The Wealth makers of the world. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1894-1896, July 25, 1895, Page 4, Image 4

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July 25, 1895
garls of
Consolidation of the
Farmer Alliance and Neb. Independent.
Tk Wealth Makers Publishing Company,
lilt U Bt, Llneola. Nebraska.
GKOIfll ITowai
GiBaon.. Editor
J. . 11 T ITT...
.......-iitulnm Manager
iv. i. p. a.
"If any man mutt fall (or ms to rise.
Than aeck I not to climb. Another'! pain
I choow not for mj good. A golden chain,
A robe or honor, ! too good a prlie
To tempt n7 haitj hand to do a wrong
Unto a lellow man. Tbli life hath woe
Sufficient, wrouubt by man's eatanic foe;
And who that hath heart wonld dare prolong
Or add a sorrow to etrlcken eonl
That aeeki a healing balm to make tt whole?
My boeom owns the brotherhood ot man."
Publisher' Announcement.
The aubucrlption price of Tnc WdL-ra Mil
Sue le Sl.lHI per year, in advance.
Agents In soliciting subscription ehonld be
wery careful that all tinmt-s are correctly epnlled
and proper poetolHre given. Wanks for return
subscriptions, return envolopee, etc., can be had
on application to this office.
Always sign yonr name. No matter how often
you write us do not neglect this Important mat
ter. Every week we receive letters with Incom
plete addreeaes or without signatures and it Is
sometimes difficult to locate them,
t'BAHSB or address. Subscribers wishing to
change their poet office address muet always give
thsir former as well as their present add rent wbea
change will be promptly made.
Advertising- Rates,
1.13 per Inch. $ cents per Agate line, 14 lines
to the Inch. Liberal discount on large space or
long time contracts.
Address all advertising communications to
J. 8. Hyatt, Bus. Mgr.
All delinquent subscribers to
asked to pay their subscription
Immediately. DON'T be negli
gent about this matter, friends.
We know that times are hard
and it is not EASY to get
money; but you must make
SOME EFFORT to pay us. Re
member the responsibility that
rests upon you. It is the ONE
DOLLAR that we get from
each one of our subscribers
that makes it possible for us
to keep up and make valuable
this paper. We are wholly in
your power, and we want you
to realize it. Again we say,
DON'T be thoughtless negli
gent. If you care anything at
all for the success of the Pop
ulist party and this paper,
RIGHT NOW is the time to
"show your faith oy your
For the past two years we
have battled against fearful
odds. We have had to fight
enemies without and foes with
in. Designing men, selfish men,
unprincipled men, in and out of
the party, have done everything
they could to destroy us; but
we are here yet, and how well
we have "kept the faith" the
"middle of the road" you your
self know. Is the paper worthy
your support? Then let us have
All through fhe panic of '93
Mud tt-in ftinn fqilura nl 'QA ua
auu uiu vi wp luiiui w vi vT iiu
have fought a battle royal: but
our hardest time is yet to come
before this year's crop is har
vested. Friends, we depend on
you. Let every man who owes
us a dollar on back subscrip
tion pay up now and renew for
another year. Let every man
who is able, pay for a few
to be sent to doubtful voters
during the campaign. There
ought to be five hundred men
in Nebraska who would give
$5.00 each to pay for cam
paign subscriptions to this
paper. How many will do this
and do It NOW?
J. S. HYATT. Bus. Mgr.
As the time draws near forcouuty con
veutious and theannua! flections, we be
gin to inquirn "How Khali wo win?" II
would be well for us to inquire alna
What shall we win?" There in such a
thing as winning for our nominees and
still not winning. In counties that are
evenly divided in politics, it is very com
mon for our people, like those of other
political parties, to look about for win
aing candidates with little or no regard
for their soundness on political doctrine.
