The Wealth makers of the world. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1894-1896, December 19, 1895, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

vol. vn.
More lively scrimmaging in '"Cuba re
A $250,000 fire occurred last wek in
Council Bluffs, la.
Lombard & Ayers, a big Wall Street
firm failed Saturday.
Japan is begining to get a foothold for
her manufactures in America.
The next Republican convention will be
held at St. Louis June 16, 1896.
The next Prohibition convention will
be held at Pittsburg, Pa., May 26.
Samuel Gompers was elected president
of the American Federation of Labor
last week.
John D. Rockefeller has ordered eight
a - -1 i i...:u f nnA 4 Iwi
new sieei vessels uuiiu iuj udd uu
great lakes.
Ex-Congressman McKeighan died sud
denly last Sunday morning. He had
been sick a week.
It is reported that over 200 people had
their pockets picked at Governor Brad
ley's inauguration at Frankfort.
The flour trust has been reorganized.
All the products of the Northwestern
mills will be sold through one office.
-A woman in Texas owns 1,200,000
acres of land and from her palace door
it is 13 miles to the gate of her grounds.
Texas will have five parties in the field
next year. Two varieties of Republicans,
two sorts of Democrats and one Popu
list. The Populists will surely win.
The reign of terror in Turkey still con
tinues. In the Van province 200villages
lnnn hiuin y4no4-w-iTTiH o ti i Kft OHO nortnla
are fleeing for their lives to the city of
' The Santa Fe R. R., was sold last week
for $60,000,000. It has beea valued at
$350,000,000. In this way the invest
ments of small stockholders are absorbed
bv the biff ones. ' "
Congressman Barrett last week intro
duced a resolution in the House severely
censuring Ambassador Bayard for his
speech at Glasgow. It led to a heated
partisan debate. ,
The great ship-building strike which
agitated Great Britain is ended. The men
have won. They will get a shilling ad
vance immediately and another shilling
advance in February.
American cheese has been selling in the
English market during the last year for
$2.17 per hundred pounds, an unpreced
ntly low price, that, it would seem,
dairymen could not live on.
Judge Thomas L. Nugent of Texas, the
Populist leader, is dead. He was one of
the ablest and strongest leaders in the
Populist party. In 1894 he received
180,000 Populist votes for governor.
The new fast Empire State Express,
running on the New York Central, is the
fastest long distance regular train in the
world, its time between New York and
Buffalo being 495 minutes, or 53.33
miles an hour.
A train returning from the inaugural of
Bradley, Republican governor of Ken
tucky, was fired on at Eminence. About
thirty shots were fired and the car win.
dows were shattered, but the passengers
saved themselves by falling on the floor.
Prof. Archibald Geikie. Director-Gene
ral of the Geological Survey of the United
r.vliikdom and author of many important
works on geology and kindred subjects,
is coming to America very shortly on a
lecturing tour.
Kufus II. Peckham is the new Justice
of the U. S. Supreme Court, to take the
place of Judge Jackson, deceased. His
appointment was confirmed by the Sen
ate Dec. 9. He is a New York man, ond
New York men are not friends of the
masses, generally speaking.
The Socialists in the German Reich
atadt are commanding attention and
stirring up the autocratic powers. Herr
Bebel spoke with great force and fervor
against the existing order of things last
week. Herr Liebknecht will speak this
week on "Socialist Baiting," and a great
sensation is expected.
A gold bearing vein of quartz has been
struck near Alma in Furnas county Neb
raskaand considerableexcitement exists.
The ore assays $0.00 a ton at the grass
roots, and it is believed will grow richer
as they go down. A shaft is being sunk
and options have been secured on all the
mining land around.
Miss Helen Culver has given a million
aoiiara to tne unicngo university ot tni
cago, and John D. Rockefeller has match
ed it with another million. The Stand
ard Oil king of the brigands also prom
ises up to $2,000,000 more, on or be
fore Jan. 1, 189G, on condition that
equal sums shall be secured from others
who have not yet promised gifts.
