The Wealth makers of the world. (Lincoln, Nebraska) 1894-1896, November 29, 1894, Page 4, Image 4

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    November 29. 1894,
Nsw Series ol
Consolldatloa of the
Farmer Alliance and Neb. Independent.
The Wealth Makers Publishing Company,
11 M Street, Nebraska.
i. 8. HTATT..
....Bnslness Manairer
N. I P. A.
"It any man most (all lor me to rise,
Then seek I not to climb. Another's pain
I choose not (or in; good, A golden chain,
A rob ol honor, U too good a prlie
To tempt my hast; hand to do wrong
Unto a follow man. This 111 hatb wo
Sufficient, wrought by man' latanle tor.
And who that hatb a heart wonld dar prolong
Or add a lorrow to a stricken coal
That ek a healing balm to mk It whole?
II; boiom own the brotherhood ol man."
Publishers' Annonnoement.
The enhmrlptlon price of Th Wialtb Hac
IU I ll.oo per year, in advance.
Agent In aolleltlng subscriptions ahould be
Verc earetnl that all name are correctly spelled
and proper poitofflc glren. Blank lor return
abacrlption, re tarn enrelop, etc., can be had
on application to thl offlo.
Always lgn your nam. No matter how often
yon writ n do not nglct thl Important mat
ter. Every week w receive letter with lncom.
plet addre or without signatures and it I
sometimes dtfflenlt to locat them.
CiAXaa or ADDitss. Subscribers wishing to
chang their poetoffloe address mnet al way glr
their former a well a their present addre when
ehaog will be promptly Bad.
J. S. Hyatt, Baslnees Manager ol The
Wealth Maker Publishing Company, being
duly (worn, says that the actual number ol
lull and complete eoplea ol Tsa Wialth
Msttas printed during tb ill month end
ing October 11, 184, wa
r 211,200.
Weekly average, 8.123.
Sworn to before m and subscribed In m.r
presence thl 11th day ol October, lS'M.
Notary rnblio.
$1.11 per Inch. I cent per Agate Una, 14 line
to the Inch. Liberal discount on larg space or
long time contracts.
Address all advertising communications to
J. B. H ATT. Bus. Mgr.
The blue shirt is played out at last.
Hypocrisy cannot always conceal the
Mrs. Kkllie Las a letter on one of our
inside pages.
See on page 8 the call of the annual
meeting of the State Farmers' Alliance at
Kearney, Dec. 19.
We are pleased to see that Col. Majors
finds so much cause for rejoicing in the
general v ctory that 'his own pergonal de
feat seems a mere incident.' What n sub
lime spectacle of party worship and per
sonal unselfishness he reveals in hit) final
Is it not about time that the people en
joined the autocratic judges for their con
tempt of the people's decrees? And if
they persist in usurping power in the
interest of highway robbers and manu
facturers of watered stock, that we grab
them by neck and heels and throw them
from the seat of sovereignty?
"Mrs. Annie L. Dioos of Kaunas an
nounces that she will turn her attention
wholly to the co-operative colony which
is to locate in the lower Potomac early
next spring," says Freeland. She states
that Hamlin Garland, the author, and
Frank Doster of Kansas, are to join the
One facetious Congressman from Mis
souri, overthrown in the late melee of
politics, telegraphed in: "The cause of
my defeat was the intelligence of the
There need be no facetiousuess about it.
If the people had been more intelligent
scarcely a Congressman for re-election
would have been returned.
"A subscriber" wishes us to answer
through The Wealth Makers' columns
if the 1100,000,00(1 gold reserve fund at
any time prior to the close of President
Harrison's administration was reduced
below that amount, and if an issue of
bonds was talked of before Cleveland was
inaugurated. We answer that the fund
was encroached upon, and that bonds
were much talked of. Plates for their
issue were prepared, but Harrison was
shrewd enough to oppose their issue
while he was in office.