John Smith must be nominated for
county treasurer because he is well-to-do
and the people have confidence in him
and he will draw votes. John Schlitzen-
barger must be nominated for sheriff be
cause he is very influential with the Ger
mans and the auti-prohibition element
and would strengthen the whole ticket
with the foreigners and the saloon peo
ple, MiH8 Helen Eudora Brown should,
by all uieuns, be the nominee for county
superintendent. Her father, although a
Republican, has quarreled with thedoini
nent faction of his party, and if his
daughter were nominated on our ticket,
be would be our man from that day.
Being very wealthy, he would furnish a
good share of the wherewithal to keep
the machinery running during the cam
paign. Is this reform? Yet, must we not ad
mit that considerations like these have
swayed many a convention from the path
of duty? But viewed singly from the
standpoint of temporary success, it is
not infrequent that we fail even when we
win through such a course. The bolter
from one of the old parties who is taken
up because he is available and might win
a close election, is frequently not our
man after we elect him. He says to him
self, "The pops alone could not have
elected me. I must have failed but for
my old party friends. I must remember
them when I come into my office," and
he does.
Partisan questions need not properly
enter very much into local government,
but it is one thing to waive partisan
preferences, and join with good men of
all parties in the election of candidates
best fitted to fill local offices, and quite
another thing to connive and scheme to
secure the nomination of "winners re
gardless both of political faith and per
sonal fitness.
Talking with a friend on the street cor
ner the other day, he sought to impress
on us his belief or opinion that the only
way to advance society is by arraying
class against class, the producers against
exploiters, and appealing to self-interest.
Self-interest he thought the only motive
we can make use of to move the mass, or
the great majority of men.
Let us Bee what sort of results would
follow this appeal to individual interest
and the etruggle of classes. Is it not
this sort of struggle which fills the world
with need and suffering and surfeiting
and antagonisms today? And can we
call that progress which intensifies the
struggle, the suffering and bitterness?
Will selfishness and hatred increased de
velop into love and ultimate in peace and
good will?
These questions need only be asked to
be answered. War is not the normal
state, and justice cannot be arrived at
by individual, each-for-himself, or class
against class struggle. We see that in'
justice increases so long as such selfish
strife continues. No doubt the tendency
of oppression is toward revolution; but
revolutions in which the class oppressed
by force throw off the yoke of oppres
sion, do not stop the antagonisms which
arise from the couception of separate
ODDOBine individual interests. Force
cannot cure the evilB of force. SelSsh
combinations of capitalists on one side
and workers on the other cannot keep
the peace and cannot force equitable
agreements or make any agreement
The prevailing conception that our in
dividual interests conflict and that class
interests divide us, can only lead to strife,
and strife that will not end so long as the
conception is generally accepted. We
must accept the idea of a common inter
est which includes and harmonizes all in.
dividual interests, and we must act in
harmony with such conception in order
to increase peace and End good for each
and all.
The weakness of. the present labor or
ganizations is the weakness of self-center
ed individualism, which projects in a de
moralizing way into them. The leaders
are selfish, jealous one of another, too
prone to put their supposed individual
interests above the interests of the organ
ization. The membership of the organ
ization, the rank and file, too, are not
controlled very much by the common in
terest, but by immediate, measurable,
tangible self-interest. And he who is
governed by self-interest can stand no
considerable sacrificing, cannot wait for
future cood. cannot live by faith. With
self-interest as the motive, labor organi
zations find it diflicult to hold men to
gether, and only a small percent of all
workers, so far, have been attracted to
Peace, an organization to produce and
distribute equitably, in place of organ-
izations to selfishly fight other organiza
tions, i the great need. Such an organ
ization, when once seen to be just and
economically successful, will attract men
and permanently bind them together.
"Worm or bsetle, drouth or tempest,
On a farmer's land mar t-U
Bot for first-class ruination
Trust a mortgage 'gainst them alL"
Thk singls tairr fuils to see the full
J scope and evil of monopoly. Unquestion
ably land monopoly is bad, wholly bad.
