps some innocent voter may im
agine that the Associated Press and the
goldite editors are the biggest liars on
earth and, especially the editors, the
greatest economic idiots; but he will give
up both points when he reads the follow
ing from the speech of Senator Gray of
Delaware, delivered on January 29th
The senator said :
"We have now silver bullion and silver
dollars piled up in the Treasury vaults
which is not demanded for circulation.
All attempts to force a larger circulation
of silver have proved abortive. The fact
is that we to-day have a redundant cir
culating medium gold, silver, green
backs, treasury notes, and bank notes,
all interchangeable and of equal purchas
ing power aggregating somewhere near
$1,500,000,000 or $1,600,000,000.
"Think of the enormous economy in
the one factor of transportation, which
enters into the price today of every ar
ticle of common use and common neces
sity. At the commencement of this pe
riod, or a little before, corn was burned as
it was taken from the fields over the west
ern prairies. Today it is sold for only a
little, 0 or 9 cents, less than it is sold on
the coast line of the country and at the
port of New York."
That is the way the goldite senators
talk. The Independent will leave it to
any old farmer in the state if that don't
beat Annin or the State Journal. If Sen
ator Gray knows of any silver dollars
that won't circulate in his state let him
send them out here, and we will be pro
foundly grateful to be shown how Ne
braska corn can belaid down in New
York at a freight charge of six or seven
cents a bushel.
Bye and bye the people will find out
that a good many senators are common,
every-day liars, and nothing else.
COMINQ TO TKEIB SENSES.
At last there is beginning to appear
some sound political economy in the
great quarterly scientific journals, a
thing that is very encouraging. Prof.
Willard Fisher has an essay in the Jour
nal of Political Economy which com
pletely demolishes the claim that 95 per
cent of the business of the country is
done with checks, drafts and other credit
devices. The article shows long, hard
Btudy and much patient investigation.
From the comptroller's reports, bank
statements and other reliable sources, he
Guds that the amount of credit paper
passing through the banks in a year is
about $15,000,000,000. Then taking
the amount of money of every kind in
circulation at one billion, and estimating
that it changes hands about three times
a week, which is a very low estimate, he
findu that the cash transactions just
about equal the credit business. His
conclusion is in these words: "The cash
and credit exchanges of our country, in
stead of standing as 1 to 10, stand in the
ratio of 1 to 1."
The claim so often made upon the floor
of the senate that as civilization ad
vances, less and less money per capita is
needed and less used, Prof. Fisher utterly
denies and closes his article with these
words: "That recent years are seeing the
field of credit money slowly contracted is
pretty well proved."
TWO WHIFFED CURS.
Last Monday the Board of Public
Lands and Buildings had a meeting had
Beveral of them in fact, some open and
some secret. The result of it all was that
the theiving curs who had planned to
rob the tax payers of this state through
their illegal appointment of a superin
tendent of the penitentiary, of thousands
of dollars, stuck their tails between their
legs, yelped, whined, and finally gave up
the whole thing as a bad job and quit.
Churchill and Russell agreed to pay the
bills which Warden Leidigh had made to
maintain the convicts for the five or six
months during the time these would be
boodlers were trying to get their itching
fingers on the money appropriated by
the legislature to maintain the prison.
The only thing that saved the tax pay
ers was the brave fight made by a popu
list governor and a populist warden.
When a pop undertakes to defend the
people against public thieves, he makes
things lively for them as Churchill and
Russell have found out No two "yellow
dons" ever got a more complete wallop
ing than these two at the hands of Hol
comb and Leidigh, and honest men of all
parties and all creeds rejoice over the
BANKER YATES BLASPHEMY.
Recent statistical tables show a gen
eral decline of prices since January 1,
1891, of 14.72 per cant, that is if $100
would buy a certain amount of goods
January 1, 1891, $85.29 would buy the
same amount January 1, 1896. But
farm products have fallen in far greater
proportion than that. The general level
oi prices has been somewhat kept up by
ihe riite in articles controlled by trusts,
Ike coal oil and cotton seed oil, which
have risen in prim, notwithstanding a
loll everwhere else of 8.22 per cent. In
fur in products $59.59 will now. buy as
much wheat, corn, oats, rye, and flour as
$100 would buy January 1, 1891. Yet
Mr. Henry Yates tells us that gold is a
stable standard a standard without a
shadow of turning, and will stand com
parison with thecharacter of Jesus Christ,
which is a blasphemy uttered inaY. M.