The full statistics of the 44 states in
the matter of farm ownership and
tenantry have just been given to the pub
lie, and show that during the ten years
between 1880 and 1890 there was an in
crease of 120,957 in the number of farms
worked by their owners; but in the same
period there was a much greater increase
in the nnmber of tenant farmers. The
increase of farm tenant families was 599,
337. In New England there was a net
decrease of 24,117 farm owners who
occupied their farms and an increase of
7,246 in the nnmber of tenant families,
and in other states the figures show a
I ke tendency. Tbe rich want the earth
and they are gradually gaining it Get
off, or pay rent.
If anything were wanting to kill off the
Democratic pnrty, Cleveland and Carlisle
are bound to fill that want. The issue
and repealed issue of vaslsums of bonds,
1100,000,000 already ordered, to draw
gold into the Treasury, which self
same gold, before and after, they allow
the bankers to pull out with silver or
paper currency, and furnish them $50,"
000,000 interest bearing ten or twenty
year bonds and fasten them upon the
backs of the people each time the trick is
repeated, is the boldest and most dam
nable robbery, robbery of the whole peo
ple. It is a monstrous usurpation of
p iwer by the man most honored and
trusted, the one placed in highest office
and sworn to defend the sacred rights
and liberties of the American people. He
has made himself the Benedict Arnold of
today, selling the already debt-ridden,
pi-rcent plundered people into still
heavier, deeper bondage to benefit a few
bunkers only. Thepeopleget absolutely
no benefit whatever out of the game
which Cleveland, Carlisle and the bankers
are playing. The $100,000,000 interest
bearing national debt is bargained for,
and created and given the bankers by
Cleveland, for simply putting back in the
Treasury the day after what they draw
out in demanding gold exchange the day
before. The silver or paper lying idle in
their vaults can be so used, and in a
week or two weeks returned, the mere
passing of it through the United States
Treasury and back to them being the
only thing done, and this is of no service
to the people at all, yet each time it is
done they demand for it that $50,000,
000 be added to the public debt and ten
to twenty years interest must be paid to
The men who thus trick the people into
bon dage are ten thousand times worse
robbers than the Cook gang of outlaws
who robbed here and there an individual
in the held-up trains. They are virtual
traitors to their country who should be
made to sink beneath the weight of their
enormous infamy.
The New York Tribune, itself the pliant
tool of the Shylocks, slyly uncovers the
game of the President by comparing it to
draw-poker. He and the bankers in the
game of pulling gold out of the Treasury
one day and selling it back the next for
bonds, are not engaged in a productive
industry any more than are poker
players. But each time the cards or
counters are dealt the people are drawn
on for bonds which go into the "Kitty,"
in gamblers parlance, which pays for
drinks and other luxuries for the players,
and this is going steadiiy on, with the
prosMct that soon the players and the
country together will slide helpless under
the table.
The Chicago Herald, itself a goMbug
paper, thus comments on the matter:
Nothing could better illustrate the fact
that some sort of currency reform is
necessary than the possibility that the
gold with which to take up the new issue
of bonds might be drawn from the treas
ury itself. If this should be done t lie new
loan would be a failure, so far as adding
to the gold reserve is concerned. As a
matter of fact, about one-fourth of the
gold used in the purchase of the last $50
000,000 issue of bonds came from the
Treasury, and it is wholly practicable
for the banking-houses which are to buy
this issue to amass enough legal tender
for the purpose, go to the New York
subtreasury for their gold, and thus
simply transfer about $53,000,000 of
the yellow boys from one of Uncle Sam's
pockets to another.
Another goldbug paper, the New York
Herald, shows up the bankers trick in a
very graphic manner as follows:
Our nresent method of replenishing the
treasury with gold suggests the story of
Davy Crockett s coonsicin.
Peltries were a circulating medium in
the backwoods and Davy atthe loghouse
tavern paid for the drinks with the fur of
a coon, which had been the sole reward
of his prowess with a rifle that dny.
The bartender threw tne peltry unuer
the counter and Davy recovering it
through an interstice in the logs ten
dered it in payment for another "round,"
and repeated the trick until he and his
cotnpotators had drained the barrel, and
the puzzled proprietor oiscoverea max u
a result of the prosperous trade he had
been driving he had nothingon hand but
the same old coonskin.