But so also is monopoly of talent. The
individual is a social product. He inher
it what he is, not from his immediate
parents alone, but from society as a
whole, lie is educated by the ideas, ex
periences and accumulated costly dis
coveries and failures of all past ages. He
is not Belf-made. He is indebted to the
wise and to the unwise for what be is,
and wisdom or strength were not given
him to enable him to make terms with
others. It is as unjust to monopolize
talent as to monopolize land. They who
have power to master details and man
age productive labor economically and
effectively were given that power not to
serve themselves by commanding a pro
fit out of others' labor, but to benefit
the other workers equally with them
selves. The single taxer does not gener
ally see that industry must be organized
and that the only way to permanently
and economically organize it is in a
Christian or democratic way.
Quite a number of our Populist ex
changes have mentioned Judge Maxwell
as their favorite to nominate for the
head of our ticket this year, and we
notice that the Republican press is get
ting anxious about it and alluding to
his age, as if that were a barrier. Age
does not disqualify for the supreme bench
of the United States, and neither does it
for the highest courts of the individual
states. In the first place Judge Maxwell
is intellectually a great man, and in
knowledge of law be is by all odds the
greatest man in the state of Nebraska.
In the second place he is an incorruptible
man morally. The railroads coud not
use him, and therefore packed the Re
publican convention which turned him
down. Judge Maxwell gave bis vote and
influence to the Populist party at the
last election, he is the friend of the peo
ple, and if be will accept the nomination
at the people's bands this year we will
make a great fight to place him back on
the supreme bench where he belongs.
Yoo despiBea thief. But do you equally
despise the man yourself, say who pro
fits by others labor I What sort ot a
heart has a man who feels good over
gains which others' labor has produced?
The speculator, the coupon clipper, the
pawn broker, the bargain driver, all get
wealth by the Bweat of others. They re-
JUUJK mill UbUCIS llQV vvuai liuoj gaiu,
lose that they may gain. And this is the
spirit and work of the thief. How many
respectable people are really better mor
ally than the thief, who takes without
giving? Inequity in exchange, taking
more value for less valuo, is taking some
thing for nothing. Rejoice not in profits
by another's sweat produced. Be not
proud of plunder, even though the laws
of man allow it. Do not expect to be
saved by faith while continuing in sin.
Look upon all business selfishness as sin
and quit it, or be sure that judgment will
be pronounced against you by the "Just
There is nothing makes us more tired
than to read that periodic panics,
falling prices and industrial stagnation
are caused by the debtorclass getting in
debt and living beyond their incomes.
People do live beyond their incomes in
many cases, but in most instances it is
caused by the robbery of usury exac
tions. Work as hard as they may and
economize to the barest necessities in
expenditure, they are still unable to pay
the amount of interest named in the
bond, and so Shylock goes on year by
year robbing them ot their previous
hard-earned small accumulations, and
they are reduced by failure of crop or
hard-times lack of employment to abso
lute destitution and unwilling pauperism
And they must then receive their life,
their right to labor, the terms on which
they can labor unjust, terms, always
from greedy masters, from wage slave
Senatok Morgan of Alabama spoke
July 17 at Griffin, Ga., and said: "The
Democratic party is a safer guardian of
the rights of silver money than any
other party, whether Republican, Popu
list or mugwump. I therefore am willing
to entrust this great question to their
keeping and I shall remain at my post-
under that flag, as I have done for
twenty years in the senate, and will do
all that is inniy power for this cause and
the cause of the people." Which shows
very plainly that the silver men will not
split out of the Democratic party. The
man who spoke the above words knows
that the Democratic party closed the
mints against silver and refused to coin
the seigniorage, and that Wall Street is
running the party machine. He knows
that it has no power to do anything
tor silver and never will have.