C. A. building without a protest.
TOM RIED ON SILVER.
Senator Chandler who is a warm sup
porter of Tom Reed for president recently
wrote a letter deflningReed's position on
silver. It is as follows:
"He is not willing to agree to the un
limited coinage of silver at the present
ratio by the United States alone; but be
is apposed to the gold monometalism of
Cleveland and Carlisle, and in favor of
Republican bimetal I ism, to be secured by
the most feasible means and with the
least possible delay, bo that gold and
silver, admitted to unlimited coinage at
an agreed ratio, shall together constitute
the standard money of the world's
That is to say: "I am in favor of and
opposed to, regarding with friendly dis
position, to thus hinder, destroy, defeat
the opus operatum, remembering my
opsimathy. I am still frieudiy and in
oposition Yours truly, Tom. Reed."
The United States marsh alls are after
the half naked, half starved frontier set
tlers in Boyd county again for cutting
timber on public lands; and they brag
that they will have 200 of them in jail in
a short time. There was never a more
inhuman piece of work inaugurated on
this continent. This gang of goldite
marshals are simply after fees. Their
conduct in arresting these shivering
wretches for taking a load of wood from
the public lands to warm their wives and
children, even if the charge could be
proved, is on a level with the tyrannies
of the old feudal lords of 500 years ago,
but when the arrests are made for thi
sole purpose of getting lees, as has been
proven in many "Cases in the past, the j
villains who do it deserve the warmest
berth in slieol.
The York Times being incompetent to
argue the money question, says "If every
body would unite with everybody else to
rotten egg the first fellow who proposed
any legislation in regard to money, it
would put a stop to a whole lot of use
less and damaging talk." Now don't
throw up the sponge that way. Write
about overproduction, intrinsic value,
Peffer's whiskers, or Jerry Simpson's
socks. Never show the white feather.
Bull it through and earn your money.
The Associated Press liars sent out a
dispatch to the whole western circuit to
the effect that the bimetallic national
convention would be held on July 2. A
lot of populist editors believed it, and
straightway went after our national
committee tooth and toe nail, among
them the Utah Democrat. When will
these editors learn to take the advice of
the Independent and believe nothing in
the Associated Press until they have
some proof that it is true.
Many of the farmers in Norway have
telephones in their houses. The govern
ment owns the telegraph and telephone
lines there. Must the United States for
ever tag at the tail end of civilization for
the benefit of the gold bugs, Every civ
ilized government on earth, including
Japan, owns the telegraph and telephone
lines, while the United States is yoked
with the pig-tailed Chinese. Gold-bugism
is barbarism and nothing else.
The Dispatch, "theonly democratic pa
per in Chicago," is acting as'if it were go
ing to turn populist out and out. During
the few weeks that the Chicago Times
wrote populism before the Harrison boy8
sold out, it increased its circulation from
about 40,000 to over 100,000. The
Dispatch seems inclined to try the same
thing. There is money in it. Either the
goldites will have to buy it or it will get
a big circulation.
Any sort of stuff called money that
has to be redeemed in some other kind of
money before it can legally pay a debt is
a fraud, and as for the Independent, it
will have nothing to do with it. The
only concession it will make to men
who advocate paper money redeemable
in gold, silver, or anything else before it
can pay our debts, is to give them the
privileges of voting the populist ticket.
January 29th the great coal carrying
roads of Pennsylvania held a meeting'
formed a pool to hold for fifteen years,
and regulated the amount each should
haul. The next thing the price of an
thracite was advanced 35 cents a ton,
and thirty-two mines were closed. There
is old party government for you. If you
like it, all you have to do is to keep on
voting the old party tickets.
The "flood of gold" that all the hire-
line writers in the magazines are shout"
ing about.comes from working low grade
ores which could not be worked at all i1
gold had not so greatly appreciated. Be
sides, half of it is pure, unadulterated
You must keep Japanese goods, made
with cheap silver out with a tariff, says
the gold bug republican. A tariff of 100
per cent would not equalize exchange.
How would yon like to sell wheat, twef.
and pork in Liverpool at present prices
and then pay one hundred per cent more
for your goods than you do now? That
Would bring prosperity wouldn't it?