Last February when the treasury re
rve ran low it was reolenished by th
sale of $50,000,000 of new government
5 per cent bonds for gold, tne proceeds
amounting to upward of $58,000,000,as
the bonds commanded a high premium.
That was all very well so far as it went,
but the people who had paid in the gold
saw a hole which they could surrepti
tiously pull it out again. This was the
obligation ol tne treasury anu us
branches to deliver gold in redemption
of legal tenders when presented in sums
of $50 or more.
Through this hole all the gold received
for the bonds was soon drawn out of the
treasury again, and its present owners
stand ready to repeat the trick by pay
ing it over the counter once more for the
new issue of government bonds. Given
a continuance of existing conditions and
this same S50.000.000 of gold could be
be used as often as David Crockett's pel
try, and after the government Dad issued
1 .000.000.000 of bonds the treasury
would have nothing but the same old
gold reserve with which it started.
A friend in the city has sent us a re
print of a State Jonrnal article entitled,
"For Postal Reform," which should re
ceive at once the attention of anti-monopolists
and the people generally who
have a regard for their own rights and
The article beginsby saying:
The national postage association is
doing a good work in agitating for im
portant and much-needed changes in the
Dostofflce regulations. The association
is a voluntary organization of prominent
business men in the principal cities of the
nation. They seek to secure cnanges in
the postal laws at the coming session ol
congress, and to reach this end have a
number of agents outpronioting interest
and reaching the lawmaking power
through the business men, to whom the
postoffiee department must always look
for a lurge share of its patronage."
One O. G. Leslie is now in Lincoln, the
Journal crocs on to say, "and will spend
several days acquainting the business
men with the lending features of the pro
posed reform." It is, in brief, to lower
the rates on first class mail matter
(letters), and raise it on second class,
books, papers and magazines, or on all
but about 20 percent of the matter
which now goes through at a one cent
per pound rate. The article proceeds to
say, "It was never intended that books
should be sent through the mails at this
rate, an there is no particular need of
speed in their transmission and they can
bn distributed cheaply enough by other
Just here in this last sentence is the
hoof-print of monopoly. The "voluntary
association of prominentbusiness men in
the principal cities," ia an orgnnizntion
ot the stockholders of the consolidated
express companies, and the scheme they
craftily call "postal reform" is a scheme
to get the postage on books raised so
that they can force higher prices for the
transmission of books and take to them
selves the whole book-carrying business.
The Journal, informed of course by Mr.
Leslie, tells the public that books consti
tute 80 per cent of the second class mai'
matter, and says; "The business men of
the country are entitled to be heard" in
their protest and request that the law be
amended, and urges that it be done with
out delay. Notice the last sentence of the
preceding paragraph where it says that
"they (the books) can be distributed
cheaply enough by other methods" that
is, by express companies.
The workings of the great monopolies
and the use they make of the daily papers
which for a financial consideration are
nearly always ready to mislead and be
tray the people, is well illustrated in the
above scheme and the assistance of the
Journal. "Eternal vigilance is the price
of liberty." Much more is at stake in this
movement than may at first appear.
The books that go through the mails at
pound rates are to a large extent reform
books, such as the Arena Publishing com
pany and many others publish. The
necessary enlightenmentof the people de
pends on such books, and if the cost of
transmitting them is increased to pro.
vide dividends for greedy express mono
polies many less will be published and
We call the attention of publishers and
our Populist representatives and sena
tors to this "business men's" movement
to reduce the service of the government
and rob the people of the benefits of
books carried at cost.
We elect legislatures, or try to, to rep
resent us and to enact our will into law.