"Eli Perkins" Melville D. Langdon,
A. M., as the buffoon takes pains to
advertise himself has written a book on
"money" which he or his employers
think an answer to or an antidote for
Coin. It is a labored effort to burlesque
and make ridiculous the silver advocates,
Harvey especially, and it is the thinnest
lot of hog wash yet published. Eli
undertakes to play the wise man aud the
fool at the same time, when nature fitted
him for only half the job. We do not
presume to say that it is a fact, but if
the bankers didn't pay him for this per-
formeuce he is even a bigger fool than
we consider him. If he is not the bigger
j fool, he is the more a knav.
Twkxtv-mix Tirot saxo acrmi forming
the limits of the city of New York are
worth ovt $2,000,000,000 an, average
of $0,000 per acre. The farms of the en
tire nation 600,000,000 acres, are worth
but little more than $3,000,000,000
The rent question is of overtopping mag
nitude. And rent is the measure of land
monopoly. But vast sums of rent tri"
bute are taken from us all indirectly.
Rent on New York real estate is paid
nominally by those who rent, but those
who can do so shift the burden upon
others. A wholesale firm, for instance,
rents ground and building. The rent item
is added into the cost of doing business
and prices are charged retailers to cover
it. We all buy of the retailers and pay
the rents of retailers and wholesalers in
the prices charged us for goods.
The bankers of New York at their re
cent meeting called for a currency com
mission to be made up of "experts" and
"business men" to report to congress a
currency system adapted to the commer
cial needs aud interests of the nation.
The "experts," in their opinion, would
have to be bankers or bankers tools, and
the "business" men would be, in their
view, members of the boards of trade or
big capitalists. Not a farmer would be
allowed in it, nor would a poor man be
considered qualified to advise it. "The
commercial needs and interests of the
nation," in the opinion of these money
loaners, are supplied and served by that
money which will command the greatest
usury tribute. But the people who have
to borrow money will have something to
say about this question.
How can a man who charges the cala.
mity of shrinking values and low prices
solely to the demonetization of silver,
account for theeven lower prices of 1843,
when free silver and bimetallism were the
law? Why cannot everybody see that
periodic low prices and paralysis of in
dustry are caused by monopoly tribute
and wealth accumulation by the rich?
Opening the mints to silver would have
no effect to destroy the Standard Oil
Trust and its family of lesser trusts. It
would not reduce the tribute paid to
landlords or the interest paid to money
loaners, or the profit paid to capital.
These drains have got to be stopped be
fore panics, falling prices and periodical
hard times can be prevented.
"If Governor Holcomb's party felt like
reciprocating for past favors and joining
with the Democrats in the coming fight
well and good, if not, the Democrats
would go it alone," said Chairman
Smyth. Well, "Governor Holcomb's
party" will not trade or allow itself to
be traded. It does not belong to Gov
ernor Holcomb. He belongs to it. If
we are out of harmony with the party in
opposing trades, let it be shown by the
election of fusion delegates and the pass
ing of fusion resolutions and the nomi
nation of a demo-pop ticket at the com
ing convention! Let none be ashamed
to discuss openly the policy he favors.
Men's love for titles has been made a
thing to trade on. Colleges scatter titles
to purchase support and advertising.
Bogus medical schools for cash confer
"M. D's." on men who know next to
nothing about the theory or practice
of medicine. "LL.D's." are dropped
around among politicians who know
nothing but deviltry and doctor the law
only for corporations. Titles have so
multiplied and societies using all letters
of the alphabet to abbreviate have be
come so numerous tuat one needs a
dictionary devoted to spelling them out
to keep track of what they are supposed
to mean.
The crisis of the world-old conflict be
tween the forces of good and evil is at
hand. The skirmish lines that are now
being driven in are exchanging the first
shots of the greatbattleof Armageddon,
by seers foretold, the battle which will
array tne Kings, monopolists ana
mighty men and their armies upon the
one side, and the armies of truth and
justice upon the other. W men side are
you on?