There is great excitement in 'the newly
Hundgold fieldsat Alma, Nebraska. The
contract was let last Saturday for the
Piking of a shaft, which will soon settle
tl) matter of the value of the gold vein
v.scovered. 1 he region was thronged
with neonle nnt Snndivv. Old mininc
experts say the prospect of an immenese
una is goou. -
Dr. Madden. Eve. Ear. N OS A And
tThroat diseases, over Rock Island
ficiset omce, s. w. cor, 11 and O streets.
ynas- ,"4Turateiy aflj usted.
The President's Message
To be sure there are two ways of look
ingat these government affairs. One that
this is a government for the people and
of the people. The other that it is a tern'
porary organization, to be made perm an
ently monarchical at the earliest possible
date, something in which the whole peo
ple shall turn the fruits of their toil over
to a few of the sharpest and boldest. If
the latter definition is correct and the
wooden shoe and corded blouse shall
crowd aside the banner of the free then
Cleveland's message is a matter of glory
and admiration.
But to those who both understand the
situation and love their country for its
traditions of liberty and equality the
message stirs their blood with as much
violence, and arouses as much indigiia
tion as any creed Jeff Davis or Valland'
ingham ever delivered on the constitu
tion. In it is just as much misrepresen
tation, as much sophistry, as much trea
son to tne people.
With the most shameless effrontery he
attempts to sho v up to foreign nations
that our country stands in imminent
peril, that our finances are in a deplor
able condition. "By careless, easy des
cent we have reached a dangerous depth,'
he says, and if there were any defects he
exposes them not to correct them but to
gain an advantage to plunder the people
again for the benefit bf bis alien bond
buying friends. These men who specu
late at the expense of tne United states
are plainly his clients, and to him his
clients are everything, his country is
nothing. Had he been the attorney of a
slaveholder in 'CO he could not have
advertised his disloyalty to the union
more clearly or accurately. ;
He again has reiterated the statement
that the revenues of the government
would not help matters, he would be still
compeled to issue bonds. The law under
his "liberal interpretation" of. parity
compels the treasury to maintain $100,
000,000 of gold in the treasury and to
pay gold for greenbacks or silver certifi
cates whenever the bankers want him to.
Neither are true. There is no law other
than a precedent established by John
Sherman when treasurer to maintain a
separate fund of gold in the treasury.
The law, the same as in France, says
"coin" in the matter of redemption, and
Cleveland could pay out silver when to
the advantage of the United States the
same as France pays it out when the
treasury suspects the gold is wanted for
To be sure these acts are not so plainly
drawn as during Buchanan's time, the
issue is not so tangible, but tbeeffects are
more far reaching. Then only a few
states and the enslavement of four mill
ion uneducated half civilized people only
were in the balance, now sixty millions
must feel the hand of the oppressor, tak
ing in the best blood of the earth, the
most enterprising and promising people
the world ever saw. Joliet (III.) News.
The Standard Oil Company and the
Professor's Political Economy
The following open letter to Professor
Laughlin, of the University of Chicago,
from Henry D. Lloyd, has been given to
the press:
"Chicago, Ill.,Nov.9. Professor Laugh
lin, University of Chicago: You are re
ported in the press to have said at a
public meeting Nov. 5, in Kent Hall, Uni
versity of Chicago, to the students and
others present; that whatever might be
charged against one of the founders of
the oil monopoly, no one could say that
he had accumulated his millions in any
way that interfered with the accumula
tions of others. In 1885 the Supreme
Court of Ohio found, as reported in
volume 43 of the Ohio State Reports,
that the monopoly had a freight con
tract with the Lake Shore Railroad 'to
keep the price down for the favored cus
tomers and up for. all others,' and the
court said 'the inevitable tendency and
effect of this contract was to enable' this
company 'to ruin all other operators and
drive them out of business,' and tne
court annulled thecontract as 'unlawful.'
With the help of such unlawful contracts
the capital of the oil monopoly has in
creased in thirty years from nothing to
hundreds of millions of dollars.
"If this were not a public matter you
would not have discussed it at a public
meeting. Allow me therefore to ask a
question of you, as the head of one of the
most important departments of political
economy in the country. If this way of
accumulating millions by the help of un
lawful contracts to ruin all other opera
tors is not an interference with the accu
mulations ofothers, what is the 'scienti
fic' name for it, and for the kind of poli
tical economy which commends it for
imitation to the young men and women
of the country?" Henry D. Lloyd, in
Inter-Oceun Nov. 10, 1895.