Occasionally the legislature of a state is
not first nominated and afterwards elect
ed by the railroads. We have succeeded
in Nebraska just twice in its history in
electing a majority of the members of our
state law-making body. Once the rail
roads defeated our legislation by a
governor's veto. The other time by
having Judge Dundy grant an injunction
forbidding fhe enforcement of the law
while the case to test the constitution,
ality of the law for fifteen months was
allowed to drag along. Then another
Judge, Brewer, serves them by deciding
without calling for the evidence, without
knowledge of the legitimate transporta
tion cost.that the law would reduce rates
below what would be just, a purely auto
cratic decree of a man w ho sits enthroned
above the people. Here is the gist of his
judgment in his own language, as follows:
While the Union Pacific was given $16,-
000 a mile subsidy andean be replaced
for $20,000 a mile, it is bonded for $70,-
000 a mile. It would not be just to make
rates on a basis of $20,000 a mile and
deprive the lienholders of their interests.
In other words the people may not re
cover their stolen property, but must go
on paying interest on $70,000 a mile of
railroad bonds when the roads could be
replaced for $20,000 a mile. Where is
the equity in this? Where is even the
I 'gal precedent, which in case of determ
ined injustice, lawyers always appeal to?
But our judges, chosen by the railroads
to serve them, no longer need to regard
either equity or precedents. It is their
business to override the will of the peo
ple, to make and unmake laws in the in
terest of the corporations. It has per
haps been forgotten thatthissameJudge
Brewer made a speech before the New
York Bar Association more than a year
ago, in which he said:
"There are today $11,000,000,000 in-,
vested in railroad property, whose own
ers in this country number less than twe
million persons. Yes, a good many less.
Editor Wealth Makeiis.J Can it be
that whether that immense sum shall
earn a dollar or bring the slightest re
compense to those who have invested
perhaps their all in that business, and
are thus aiding in the development of the
country, depends wholly upon the whim
and greed of that great majority of sixtj
millions of people who do not own e
dollar? It may be said that that ma
jority will not tie so foolish, selfish and
cruel as to strip that property of its
earning capacity. I say that so long as
constitutional guarantees lift on Ameri
can soil their buttresses and bulwark
against wrong.and so long as the Ameri
can judiciary breathes the free air ol
courage, it cannot."
Exactly a year ago we quoted in this
paper the above paragraph from Justice
Brewer's Albany speech, and commented
nn St. But we did not then think th
people of Nebraska would so soon feel the
power of this corporation defender and
judicial despot. It should make -vei. the
Republicans pause, for with such judges
lawmaking in the interest of the people is
a waste of taxes, and the lawmaking
play of the people has become a huge
serio-comic farce. Since the Granger
cases were decided in favor of the people
in 1876 the railroads have used their
corrupting political power to get their
attorneys placed in power on the su
preme bench in the states and United
States courts. And they have succeeded
in wonderful degree.
Judge Brewer in bis Albany speech and
in his last decision, wiping out the sover
eign will and power of the people of Ne
braska, boldly defends the watering of
stock and decrees that the people must
pay usury forever on such water. Any
amount that fools are willing to pay for
watered railway stocks, or that knaves
will swear they did, the people must
allow to fasten fixed interest charges up
on them, it matters not if those charges
would keep them slaves and burden bear
ers forever.
Judge Brewer is a conscienceless defend
er of highway robbery of the modern
sort, a sort in no wise belter than the
Cook-James-Younger variety. Heisalso
a destroyer of popular government and
a corporation supported despot of the
boldest kind.
It has been the custom generation af
ter for parents and teachers to set the
examples and byword as well to incite
the young to selfishly struggle for gain
and place and power. He who has ac
quired the most money has been counted
the most successful, all services being
measured in their value by money. And
they who can command labor service
without giving labor, or without giving
its labor equivalent, it is generally be
lieved were born to rule. The people of
this country do not yet believe in a real
democracy. Our laws do not permit the
people to be born free and equal. Over
half the families even in this new world
are now paying rent for land, have no le
gal power to liveindependently.and they
and they and their children are allowed
to live only as they divide their labor
product with those (not the meek) who
inherit the earth. The laws do not re
cognize the principle of equal, inalienable
birthright to land and all that is in the
earth, to all natural resources. Uncom
mon natural abilities, talents, gifts, are
believed (perhaps unconsciously), to be
evidences of the special favor of the Cre
ator to persons possessing, them, or are
considered a family inheritance to be
proud of, which it is right to use selfishly,
that is, to demand as much pay for the
use of such gifts as rarity makes possible.