It is reported that the American Book
Company and School Furniture Trust
made themselves solid with many of the
teachers gathered at Denver at the na.
tional meeting. Those in high places
whose influence was wanted to direct the
sale of special articles of school equip.
ment were made comfortable by repre
sentatives of the trusts.
To the question, "What is the Supreme
Court?" Debs answers: "Nine gentle
men who owe their appointments to cor
poration influence, seven- ol whom are
corporation lawyers," men whose lives
have been spent in the service of corpo
rations, whose affiliations and sympa
thies are all with the corporations.
Gen. Warner has had to give up his
proposed silver party, with Sibley candi
date for president. Thesilver politicians
I of the south would not hear to it, and
the silver leaders of the west and north
were also afraid to step out of their old
parties. Reforms mustcome not through
leaders, but from the people.
The world will not be saved by people
who wish well, but wait to see whether a
movement to cave men from the evils of
sell-seeking is going to succeed, before
joining it.
Yes, the bankers are getting rich on
the interest of their debts. Other peopl
are getting poor by paying interest on
I their debts.
Caul liiiow.i and wile have sent out a
proHM-ctus of a new monthly cartoon
ill iiu (rated paper which they will issue
from Washington, August ICth. It will
be called "Curl's Cactus." The price 25
cents a year. Single copies 5 cents, 25
copies 75 cents.
Rev. Myron Reed in his last sermon
reported said he had not seen it in any
creed yet, but he would put in something
like this: "We will not have anything
hich another may not have on the
the same terms."
We are under obligations to pay about
2,000,000,000 interest each year. W
are unable to live and do it. Therefor
our interest obligations are eating us up,
are absorbing our accumulations, natu
ral resources, the basis of our liberties..
There will be no more fusion betweet
the Populists and Republicans in Ala
bama, if Kolb and Chairman San:
Adams can have their way. Fusion
forced will lead to a split in the Populist
The Central Traffic Association has jusi
held a meeting and decided what it would
do in the matter of rates. Why then
should not the farmers get together and
decide what they will charge for wheat,
porn, hogs, cattle, &c?
Mr. A. J. Gustin has published in th
Kearney Hub an "Allegory of the Yokels"
in which he goes for the metallic money
superstition, He is as dead set against
money of "intrinsic value" and interest
tribute as is Coxey.
Prop. Bemis, dropped by Rockefeller's
man Harper and the faculty because oi
his attacks upon the Chicago Gas Com
pany and like monopolies, will shortly
publish a book entitled "Municipal
The recent appointment of Prof. John
son superintendent of the Nebraska Insti
tute for the Blind, is one that will give
general satisfaction.
"Oua hope Is the hope of the ages,
Oar cause is the cause of the world."
The Arena for July contains a most
Interesting character study and portrait
of Wendell Phillips, by R. J. Hinton; a
Btrouir paper outlining a new philosophy
of money, by Anson J. Webb; a thought
ful article by A. Taylor on "The Univer
sal Church;" another of Mr. Flower's
papers on 'The Spanish Peninsular' (cen
tury of Sir Thomas More); also by the
same, a paper on "The Right of the Child
Considered in the Light of Heredity and
Prenatal Influence; "A Story of Psychical
Communication," by Lilian Whitney;
"Nupoleou: A Sketch with a Purpose,"
by John Davis; Sarah Mifflin Gay and
Jj ranees E. Russell on th (single 'lax; a
symposium on Age of Consent laws, with
otes by Helen H. Gardener, and some
lighter reading. The book reviews con
tain an appreciative review oi Mr.
Lloyd's great work, "Wealth Against
Commonwealth," and criticisms of other
new works.
The .Tnlv issue of Annals of the Ameri
can Atnr1mv contains a verv valuable
historical essay on the "Development of
the fresent Constitution oi e ranee, uy
R. Salcilles; a paper on the "Ethical
Basis of Distribution and Its Applica
tion tn TnTntion." bv T. N. Carver: au
article on "The Minimum Principlein the
TariS of 18as and Its uecent uevivai,
nnrt hriefer communications on the
'Position of the American Representa
tive in Congress," by C. H. Lincoln, a
"Note on Economic Theory m America
Prior to 1776," by C. W. Macfarlane, and
"A Definition and a Forecast of History,
bv Marv S. Rowe. The numerous Notes
nn Mnnimnai Uovernment. D.v ieo. ij.