Holiday Excursion Kates via the
On Dec. 24 and 25, and also on Dec. 31
and January 1, 189G, the Burlington
will sell Round Trip Excursion Tickets
at one and one-third fare to points not
over 200 miles distant on its own lines.
All tickets irood for return until January
1, 1896. For further information and
tickets apply at B. & M. depot or city
office, cor 10th and 0 St.
G. W. Bonnell, C. P. & T. A.
So-called Representative Legislation Does
Not Represent
Address Delivered by Eltweed Pomeroy,
Secretary of the Direct Legislation
League of New Jersey,
Dec. 4, 1895
Delivered Before the N. J. Orange
A century ago Virginia was known as
the most aristocratic State in the Union,
and preeminent among the F. F. V.'s
First Families of Virginia were the Lees
whose fine old plantation at Arlington,
opposite Washington, is now a national
cemetery. They have produced many
men of character and ability, but the
most prominent in revolutionary times,
as well as one of the noblest, was Richard
Henry Lee.
It showed the clearness of his insight
and the strength of his character that,
going contrary to his breeding and the
tendency of , the class to which he be
longed, he should have been one of the
most democratic men . of f his time.
Though a member of the Constitutional
Convention, he opposed the adoption of
the Constitution because it was not dem
ocratic enough.
Of the 55 men who attended this Con
vention, 38 signed it, and 17 refused to
sign it, mainly for this reason. These,
with others outside opposing it, contaiu
several signers of the Declaration, of. In
dependence, two Presidents of the United
States, several Cabinet officers, and other
prominent men.
Lee's main reason was that represen
tation does not represent. He saw the
evil, prophesied what it wouid lead to,
but did not clearly see the way out.
Over a century ago he said: "I have no
idea that the interests, feelings and opin
ions of three or four millions of people,
especially as touching internal taxation,
can be collected in such a House (House
of Representatives.) In the nature of
things, nine times out of ten, men of the
elevated classes in the community only
can be chosen." Notice that he says that
"men of the elevated classes only can be
chosen." Later on he said: "Should the
United States be taxed by a House of
Representatives of two hundred members
still the lower and middle classes of peo
ple could have no great show in the fact
of taxation. I am aware it is said that
the representation proposed by the new
Constitution is sufficiently numerous; it
may be for many purposes, but to sup
pose that this branch is sufficiently nume
rous to guard the rights of the people in
the administration of government in
which the purse and thesword are placed
seems to argue that we have forgotten
what the true meaning of representation
Time has proven him right. Our mid
dle classes are only partially represented
in our legislatures, and the lower classes
not at all. In his time, too, the elevated
classes considered it an honor to serve
the people. They were elected to the
legislatures and city councils, and usu
ally did the work well. At present a man
has to go through so much political
muck that few of the really elevated
classes attempt it. Honest men do not
attempt it. This has gone so far that
the office of an Alderman and City Coun
cillor is almost looked on as a disgrace.
At present we have not evena govern
ment by the-"elevated classes." It is
maiuly a government of the people by
the politicians who are in it for the
money they can make from it, and so
are in the pay of the corporations and
so it is a government for the corpora
tions. Thus the century-old words of George
Mason of Virginia have come true of our
law-making bodies: "In the House of
Representatives there is not the sub
stance, but the shadow of representa
tion." These constitution builders were men
of great constructive ability. What was
their remedy?
Alexander Contee Hanson, Chancellor
of Maryland, said: "The perfection of
political science consists chiefly in pro
viding mutual checks among the several
departments of power, preserving at the
same time the dependence of the great
est on the people."
John Dickinson said: "It has been
unanimonsly agreed by the friends of
liberty that frequent elections of the re
presentatives of the people are the sover
eign remedy of all the grievances in a
free government."
Many other quotations may be given,
but all their plans centered on these two
methods of checks and frequent elections
These methods are efficient, but not
Every one recognized that the nouse
elected every two yeare, comes much
nearer to truly represent the people than
the Senate, whose members are chosen
for six years and not directly by the
people. Frequent elections do bring the
representatives in closer touch with the
people. But if the elections were so fre
quent that the people bad complete con
trol of their representatives, they would
occur on every vote that those represen
tatives took. This would be absurd.