Education is sought to sharpen the
selfish wits and increase the power to
command the service of others less intel
ligent. To rise in life over the rest, to ac
quire power to extort labor service from
those that one'sclimbing up has trampled
down, is cailed success. The more men
one can command and force them to ac
cept less wages or prices than the market
value of their labor product, the more
such man is enriched and generally
honored. The man who can foresee what
the needs of the people will be for land,
or corn, or wheat, or meat, or money,
and seeing buys and corners such neces
sities of life, is called successful. The
men who get laws passed which give
thein monopoly privileges by which they
rob the people and amass great wealth,
are called the solid business men of the
country. In short success in life is not
measured, as a rule, by the amount of
labor one performs for society, but by
the service he can force men to perform
for him.
The prospect for the average man is
growfng darker and darker. Conditions
in the last generation have greatly
changed. So long as so vast a region as
this western country remained unoc
cupied and free, there could not be very
great injustice practiced -against those
who lived within reach of homestead
lands. Hence, to better their condition
a great stream of immigrants for many
years moved westward. But about five
years ago that stream was stopped. The
last land that the poor could homestead
and raise a crop on has been taken As
a consequence, with the number of the
iandless and homeless increasing, com
petition has been growing and must con
tinue to grow fiercer. A steadily increas
ing percentage ot workers have no chance
to rise; an increasing percentage of them
are being forced to accept a lower scale
of living and are being crowded down
into the beggar, tramp and criminal
ranks of society.
Look about you. About half the
farms in the west are mortgaged. Ask
ana living in luxury, ask uie uuxuaun;
and day laborers if they have plenty to
do, and by their labor can acquireacom
petence. Ask the lawyers and doctors
and teachers and ministers if their pro
fessions do not seem to be crowded.
There seems to be but one class who are
prospering, and that is the lending class
those who lend land and money and
capital. It is not possible now for many
to succeed in the selfish strife of life. Is
it not then cruel to raise the hopes of the
young when, with the large percentage,
they must be blasted? Is it not possible
to show that the selfish brutallizing
strife of business is unnecessary, and that
the unhappiuess of the rich and the mis
ery of the poor which come from it may
be avoided?
We wish to place the real conditions
before the young. Two methods of liv
ing are before you to choose from, vis.,
single bunded ' competition and many
hauded co-operation. We will divide
you into three classes, viz: those who in
herit wealth; those who have been born
with rare talents or abilities; and com.
mon people.
The common people we perhaps are
wasting time to address; because, where
are the young jieople who think they be
long iu this class? Hut as it is neverthe
less a fact that the great bulk of human
ity is made up of common people it
forces u to say that the comjietitive
iystf in offers you no chance to succeed
or to acquire independence and a compet
ence. Remaining iu it you will have to
Jabor as hard as whipped slaves to pro
duce great incomes for the rich who own
the earth and have a fence around it. If
you would be free and live comfortably
and happily, join a safe, permanent, i. e.
a Christian, co-operative society. It is
your only way of escape from virtual
The number who possess rare talent or
superior business judgment and fore
sight, in reality is small. But the great
majority of young people are led to think
thay havegiftstocommand "success," or
prices for their services which will amount
to wealth. Let those who so think and
those who really possess rare talents
pause, before entering the market place
to sell themselves (their labor) for gold.
They who sell themselves for money can
not with it buy love. Believe, if you can,
that you are the favorites of heaven,
that your special commanding gifts were
bestowed to enrich you alone, as indivi
duals, and that you have a right to all
you can command in the market; but re
member, those whom you expect to sell
your services to will not pay you both
money and love. You can only hire ser
vants who in turn will work not for love
but for money.' You may command
wealth and hire many to luxuriously
serve you, but you cannot command
love or purchase happiness. And with
out the love of our fellowmen there is no
real success or satisfaction.