Rowe, are of great interest, ana tub
"SinWifnl Notes." bv S. M. Lindsay,
are of value. The Book Department is
also of much interest and worth.
The July North American Review open
ing paper is a humorous critique, on
Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences.
The second paper is on "Contemporary
.... .1 ri i n 1 1 i 1 .1
ERyptf oy non. rreueric reuuem um
n nmot i n cent, una uonsu -uenertu III
that country. Mr. Penfield's paper gives
a most intelligent ana instructive His
tory of Egypt since the time of Viceroy
Said, its debts and bondage to Brittish
hnnA holders. "Thirtv vears in the Grain
Trade" is the snbiect of an article ny n,.
R. Williams, lion, v. ueecii, mw
Director of the Mint, writes on, "How Free
. . 11 S T 1. 1
Silver Would Affect Us" rom tne goia
bug standpoint); "The Disposal of a
Citv's Waste" is discussed bv Col. War
ing, Commissioner of btreet-Lieaning oi
lew York Citv: v: 11. Harvey writes on
Coin's Financial School ana its ten-
ars: " Kid a a "isociai revolution is re
viewed by Theodore Roosefelt, and Dr
Hiit Xnrrlan renlioa to his critics. Ed
mund Gosse, Dr. JUuis Kobinson, AiDert
Vandam, IJdwara rorritt, rreaeric
Mather and Martin Dodue also COtl-
hrihnte interesting papers, notes aud
iomments on live subjects.
Belonging to the church is no better
than belonging to the synagogue used to
be. Church members who do business as
the world does it, caring only for number
one in all exchanges, will never get to
heaven. "We have got to bring heaven
to earth by working for one another
Man cannot be lifted up to heaven by
talking to and praying for them.
Right to the Point
The Beacon Light of O'Neill in speaking
r.t Tub Ws-ii.TH Marers has the follow
ing words that will find an echo in every
loyal 1'opulist paper in tne bihib, aim
Brother Gibson should take the friendly
"jacking up" in exactly the spirit it is
"if hA Rennon Liorht was allowed a
(nan it would advise Bro.
niouuij -"-rmv--
Gibson to, withdraw some of the many
Irons be has in the nre, eBcuew acreu oi
ireneralities. cet down to business and
r n iic linn nn nlntform principles
"He should get the idea out of his head
that Thb Wealth Makers is "doing it
all In thin atatfl, grt a little nearer in
touch with his country brethren, condes
cend to give them an oraional 'riendly
mention when visitinir his office, cul the
columns of his exchange, givo us a ifage
or two of creamy extracts from the l'op
uliit press of Nebraska, and show that
he was not above the sphere of the boys
who are doing the hard work in the rural
"By such a method every Populist editor
would receive a 'visit' from everv other
Pop editor each week without beingcom
pelled to carry above an hundred ex
changes, which most of them are unable
to do. Tt would be a ready means of
each and every county keeping posted on
tne movement and progress oi each and
every other county each week. It would
also add much value to the columns of
The Wealth Makers. Give it a trial
and drop some other indulgences." Ord
Certainly, brethren. Criticism and ad
vice of a friendly sort are always accept
able in this office. "We are disposed to
benefit by both friendly and unfriendly
criticism whenever it is possible to do so.
The editor of this paper does not belong
to a graduated class of any kind. He is
just a learner.and expects to go on learn
ing of everybody and everything always.