But the more frequent the electious, the
shorter time does the representative have
ia office. He cannot get acquainted with
its duties till bis term is over. During
the term he must manage for a re-election;
be cannot attend in an efficient
manner to the work that he is sent to do.
This is the great advantage which the
Senator ' has over the Member of the
House. ' His term is so long that he can
become acquainted with his work and
show whether be is really an able man.
Hence in proportion to thenumbennore
Senators are re-elected than Members of
the House. This is true also ot our
municipal law-making bodies.. There are
two sides to this . question of frequent
elections. But even the yearly elected
city councils often pass laws which the
majority of the people do not want.
While frequent elections may be efficient,
they are not sufficient.
The system of checks is good also. It
is more difficult and tedious for any large
interest tocontrol the law-making power
Only the most powerful attempt it. But
it also makes it more difficult for the
people to enforce their wishes when they
wish a change. The system ot checks is
like the fortifications around a city. It
requires a long and difficult siege to get
possession of them, The smaller, roving
bands of marching freebooters cannot
attempt such a siege. Often an alarm
may be raised by a patriotic official in
Bide, and help gained before the forts are
taken. But when once a powerful enemy
has made this siege, and come into pos
session of all or nearly all of thesechecks
it is equally difficult to dislodge him.
This has been the condition of New York
City. The grip of Tammany, though
loosened by the last election, is not yet
entirety broku."
But though both of these methods are,
when properly used, efficient, they are
not sufficient remedy for the evil, be
cause, as Lee, Mason and others pointed
out over a century ago, representation
does not represent all classes of the com
munity. .
In the Senate of the Fifty-third Con
gress 64, or over 70 per cent., of the 81
members, are lawyers, 6 are bankers, 10
manufacturers or merchants, 1 a doctor,
1 a farmer and 4 are classed as miscell
aneous. In the House, with 346 mem
bers, 246, or over 70 per cent., are law
yers, 14 bankers, 21 manufacturers or
merchants, 5 doctors, 25 farmers, 8 edi
tors and 28 miscellaneous. According
to the census of 1880, out of 17,392,000
persons with occupations, 64,000 were
lawyers, or .47 of 1 per cent., and yet
they numbered over 70 per cent, of the
legislators. Over 18 per cent, of the
people are farm laborers, and 255 per
cent, are farmers and others engaged in
agricultural work, making, with the
laborers, 44 per cent., and they had 1
Senator and 25 members in the House,
or about 1 per cent, of the legislators.
Domestic laborers number 6 per cent,
and other laborers over 10 per cent.
How are they represented? perhaps in
the miscellaneous? Nearly 10 per cent
areengaged in trade and transportation.
Where do they come in? The bankers
number only 15,000, or .09 of 1 percent,
and they have one hundred times the
representation they are entitled to in the
6 bankers in the Senate and the 14 in tbe
House. While there are doubtlessenough
railway attorneys in both Houses to
amply represent the .88 of 1 per cent, o
railroad officials, where do the 236,000
railway employes come in? and the 204,
000 draymen? and the 100,000 sailors?
and the 881,000 clerks? and the 120,000
bookkeepers and salesmen? These num
ber over 7 per cent, of the population.
Doubtless the 4S7.000 traders and the
44.000 manufacturers, numbering 3 per
cent, of the population, are represented
by the 10 manufacturers and merchants
in the Senate and the 21 in the House.
But how about therest of those engaged
in manufacturing? They are nearly 22
per cent, of our working population.
This is also true of our local legisla
tures. During the decade from 1880 to
1890 the lawyers numbered nearly 60
per cent, of the Massachusetts Legisla
tures. Of the fifteen cities producing the
largest values in manufactured products,
Newark, N. J., has the largest, proportion
of wage-workers to population. Not one
of her eleven representatives in the State
Legislatures of 1894 or 1895 is a wage
worker, and many of them are lawyers.
This is true of foreign law-making
bodies. 450,000 railroad shareholders
in England have 22 Members in Parlia
ment, while 380,000 railroad employees
have none. 800,000 agricultural labor
ers have 1, and the land-owners have 130
besides the House of Lords.- 148 law
yers are M. P's., and they are fewer in
proportion to the population than in
this country. Ship-owners have 25 rer
resentatives, and 220,000 seamen have
1. Coal mine owners have 21, and 655,
000 miners have 7. There are 15 mill
owners in Pnrliamentand not one opera
tive. 24 iron-masters and not one work
er. This is true of all law-making bodies.