That is the stuff republican idiots talk.
In my judgment there is a determined
effort being made in this country to
create a great national debt, and in that
it has got the assistance of the public
authorities. It is as determined as it waa
that the Sherman law should be repealed.
They intend to create a great debt of a
thousand, fifteen hundred, or two thous
and million dollars if they can. Senator
, Harrison refuses to be a candidate for
president. He says: "There never has
been an hour since I left the white house
that I have felt a wish to return to it."
It is refreshing to know that one gold
ite is so ashamed of his work, that he
proposes to hide his shame in private
life. A good many more will do the
same thing after the next election. ,
It turns out that Mr. Poor, of Ken
tucky, whom the Associated Press liars
informed the public was a populist, is not
a populist at all, and never claimed to be
one, so the populist party is entirely re
lieved from any responsibility in the fac
tional fight in Kentucky. The one pop
ulist in the legislature is keeping straight
in the middle of the road.
Gorman, Harris, and Morgan are con
cocting what they call a compromise
scheme to retire the greenbacks and
treasury uotes and issue silver certifi
cates in place of them. That, they say,
will make a market for $500,000,000 of
silver, and will please the gold men. Crit
tenden peace commissions won't work
now any better than they did in 1861.
Kansas republicans have always been
represented in the United States' Senate
by free silver men until they sent Gold
Bug Baker there. Ingalls and Plumb
were both for free silver. The redeemers
who redeemed Kansas redeemed out a
gold bug while they talked free silver.
That's the way they always do.
Put up a tariff high enough to keep
Japanese goods out and where would
your revenue come from ? From bonds.
A prohibitive tariff means no revenue
from customs duties. A deficit in the
revenue means bonds, bonds, bonds.
That is the wisdom of these goldite high
The official reports show that the cur
rency has been contracted $110,000,000
in the last two years. Now they are go-
fug to contract it $100,000,000 more
and lock it up in the treasury reserve
Vaults. There will be another fall in '
prices and that is all there is of it.
To the question why so many republi
can newspapers failed, the Nebraska
Press Association, which held its annual
session in Lincoln last week, unanimously
replied that it was because the ready
print and paper houses always sent their
goods C. 0. D.
A gold bug Lincoln weekly is adver
tising that it will pay $2.50 and send
free its paper to any one getting up a
club of five. Some sort of a cash pay
ment has to be made to get men in this
part of the country to read gold bug
A Writer Who Thinks Him a Master of
Some weeks ago there was printed in
The Independet a character sketch of
Senator Peffer from the pen of Bright
Eyes. Last week another sketch ap
peared in the New York Independent, the
old conservative, cultured, orthodox re
ligious paper of that city, from the pen
of Janet Jennings, taking exactly the
same view of the populist senator. The
first two paragraphs of her article are as
Senator Peffer is the mildest mannered
mau in in the senate. No other . senator
is possessed of such unobtrusive tenacity
of purpose as this Kansas populist. He
has, also, the courage of conviction, and
never goes a long way round to get at
things, but makes a short cut and calls a
spade a spade. On the first day of the
session Senator Peffer introduced a bill
providing for the "proper disposition"
of senators who die while congress is in
session in other words, statesmen who
fall at the post of duty. The out
look for Mr. Peffer's good inten
tions were not promising. Appa
rently the bill received no attention,
beyond a broad and very general
smile of amusement in effect, the cold
shoulder of discouragement. A man of
less sanguine temperament would have
given it up, gone his way, and let the
dead bury their dead. Not so Senator
IVffer. I do not pretend to say how he
managed it, but manage it he did prob
ably by strategy, the populist weapon;
and a formidable weapon it is bound to
be, too, as both republicans and demo
crats already realize. Under less clever
tactics such a bill, in its very nature,
must have been buried at the bottom of
the calendar, below the possibility of res
urrection. But Senator Peffer led the cal
endar with his bill, actually got it at the
top before the senate was aware of what
be was about.
And then? well, every day for four
consecutive weeks, when the clock struck
two, the vice president, rising with a
gravity becoming the situation, would
tap his gavel solemnly and say: "The
hour of two o'clock having arrived, the
chair lays before the senate the unfinished
business; the clerk will read." Here the
clerk, also with a gravity becoming the
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