We have shown that the common peo
pie cannot escape from grinding slavery,
and the people with unusual gifts cannot
attain real success in life, by struggling
iu the market place for gain. It remains
for us to inquire, What of the rich, those
who inherit the land titles, stocks and
bonds which enslave the others?
The rich are not happy, because happi
ness does not inhere in things purchas
able. They must either be morally dead,
ignorant or miserable where they see
others suffering while they are
surfeiting, or rich beyond their needs.
The rich rarely are loved deeply and
truly by their own immediate flesh and
blood, even, because they deny them
selves nothing for wife or children's sake
Their wealth encases their souls or affec
tions in a thickening, hardening wall,
which none can break through, and which
leaves them in selfish, solitary confine,
ment, where they come to be as miserable
as the isolated felon in his cell.
Living in the competitive system, or as
self-centered individuals, all are unsatis
fied. Heart hunger is universal, the
victors spffering from it even more than
the vanquished. It is a state of perpe
tual war, which carries with it its own
pestilences and famine. Who, compre
hending what it all means, would care to
succeed in forcing many to serve him7
Must the strife continue, and must we
engage in it? No. It is our duty to "by
love serve one another." It is sin to by
greed gain from one another. Led by the
law of God we are here combining for
mutual help. We are to laboras we have'
ability and divide as brothers, or as each
may have need. We consider one kind of
necessary labor worth as much as
another kind. The goal of our indivi
dual ambition is, to be of the utmost
possible service to our brethren and
fellowmen, and right here we ask our
young readers to give careful considera
tion to our plan of life before you choose
which you shall fall in with, peace or
war, competition or co-operation. If you
wish success which harms none and
brings happiness to all, join us. AVhat.
ever you can do, whether it be simple,
common service, or the toil of rare wis
dom which succeeds in solving econnmic
problems in b. way to greatly economize
labor, the labor of all, the love of all will
be your rich reward. The young delight
to exercise their powers of body and
mind. With us the most ambitious and
inventive will have scope for all their
powers, with many to help and none to
hinder. The problems for us to solve are
the problems of most economic applica
tion of labor in producingand supplying
ourselves with all the things we need.
The competitive system is wasteful, fails
to provide work for all, and because it is
I war. bwnnse it has no plan. The confu-
. ii A rv--- N-.-' r.v..V),.-..7-l i:-ti .'I
OiUlJ WIJU IUNJ H IHUMJ .......... .. u..uiU.
leading and contending and working at
cross purposes we are to avoid. In the
work of planning for and organizing la
bor we have need of the wisest, the most
talented, the most studious and original.
The great problems of society are yet to
solve, and they who grapple with them
may win undying fame and the love of
millions who throngh their unselfish wis
dom shall yet be blessed. You can suc
ceed with us; you can rise, in the hearts
of your fellowmen, for service rendered,
to the greatest heights of bliss. Working
in the common interest you can safely
cultivate all kind and generous impulses;
yon can escape from the present seeming
necessity to be selfish, mean, hard of
heart, brutal. Come with us into the
divine kingdom and organization of love
and help us to bring "peace on earth and
good will to men." Come and help us
to organize industry so that all may
have regular work, present abundance,
perfect insurance against future need,
health and happiness.
The following sample notices given
Armageddon show how it is appreciated:
ARMAGEDDON, or the flnal battle between
the wealth-makers and the wealth-takers.