Classes are not represented.
One evil effect of the predominance of
lawyer-legislators is the vast amount of
law turned out. Over 13,000 laws were
passed in 1890 by the various State and
the National legislatures. New Jersey
alone passed 600 of these, and many of
lan code. Tbe lawyer because of his
training uses a redundancy ot words.
Many laws are so complicated that a
large share of the time of other lawyers
hired by the State, and called courts, la
required to explain them. We are al
most submerged with laws; we need fewer
and simpler laws. Many people feel that
the sessions of the legislature is an evil
to be dreaded and curtailed as much as
possible. This is shown by the spread of
biennial sessions. Over half ot tbe state
legislatures now meet only once in two
yeare. Half ot the law-making is thus
Many of these legislators are noble,
patriotic men. But the most pure-minded
man cannot help being biased by his
training, occupation and associates. He
will see his needs clearer than the needs
of those in other walks ot life. Belong
ing, as most of them do, to the "elevated
classes'," they do not see the needs of the
workers. A representative body to be of
the highest usetulness should represent
all classes ot the community, and this
proved under our system an impossibility
Under any system, it would be at pre
sent, an impossibility, as the lower class
es do not yet know how to voice their
needs and inspirations so as to embody
them in law. f Hence representation does
not represent, because large classes ot
the community are entirely unrepresent
ed in the law-making bodies.
Secondly Nor are political parties
Eroperly represented. If each party had
eeu represented in the Fifty-third Con
gress in proportion to the number of
votes cast for that party there would
have been 153 Republicans instead ot
127, 164 Democrats instead of 218, 81
Populists instead of 9, 8 Prohibitionists
instead ot none. In the Fifty-fourth Con
gress there would be 165 Republicans in
stead of about 245, 135 Democrats in
stead of 100, 44 Populists instead of 11.
and 8 Prohibitionists instead of none.
In the House of Assembly of New Jersey
for 1894 there should be, if actual votes
counted, 33 Republicans, 24 Democrats,
1 Populist, 1 Social-Labor and 1 Prohi
bitionist, but instead there are 54 Repub
licans and 6 Democrats. In the Essex
County delegation to tbe Trenton legis
lature there should be 7 Republicans and
4 Democrats, but instead there are 11
Republicans. Representation does not
today properly represent our political
The introduction of religious and other
issues into politics show very plainly
that it is impossible for representation
to represent our religious parties and
to be continued.
How Do People Get Rich?
How do people get rich? Can a man
become a millionaire by his own effort?
It is an utter impossibility. A man can
only become a millionaire by making use
of the efforts of other people. He may
inherit, or find, or receive as a gift, a
million of dollars, but be can never
acquire that sum by his own exertions.
To acquire great wealth one must be
able to use the lives ot many others; and
to use them without returning the full
value of their services. To put it in that
way it is not pleasant to many people.
To avoid the unpleasantness many me
thods have been devised by which it is
sought to make it appear that great
wealth has come to the possessor with
out any injustice to others. But
whether it comes by rise in the value of
real estate, or by trade, or interest, or
rents, or car fares, or dividends, itcomes
through the use that has been made of
other people s lives, and a use which has
not been paid for up to its full value. If
the service had been paid for up to its
full value, there would have been no pro
fit out of which the wealth has grown. It
has been the custom so long for one man
to use another man's life for gain, as he
uses a horse or a machine, that it seems
right and proper. Does a man. allow
another to make use of his life for profit
when he is free to refuse without danger
of loss and ultimate or immediate want?
Wealth, then, is the unpaid part of
labor, mostly involuntary labour at
that. Socialist (San Francisco.)
L. P. Davis, Dentist over Rock Island
ticket office, cor. 11th and 0 streets,
liridjje and Crown Work a specialty.
It is shown by reliable statistics that
the losses that swine breeders meet with
through cholera are only a small per
cent as compared to the losses they have
in the farrowing pen, where thousands
upon thousands of these animals are
lost annually for want of assistance at
the critical time of delivering the pigs.