He recognizes a good suggestion in the
above in the matter of taking some of
the cream of Nebraska exchanges. It
bad never before occurred to him that in
this way he could reduce the exchange
burdens of county Populist papers and
distribute interesting county news. But
he pleads not guilty to the crime of
thinking he is "doing it all' or that he
is elevated above the other Populist
editors of Nebraska. He has never felt
that way in the least, and is astonished
that any one should think so.
There are several men in Nebraska edit
ing county Populist papers whopossess a
very high grade of ability both as think
ers and writers, and the great body of
them can write a good article. But,
brethren respected, let me caution you
not to wish to cramp my individuality
into your judgment or wisdom mold. It
is well for us to differ. We can't be what
God has not made us, and he made no
two alike. If The Wealth Makers is
not hewing to the line on platform prin
ciples its editor would like to know where-
in he has failed in this respect. Possibly
what some call "generalities," others
may consider interesting variety. What
to some may seem folly, to others may
appear wisdom.
Do you imagine God intended that a
few of his creatures should own the earth
and make the rest pay for the privilege
of living on it? Star and Kansan.
Can any fair minded person object to
the Initiative and Referendum? We think
not when they consider that we are now
in the power of professional politicians.
Petersburg Index.
What is a Cent?
Omaha Neb., July 6, 1895.
Editor Wealth Makers:
We are just now hearing very much said
about 50 cent dollars, 60 cent dollars,
etc," and about the very great want and
"need of having every dollar worth 10O
cents, and as good as every other dollar."
Would it not be a pertinent question or
inquiry as to what is a cent.
By the act of congress, April 2, 1792,
establishing a mint and creating the
monetary system and denominations of
money of the United States it is said:
"Gold coins: Eagles each shall beof the
value of $10 or units and contain 217
grains of pure, or 260 grains of stand
ard gold. Half eagles and quarter eagles
each one-half and one-quarter the value
and weight respectively of the eagle.
Silver coins: Dollars or units, each to be
of the value of a Spanish milled dollar
as the same was then current, and to
contain 871 grains of pure, or 416
grainsSf standard silver. Half dollars,
quarter dollars, dimes and half dimes
each to be of one-half, one-quarter, one
tenth, and one-twentieth the. value and
and weight respectively of the dollar or
unit. Copper coins: Cents, each to be of
the value of the one-hundredth part of a
dollar and to contain eleven penny
weights (264 grains) of copper. Half
cents, each to be one-half the value and
weight of the cent."
This cent which it was at first sai
should contain 264 grains of copper, was
changed January 14, 1792, to 208 grains
and again March 3, 1793, to 168 grains.
The coinage of these pure copper cents
was discontinued February 21, 1857,
aud in lieu thereof a cent weighing 72
grains, 77 per cent copper, and 12 per
cent nickel, was authorized. The coin
age of this part nickel cent was discon
tinued April 22, 1864, and one weighing
48 grains, composed of 95 per cent cop
per and 5 per cent tin and zinc took its
Here we have cents of five different
weights and containing four different
kinds of metal. If we exclude the nickel,
tin and zinc as only alloys, then we have
a variation in the amount of copper in
these cents, from 264 grains to 45 and
three-fifths grains, making the smaller
or present cent of less than one-fifth the
weight of the original cent. If weight of
metal counts for anything in the cent, as
insisted on it does in the dollar, or gold
and silver coins, then surely somebody is
being most woefully swindled.
Now, we money reformers insist on an
answer to the question' as to what is a
cent? And which one of the five different
kinds that have been made is meant when
it is demanded that a dollar shall be
worth 100 of them? The mill, or one
tenth of a cent, is also a term in denomi
nation of United States money. It is the
smallest or lowest denomination in the
system and one for which there has
never been coined or otherwise fabricated
any material representative as so many
grains of some kind of metal, like for the
dollars,, eagles, dimes and cents. The
mill in thprtfor a nnrelv nrithmntinnl
and ideal denomination. It has been the
same and of the same value relation to
all of the other denominations in United
States money from the beginning to the
present. It has always been one-tenta-