This is a splendid collection of stirring
and patriotic songs with music. It con
tains 1 40 pages and over 60 songs set to
music besides a dozen not set. A numbr
of these same songs have been sold by us
at 20 cents each. These songs are George
Howard Gibson's best. Price, post paid
35 cents, or $3.60 a dozeu. American
Armageddon is the nameof a new song
book published by "The Wealth Makers
Publishing Company," of Lincoln, Neb.,
at 35 cents a copy. Armageddon is by
far the best book of its kind it has ever
been our pleasure to examine. The book
contains 70 songs, 57 of which are set to
music, and every one is a gem. There is
no chaff in tbe whole book. The songs
are strong and ably written, while the
music is of the very best. George How
ard Gibson, editor of The Wealth Mak
ers, is the author. His name is never
attached to any second class literary
production. There is ever an elevated
tone to his writings. His newspaper is
one of the very best Morm papers io
existence and Armageddon is, we think,
decidedly the best book' of songs any
Alliance or labor organization can possi
bly find. The Sledge Hammer, Meadville
Now is the time to make good use of
Armageddon. It ought to be in every
Populist's home. If our songs areevery- i
where sung, made popular, our cause
will speedily succeed. Let singing clubs
be formed to master the music of this
book. None finer or more effective has
ever been written. "God Save the Peo
ple" is a mightily stirring piece in both
music and words. "Our Line of Defense"
is another thrilling song set to the finest
patriotic air of Germany, "Die Wacht
Am Ruein." But we have not space to
tell of the merits of each one of the 70
songs which the book contains. Humo
rous, pathetic, thrilling, awakening, en"
thusing, calling forth all that is manly
and noble, all love of right and justice,,
and marshalling the hosts to battle, it
should be sent for and made use of by all
earnest men and women now. Get
ready this winter to sing these industrial
gospel songs everywhere.
The United States, Supplement 1.
Population, Immigration, Irrigation
by J. D. Whitney.
This book is a continuation of the
Article in the Cyclopedia Britannica on
the United States, and deals with Facts
and Figures Illustrating the Physical
Geography of the Country and its Mate
rial Resources. It is an exceedingly
valuable book and ought to be in every
public library of the state, and in the
hands of every man interested in irriga- ,
tion. Irrigation is a most important
subject and there ought to be no false
notions about it, but the most sober
kind of judgment, after acquiring all the
facts obtainable upon which a conclusion
may be founded.
The writer makes a statement that
many of us would be slow to accept as
final, though it must be admitted it is
backed up by a strong array of facts
and figures. It is this: "Never by any
possibility can the region of small rain
fall and in large part of rugged moun
tains, extending from the first belt of
states beyond the Mississippi to the belt
lying directly on the Pacific coast, be
come a densely populated portion of the
country." P. 10 Also. "It is impos
sible that people never seeing a river or a
lake or water running except from the
spout of a pump, never seeing a moun
tain or a ledge of solid rock, never seeing
what with any propriety may be called a
forest, can ever rise to even a moderately
high plane of civilization."
The book calls attention to one very
important point which seems to escape
all over enthusiastic promoters of irri
gation and it is that long continued
irrigation almost inevitably leads to the
formation of alkaline and earthly salts
on the surface of the ground. These de
posits at first act as fertilizers and pro-
duce immense crops, but soon become j
so great in quantity that the fertilizing
: .. i . ,t --. .. i - .
power is tuni uiiu tim ui upo grow ibs;
and less abundant. These deposits re
sult not only from the water carried up
on the ground by irrigation, but by
capillary attraction from the over
moistened subsoil beneath. Heavy rain
falls wash off this alkaline matter and
restore the land, but when the rainfall is
uncertain or small nothing but an expen
sive system of deep drainage will keep
the land fertile.
Nebraska comes in for along discussion
and a very critical review is made of the
t P-f t. v u;i, 1 c IT
the State University, on "The Underflow
and Sheetwaters, Irrigable Lands and
Geological Structure of Nebraska, with
its effect upon the water supply."
The writer also discusses thoroughly
the subject of Artesian Wells, Underflow,
Reservoirs, etc., and altogether makes a
book very valuable to this region.
The chapters on Population and Irri
gation are aiso very suggestive.
Published by Little, Brown & Co., Bos
ton. Price $2.00.
The Ascent of Man, by Henry Drum
mond, F. R. S. E., F. G. S.
Professor Drnmmond has long been a
popular writer and it may safelv be said
tha t he has increased his reputation bh
this book. He is one of the most ad
vanced of evolutionists, and writes with
a strong grasp of his subject, and