Nothing can be more discouraging to a
breeder than to be unable to render any
help and to have to simply wait until
death relieves the sufferer, while by a
little precaution in providing a pair of
pig forceps for such emergencies one can
wive many fine animals. Mr. J. N. lleim
ers of Davenport, la., is manufacturer of
the best instrument made for such cases.
He will send all who mention this paper
a iittle book on pigs free, which gives
mony valuable pointers to breeders. All
interested should write him at once. See
ad. on page 4.
Dr. Madden, Eye, Ear, Nose, and
Throat diseases, over Rock Island
ticket' office, S. W. cor. 11 and 0 streets.
Glasses accurately adjusted.
For California and Puget Sound points
quick.get tickets 117 SqJlO.
NO. 28
Speaki in Boston Before the College Olne
and Proclaims the '
Its Teachings Regarding Labor and Hu
man Equality The Nee Is of tbe
People not Diverse All Need
the Best All Is for All
'Woman's Plaoe In tbe New Society
Dr. George D. Herron addressed the
members and guests of the College Club
at the Bellevue, Boston, Mass., yesterday
afternoon on "Women and the New So-r
ciety." ne said that every condition ot
society was in a state of expectancy and,
he was interested in finding out what ,
various kinds ot people were thinking
about. It Is awaiting the consciousness
of the larger and broader humanity and.
the knowledge that we are all brothers. 1
Several principles are , getting into our
minds. The new society is on the basis
of : : humanity, that all , the good the
world produces shall he equitably enjoy-1
ed. How this is to be procured we all.
have in mind as an end. Tbe needs of t
human beings are not different. We who ,
are here are not so finely constituted
that we have needs others do not. The
difference in needs, in quality and quan-:
tity, always comes into the discussion of
a better society. Yet the needs are alike. 1
Human needs are not diverse. Every bo-
man being in the last analysis needs the
1 i. 1L. -1 J J
The speaker wondered if tbe power of
appreciation had been properly cultivat
ed. , :
Among the people ot the slums of Chi
cago, Dr. Herron said he had found a
better knowledge of Shakespeare and cur
rent history than on the south side, where
the best people live.
In the picture gallery in Dresden the
speaker said he had seen peasants in
their wooden shoes standing before these
great pictures and by their talk knew
that the artist had sp6ken his message
to their souls.
Luxury in the intellect ends in degra
dation, he said. There is no set of peo
ple who need the best more than any
other set. We must lay down this propo
sitionThe Digger Indian needs Mendel
sshon, Beethoven and even Wagner.
The best the world produces through
its genius isneeded by every human being
in the world.
Another proposition the speaker made
was that any sort of honor that attaches
to any work above another is a sort ot
blasphemy. Service to tbe world de
serves the created honor. The mnn whn
produces something is a creator and a J
oet. The servant in your kitchen who -
cooks food is a creator with God, for she
sustains human life and is sacred. Any
sort of work that sustains human life is
to be reverenced. And so our present
ideas of work are barbarous and degrad
ing. .
That we honor one kind of work above
another is a relic of our animal nature.
We make the accident of clothes and
creed greater than the creations of God.
We worship these things more than a son
or daughter of God.
Any kind of honor attached to work
must be done away with. It is just aa
honorable to be able to make the right
sort of bread as to receive in a salon or
be a high literary character. It is as
honorable to drive a tram car as to be a .
United States senator.
Sometime these distinctions we draw
on account of clothes and creed will be as
strange in the future as cannibalism is
In the last analysis no sort of work en
titles a man to any more of the actual
compensation than he who holds the
most menial positions. The capacity of ,j
realizing the ideal at any cost is in itself
so great a gain that all possible gain in
the world is not worth thinking about.
The privilege of serving gives the high
est possible reward, and the question of
asking whether my service shall be paid
for by higher social privileges is immoral
and pagan.
The great dream of human life is how
the best things shall be equally enjoyed.
Everywhere men are ashamed of being
rich. There is coming to the world a cer
tain sense of disgrace in being rich or
For me to have what my brother can
not have is Cain in a new form. To have
better surroundings than others is my
What is woman's work in the new so
ciety? In a large sense woman is respon-
Bible for luxury, and this mustbit expiat
ed. Suppose you should make your ."
social centers redemptive? Jesus declar
ed that social benefits should be shared,
but he was not givr you a cue to be a